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Home > Catholic Encyclopedia > R

R

Rabanus, Blessed Maurus Magnentius - Biographical article on this Benedictine, abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, theologian, who died in 856
Rabbi and Rabbinism - Article covering a 1913 Catholic view of Rabbinism
Rabbulas - Bishop of Edessa (d. 435)
Rabelais, François - Sixteenth-century French writer
Raccolta - A book containing prayers and pious exercises to which the popes have attached indulgences
Race, Human - Article describing the view of the human race from a 1911 Catholic perspective
Race, Negro - Article describing the view of the negro race from a 1911 Catholic perspective
Rachel - Mother of Joseph and Benjamin, and love of Jacob
Racine, Jean - Brief biography of the seventeenth-century dramatist
Rader, Matthew - Philologist and historian (1561-1634)
Radewyns, Florens - Co-founder of the Brethren of the Common Life (d. 1400)
Radowitz, Joseph Maria von - Writer and statesman (1797-1853)
Radulph of Rivo - Historian and liturgist (d. 1403)
Raffeix, Pierre - Missionary and cartographer (1633-1724)
Ragueneau, Paul - Jesuit missionary (1608-1680)
Ragusa - Diocese in Dalmatia, suffragan of Zara
Raich, Johann Michael - German theologian and writer (1832-1907)
Rail, Altar - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail
Raimondi, Marcantonio - Fifteenth-and-sixteenth century Italian engraver
Rainald of Dassel - Chancellor of the German Empire (d. 1167)
Rajpootana - Prefecture apostolic covering several Indian states
Râle, Sebastian - French Jesuit missionary to North America, and martyr (1654-1724)
Ralph Crockett, Venerable - English priest, martyred in 1588
Ralph Milner, Venerable - A husband and father, convert to Catholicism, arrested the day of his first Communion, and martyred in 1591
Ralph Sherwin, Blessed - An English priest who was imprisoned and tortured. He died a martyr in 1581
Ram, Pierre François Xavier de - Belgian historian and rector of the Catholic University of Louvain (1804-1865)
Ramatha - Titular see in Palestine, suppressed in 1884 by the Roman Curia
Rambler, The - Monthly English Catholic periodical published from 1848 to 1859
Rameau, Jean-Philippe - Life, summaries of religious and secular works, and commentary on his advances in music theory and composition
Ramsey Abbey - English abbey founded by a Saxon noble in 969
Ramus, Peter - Article by William Turner on this early humanist and logician
Rancé, Jean-Armand le Bouthillier de - French abbot and reformer (1626-1700)
Randall, James Ryder - American journalist and poet (1839-1908)
Ransom, Feast of Our Lady of - Feast on 24 September commemorating the foundation of the Mercedarians
Raphael, Saint - Archangel appearing in the Book of Tobias
Raphael - Italian painter (1483-1520)
Raphoe - Diocese comprising the greater part of County Donegal in the ecclesiastical province of Armagh
Rapin, René - French Jesuit writer (1621-1687)
Raskolniks - A generic term for dissidents from the Established Church in Russia
Räss, Andreas - Bishop of Strasburg (1794-1887)
Rathborne, Joseph - Priest and controversialist (1807-1842)
Ratherius of Verona - Writer and troubled leader of the Diocese of Verona
Rationale - Collar ornamented in the front and back with appendages worn by the Bishops of Eichstaett, Paderborn, Toul, and Cracow
Ratio Studiorum - The educational system of the Jesuits
Rationalism - Term used in an exact sense, to designate a particular moment in the development of Protestant thought in Germany, or in a broader, and more usual, sense to cover the view that the human reason, or understanding, is the sole source and final test of all truth
Ratisbon - German diocese embracing the greater portion of the administrative district of Oberpfalz, and portions of Upper and Lower Bavaria, and Upper Franconia
Ratisbonne, Maria Alphonse - Converted Jew who built two convents in Jerusalem (1814-1884)
Ratisbonne, Maria Theodor - Preacher, writer, and director of the Archconfraternity of Christian Mothers (1802-1884)
Ratramnus - Ninth-century Benedictine monk and author
Ratzeburg, Ancient See of - Ancient German diocese that was suffragan to Hamburg and embraced the Duchy of Lauenburg (Holstein) in the Prussian Province of Schleswig- Holstein, the Principality of Ratzeburg in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and the western part of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, including Wismar but not Schwerin
Ratzinger, Georg - Political economist and social reformer (1844-1899)
Rauscher - Prince-Archbishop of Vienna (1797-1875)
Ravalli, Antonio - Italian missionary (1811-1884)
Ravenna - Archdiocese based in the capital of a province in Romagna, central Italy
Ravesteyn, Josse - French theologian (d. 1570)
Ravignan, Gustave Xavier Lacroix de - French Jesuit, orator, and author (1795-1858)
Rawes, Henry Augustus - Oblate of St. Charles, hymn-writer and preacher (1826-1885)
Raymbault, Charles - French missionary (b. 1602)
Raymond IV, of Saint-Gilles - Count of Toulouse and of Tripoli (d. 1105)
Raymond VI - Count of Toulouse (1156-1222)
Raymond VII - Count of Toulouse and son of Raymond VI (1197-1249)
Raymond Lully - Biobibliographical article on Ramon Lull, who is called 'Doctor Illuminatus.'
Raymond Martini - Dominican, theologian and Orientalist (1220-1284)
Raymond Nonnatus, Saint - Spanish Mercedarian (1200-1240)
Raymond of Peñafort, Saint - Born near Barcelona, Raymond was an able canon lawyer who joined the Dominicans. He died in 1275
Raymond of Sabunde - Teacher and writer (d. 1432)
Raynaldi, Odorico - Italian oratorian (1595-1671)
Raynaud, Théophile - French theologian and writer (1583-1663)
Raynouard, Françpois-Juste-Marie - French poet, dramatist, and philologist (1761-1836)
Reading Abbey - Abbey founded by Henry I in 1121 and located in Surrey, England
Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy
Realism, Nominalism, Conceptualism - The theories that have been proposed as solutions of the problem of universals
Reason - Article discussing various definitions of the term
Reason, Age of - The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally responsible
Recanati and Loreto - Diocese based around the province of Ancona in Central Italy
Rechab and the Rechabites - Rechab was the father of Jonadab who appears as a fervent supporter of Jehu's attack on the House of Achab. The Rechabites were his descendants
Recollection - Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of God in the soul
Reconciliation, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same.
Rector - Priests who preside over missions or quasi-parishes
Rector Potens, Verax Deus - The daily hymn for Sext in the Roman Breviary
Recusants, English - People who refrained from attending Church of England services
Red Sea - The north-west arm of the Indian Ocean, some 1400 miles long and lying between Arabia on the east and Africa on the west
Redeemer, Feast of the Most Holy - Feast that is found only in the special calendar of some dioceses and religious orders, and is celebrated with proper Mass and Office either on the third Sunday of July or on 23 October
Redeemer, Knights of the - A secular community founded in 1608 by the Duke of Mentone, Vincent Gonzaga, on the occasion of the marriage of his eldest son Francis II Gonzaga with Marguerite of Savoy
Redemption - The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God through the satisfactions and merits of Christ
Redemption in the Old Testament - Strictly deliverance by payment of a price or ransom, or simply deliverance by power, as from oppression, violence, or captivity
Redemptions, Penitential - The substitution of exercises either easier or extending over a shorter period, for works of penance imposed according to the penitential canons
Redemptoristines - Community of nuns formed in Scala, Italy, by Father Thomas Falcoia
Redemptorists - Society of missionary priests founded by St. Alphonsus Maria Liguori in 1732 at Scala, Italy
Redford, Sebastion - Jesuit chaplain and writer (1701-1763)
Redi, Francesco - Italian poet (1626-1698)
Reding, Augustine - Prince-Abbot of Einsiedeln and theological writer (1625-1692)
Reductions of Paraguay - Jesuit campaign to convert the natives of Paraguay
Referendarii - Officials in the Byzantine Court who reported to the emperor on the memorials of petitioners, and conveyed to the judges the orders of the emperor in connexion with such memorials
Reformation, The - Sixteenth century religious movement led by Martin Luther
Reformed Churches - Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the doctrinal principles of Calvin
Reform of a Religious Order - Return or bringing back of an order from a mitigated or relaxed observance to the rigour of its primitive rule
Refuge, Cities of - Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had unintentionally slain another might flee and be protected from the 'avenger of blood'
Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the - Religious order founded in 1641 that works towards reforming women living a life of sin
Regale, Droit de - Document denoting those rights that belonged exclusively to the king
Regalia - The insignia of royalty or 'crown jewels'
Regeneration - Biblico-dogmatic term closely connected with the ideas of justification, Divine sonship, and the deification of the soul through grace
Regensburg - German diocese embracing the greater portion of the administrative district of Oberpfalz, and portions of Upper and Lower Bavaria, and Upper Franconia
Regesta, Papal - Copies, generally entered in special registry volumes, of the papal letters and official documents that are kept in the papal archives
Reggio di Calabria - Archdiocese in Calabria, southern Italy
Reggio dell' Emilia - Italian diocese and suffragan of Modena
Regina - Ecclesiastical division comprising the southern part of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan
Regina Coeli - The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin
Reginald of Piperno - Companion of St. Thomas Aquinas (1230-1290)
Regino of Prüm - German abbot (d. 915)
Regionarii - The name given in later antiquity and the early Middle Ages to those clerics and officials of the Church of Rome who were attached neither to the papal palace or the titular churches of Rome, but to one of the city regions, or wards, which was assigned as their official district
Regis, John Francis, Saint - Jesuit priest and missionary, d. 1640
Régis, Jean-Baptiste - French missionary (d. 1738)
Régis, Pierre Sylvain - French philosopher and writer (1632-1707)
Registers, Parochial - Five distinct parish registers that a pastor must have: one each of baptisms, confirmations, marriages, and deaths; and a fifth containing a census or general account of the state of souls in the parish
Regnault, Henri Victor - French chemist and physicist (1810-1878)
Regulæ Juris - Certain fundamental laws in the form of axioms found in the 'Corpus Juris'
Regulars - Monks in observance of the Rule of St. Benedict
Reichenau - Island upon the Gnadensee of the Lake of Constance, about one mile in breadth and about three and three-quarter miles long
Reichensperger, August - Prussian politician and author (1808-1895)
Reichensperger, Peter - German jurist and parliamentarian (1810-1892)
Reifenstein - Former Cistercian abbey in Eichsfeld, founded on 1 August, 1162 by Count Ernst of Tonna
Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg - Theologian and canonist (1641-1703)
Reims - Archdiocese of Reims comprising the district of Reims in the Department of Marne and the whole Department of Ardennes
Reims, Synods of - History of a series of synods held at the French city
Reinmar of Hagenau - German minnesinger of the twelfth century
Reisach, Carl von - Theologian and statesman (1800-1869)
Reisch, Gregor - Intellectual and writer (d. 1525)
Relationship - A certain connection of persons established either by nature or by civil or canon law
Relatives, Duties of - Discusses a variety of duties that relatives should apply to one another
Relativism - A doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the existence of absolute values
Relics - An object, notably part of the body or clothes, remaining as a memorial of a departed saint
Religion - The voluntary subjection of oneself to God
Religion, Virtue of - Article discussing the moral value of religion
Religions, Statistics of - Includes the definition and historical development, along with the status of religious bodies
Religious Life - Overview and evangelical ideas on what makes up religious life
Religious Profession - Describes both a declaration openly made, and a state of life publicly embraced
Reliquaries - Any box, casket, or shrine destined for the reception of relics
Remesiana - A titular see in Bulgaria, suffragan of Sardica
Remigius, Saint - Apostle of the Franks, Archbishop of Reims, d. 553
Remigius of Auxerre - Benedictine monk, teacher and theologian (d. 908)
Remiremont - Monastery and nunnery of the Rule of St. Benedict, founded by Sts. Romaricus and Amatus in 620 above the town of Vosges, France
Remuzat, Ven. Anne-Madeleine - Writer and witness to a revelation (1696-1730)
Remy, Abbey of Saint - Abbey located in Reims, France that acquired the relics of St. Remy in 553
Renaissance, The - Period of revival of classic, especially of Greek, learning and the recovery of ancient art in the departments of sculpture, painting, and architecture
Renaudot, Eusebius - Apologetical writer and Orientalist (1648-1720)
Renaudot, Théophraste - Doctor who engaged in relief work for the poor (1586-1653)
Reni, Guido - Italian painter (1575-1642)
Rennes - French diocese including the Department of Ille et Vilaine
Renty, Gaston Jean Baptiste de - Jesuit who devoted himself to the service of the needy and suffering (1611-1649)
Renunciation - A canonical term signifying the resignation of an ecclesiastical office or benefice
Reordinations - The history of all ordinations which were considered null for any other reason than defect of the prescribed form or intention and which were repeated
Reparation - Theological concept of God demanding satisfaction for the injuries which man had done Him
Repington, Philip - Fourteenth-and-fifteenth century cardinal-priest of the title of SS
Repose, Altar of - Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository
Reputation (as Property) - The outcome of a person's meritorious activity
Requiem, Masses of - Masses that are offered for the dead
Rerum Crerator Optime - The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office
Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor - Brief article on a hymn for None, one of the 'little hours.' Mid-afternoon
Rerum Novarum - The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the 'Condition of Labour'
Rescripts, Papal - Responses of the pope or a Sacred Congregation, in writing, to queries or petitions of individuals
Reservation - The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an inferior
Reserved Cases - A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor
Residence, Ecclesiastical - A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on
Respicius, Tryphon, and Nympha - Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November
Respighi, Lorenzo - Italian astronomer (1824-1889)
Responsorium - A series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and varying according to the feast or season
Restitution - An act of commutative justice by which exact reparation as far as possible is made for an injury that has been done to another
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life
Resurrection, General - The rising again from the dead, the resumption of life
Rethel, Alfred - German painter (1816-1859)
Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of - Congregation founded in 1678 with large schools in various places in England, France, and Belgium
Retreats - A series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of asceticism, in particular to prayer and penance
Retz, Cardinal de - Archbishop of Paris (1614-1679)
Reuben - Proper name meaning both a patriarch and a tribe of Israel
Reuchlin, Johannes - German humanist (1455-1522)
Reumont, Alfred von - Statesman and historian (1808-1887)
Reusens, Edmond - Belgian archeologist and historian (1831-1903)
Reuss - Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation
Revelation - The communication of some truth by God to a rational creature through means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature
Revelation, Book of - The name given to the last book in the Bible, also called the Book of Revelation
Revelations, Private - Article discussing the judging of private revelations
Revocation - The act of recalling or annulling
Revolution, English - The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole
Revolution, French - A view of its effect on the Church
Rex Gloriose Martyrum - The hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs in the Roman Breviary
Rex Sempiterne Cælitum - The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time
Rey, Anthony - Educator and Mexican War chaplain (1807-1847)
Reynolds, William - Writer, priest and lecturer (1544-1594)
Rhætia - Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland
Rhaphanæa - A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea
Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel - Bavarian composer and organist (1839-1901)
Rhenish Palatinate - A former German electorate
Rhesæna - A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa
Rhinocolura - A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium
Rhithymna - A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna
Rhizus - A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocaesarea
Rho, Giacomo - Italian missionary to China (1593-1638)
Rhode Island - American state and one of the thirteen original colonies
Rhodes, Alexandre De - French missionary (1591-1660)
Rhodes - A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades
Rhodesia - British possession in South Africa (present-day Zimbabwe)
Rhodiopolis - A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra
Rhodo - Second-century Christian writer
Rhosus - A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba
Rhymed Bibles - Short article on rhymed versions of the Bible, which are almost always psalters or only part of the Psalms
Rhythmical Office - A liturgical horary prayer, the canonical hours of the priest, or an office of the Breviary, in which not only the hymns are regulated by a certain rhythm, but where, with the exception of the psalms and lessons, practically all the other parts show metre, rhythm, or rhyme
Ribadeneira, Pedro de - Writer and member of the Society of Jesus (1526-1611)
Ribas, Andrés Pérez De - Missionary and historian (1576-1655)
Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland) - Diocese that once consisted of the modern Danish Provinces of Ribe, Vejle, and Ringkjoebing, and of part of North Schleswig
Ribeirao Preto - A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Ribera, Jusepe de - Spanish artist (1588-1656)
Ricardus Anglicus - Pioneer of scientific judicial procedure in the twelfth century
Riccardi, Nicholas - Italian theologian, writer and preacher (1585-1639)
Ricci, Lorenzo - General of the Society of Jesus (1703-1775)
Ricci, Matteo - Founder of the Catholic missions of China (1552-1610)
Riccioli, Giovanni Battista - Italian astronomer (1598-1671)
Rice, Edmund Ignatius - Biographical article on the founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as the Irish Christian Brothers)
Rich, St. Edmund - This Archbishop of Canterbury died in 1240, and was canonized within six years. Biography
Richard - A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and nationality are unknown
Richard I, King Of England - King who embarked on the Crusades (1157-1199)
Richard, Charles-Louis - Theologian and publicist (1711-1794)
Richard de Bury - English bishop and bibliophile (1286-1345)
Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin - Archbishop of Paris (1819-1908)
Richard de Wyche, Saint - The devoted companion of St. Edmund Rich, was bishop of Chichester. Richard died in 1253, and was canonized less than 10 years later
Richard Fetherston, Blessed - Priest and martyr, died at Smithfield, 1540
Richard of Cirencester - Chronicler and monk at Westminster Abbey
Richard of Cornwall - Thirteenth century writer and lecturer
Richard of Middletown - Thirteenth-century writer and Franciscan
Richard of St. Victor - Biographical article on the 12th-century Scottish theologian, exegete, and mystic
Richard Thirkeld, Blessed - English priest, missionary, arrested while visiting a Catholic in prison, and martyred in 1583
Richard Whiting, Blessed - Last abbot of Glastonbury, martyr, executed in 1539
Richardson, Ven. William - Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth (d. 1603)
Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de - Cardinal and French statesman (1585-1642)
Richmond, Diocese of - Suffragan of Baltimore consisting of parts of the states of Virginia and West Virginia
Ricoldo da Monte di Croce - Italian professor, scholar and writer (d. 1320)
Riemenschneider, Tillmann - Frankish sculptor (1460-1531)
Rienzi, Cola di - Italian revolutionary and notary of the Camera Capitolina (d. 1354)
Rieti - Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See
Rievaulx, Abbey of - English monastery founded in 1131
Riffel, Caspar - German historian and writer (1807-1856)
Rigby, John, Saint - Rigby, an unmarried layman, appeared in court on behalf of his employer's daughter and admitted that he was himself a Catholic. He was martyred in 1600
Rigby, Nicholas - English priest (1800-1886)
Right - Substantive designating the object of justice
Right of Exclusion - The alleged competence of the more important Catholic countries, Austria, France, and Spain, to indicate to their respective cardinal protector, or cardinal procurator, those members of the Sacred College who were personae minus gratae, so that, if there was a possibility of one of these becoming pope, the authorized cardinal might, before the decisive ballot, give his veto, in the name of his government, against such election
Right of Option - In canon law, a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new titulary himself.
Right of Voluntary Association - Any group of individuals freely united for the pursuit of a common end
Rimbert, Saint - Monk and archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg (d. 888)
Rimini, Council of - Opened early in July, 359, with over four hundred bishops
Rimini - Diocese, suffragan of Ravenna
Rimouski - Canadian diocese, suffragan of Quebec
Ring of the Fisherman, The - Ring worn by the popes, with a representation of St. Peter in a boat on it
Rings - Article discussing religious uses and values concerning the wearing of rings
Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista - Papal nuncio to Ireland during the uprising of 1645-49 (1592-1653)
Rio, Alexis-François - French writer on art (1797-1874)
Riobamba - City forming the base for the diocese of Bolivarensis, suffragan of Quito, Ecuador
Rioja, Francisco de - Spanish poet (1583-1659)
Rio Negro - Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil
Ripalda, Juan Martínez de - Spanish theologian (1594-1648)
Ripatransone - Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy
Ripon, Marquess of - English politician, Governor-General and Viceroy of India (1827-1909)
Risby, Richard - Warden of the Observant friary at Canterbury who was condemned to death by Henry VIII (1489-1534)
Rishanger, William - Thirteenth-century English chronicler
Rishton, Edward - Priest and writer that fell victim to the plague (1550-1585)
Rita of Cascia, Saint - Rita married an abusive man, became a mother, was widowed, joined the Augustinians. She died in 1456
Rites - The ceremonies, prayers, and functions of any religious body
Rites in the United States - Article discussing various rites used within the United States
Ritschlianism - Conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in modern Protestantism, especially in Germany
Ritter, Joseph Ignatius - German historian and writer (1787-1857)
Ritual - One of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all the services performed by a priest that are not in the Missal and Breviary and has also, for convenience, some that are in those books
Ritualists - The advanced section of the High Church party in the Anglican Establishment, which since about 1860 has adhered to and developed further the principles of the earlier Tractarian Movement
Rivington, Luke - English priest and writer (1838-1899)
Rizal, José Mercado - Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor (1861-1896)
Robbers, Seven - Martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their names are Saturninus, Insischolus, Faustianus, Januarius, Marsalius, Euphrasius, and Mammius
Robbia, Andrea della - Nephew, pupil and assistant to painter Luca (1431-1528)
Robbia, Lucia di Simone - Italian sculptor (1400-1481)
Robert, Saint - French Benedictine, founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu, d. 1067
Robert Bellarmine, Saint - Biographical article on the Jesuit theologian and cardinal
Robert Johnson, Blessed - English priest and martyr (d. 1581)
Robert of Arbrissel - Itinerant preacher and founder of Fontevrault (b. 1047)
Robert of Courçon - English Cardinal (d. 1218)
Robert of Geneva - Antipope under the name of Clement VII (1342-1394)
Robert of Jumièges - Eleventh-century Archbishop of Canterbury
Robert of Luzarches - Thirteenth century French architect
Robert of Melun - English philosopher and theologian (d. 1167)
Robert of Molesme, Saint - Founder of the Abbey of Citeaux and the monastery at Molesme (d. 1111)
Robert of Newminster, Saint - English abbot (d. 1159)
Robert Pullus - Twelfth-century Cardinal, English philosopher and theologian
Roberts, Saint John - A Welsh Benedictine, the first prior of Downside, was arrested six times, exiled four times, and finally martyred at Tyburn in 1610
Robertson, James Burton - Historian and professor (1800-1877)
Robinson, Venerable Christopher - Wrote an account of the martyrdom of St. John Boste. Was himself martyred for being a priest, in 1598
Robinson, William Callyhan - Jurist and educator (1834-1911)
Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de - Spanish theologian (1624-1699)
Rocamadour - Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the Diocese of Cahors and the ancient province of Quercy
Rocca, Angelo - Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome (1545-1620)
Roch, Saint - Early 14th century. While on pilgrimage, Roch acquired renown for healing plague victims. He himself was stricken with the plague. Upon returning to his hometown, he was cast into prison as an accused spy, where he died
Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien - French marshal (1725-1807)
Roche, Alanus de la - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475)
Rochester, Ancient See of - The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was founded by St. Augustine, Apostle of England, who in 604 consecrated St. Justus as its first bishop
Rochester, Diocese of - Located in New York
Rochester, Blessed John - Brief biography of this English Carthusian priest and martyr, d. 1537
Rochet - An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), and reaching to the knees
Rochette, Désiré Raoul - French archaeologist (1789-1854)
Rock, Daniel - English antiquarian and ecclesiologist (1799-1871)
Rockford, Diocese of - Created 23 September, 1908, in the north-western part of the State of Illinois
Rockhampton - Diocese in Australia.
Rococo Style - A discussion of this whimsical style, its origins and uses
Rodez - The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of 1802, and again became an episcopal see by the Concordat of 1817 and Bull of 1822
Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre - Brazilian scientist and explorer (1756-1815)
Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus - Spanish-born widower, Jesuit lay brother, served as porter at Majorca for 46 years, d. 1617. Also known as Alonso
Rodriguez, Alonso - Spanish writer and teacher (1526-1616)
Rodriguez, Joao - Missionary and author (1558-1633)
Roe, Bartholomew - English Benedictine martyr (1583-1641)
Roermond - Diocese in Holland; suffragan of Utrecht
Rogation Days - Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger at man's transgressions, to ask protection in calamities, and to obtain a good and bountiful harvest
Roger, Bishop of Worcester - Bishop of Worcester (d. 1179)
Roger Bacon - Philosopher, born at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; died at Oxford, perhaps 11 June, 1294
Roger Cadwallador, Venerable - Short biography of the English priest, martyred in 1610
Roger of Wendover - Benedictine monk and chronicler (d. 1236)
Roh, Peter - German-speaking Jesuit preacher (1811-1872)
Rohault de Fleury - Family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century
Rohrbacher, Réné François - French ecclesiastical historian (1789-1856)
Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de - Spanish dramatic poet (1607-1680)
Rokewode, John Gage - Director of the Society of Antiquaries (1786-1842)
Rolduc - Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands
Rolfus, Hermann - Catholic educationist and writer (1821-1896)
Rolle de Hampole, Richard - English solitary and writer. Article on his life and writings
Rollin, Charles - French writer and professor (1661-1741)
Rolls Series - A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official title, 'The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages'
Rolph, Thomas - Surgeon and writer of several works on emigration (1800-1858)
Roman Catacombs - The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome
Roman Catechism - This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism
Roman Catholic - A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claim of being the One True Church
Roman Catholic Relief Bill - Sections on England and Ireland
Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early - This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome
Roman Colleges - This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ecclesiastical auspices and are under ecclesiastical direction, with the exception of those that are treated separately under their respective titles throughout the Catholic Encyclopedia
Roman Congregations - The most important of certain departments organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome
Roman Curia - Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church
Roman Processional - This book consists of a single section of the Roman Ritual with sundry supplementary materials taken from the Missal and the Pontifical.
Roman Rite, The - The manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, administering Sacraments, reciting the Divine Office, and performing other ecclesiastical functions as used in the city and Diocese of Rome
Romanos, Saint - Sixth-century poet
Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio - The constitution makes clear the following: though regulars according to canon law are subject immediately to the Holy See, bishops are given jurisdiction over small communities
Romans, Epistle to the - The subject is treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. Character, Contents, and Arrangement of the Epistle; III. Authenticity; IV. Integrity; V. Date and Circumstances of Composition; VI. Historical Importance; VII, Theological Contents: Faith and Works (Paul and James)
Romanus, Saints - Mentions and gives brief profiles of several saints of this name
Romanus, Pope - Ninth-century Pope who reigned for four months in 897
Rome - The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope
Rome, University of - The university is now under the control of the Italian Government and is called the Royal University
Romero, Juan - Missionary and Indian linguist (1559-1630)
Romuald, Saint - Italian-born founder of the Camaldolese, d. 1027
Romulus Augustulus - Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire
Ronan, Saint - Article describing the most celebrated of the twelve Irish saints known as Ronan
Ronsard, Pierre de - French poet (1524-1585)
Rood - A term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, which, with the prefix Holy, occurs as the dedication of some churches
Roothaan, Johann Philipp - Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus (1785-1853)
Roper, William - English politician and biographer of St. Thomas More (1496-1578)
Rorate Coeli - Vulgate, text, the opening words of Isaiah 45:8
Rosa, Salvatore - Neapolitan artist (1615-1673)
Rosalia, Saint - Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she is patroness
Rosary, The - History of this devotion. Also considers the Orthodox and Eastern-Rite Catholic practice
Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the - Their author was a pious client of Mary, Eustace Sirena
Rosary, Confraternity of the - The Perpetual Rosary is an organization for securing the continuous recitation of the Rosary by day and night among a number of associates who perform their allotted share at stated times
Rosary, Feast of the Holy - At the request of the Dominican Order Gregory XIII in 1573 allowed this feast to be kept in all churches which possessed an altar dedicated to the Holy Rosary
Rosary, Seraphic - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet
Rosate, Alberico de - Italian jurist (d. 1354)
Roscelin - A monk of Compiegne, was teaching as early as 1087
Roscommon - Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman in the first half of the eighth century on a 'ros' or wooded point amidst marshes
Rosenau - Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, established by Maria Theresa, in 1775-76
Rose of Lima, Saint - Biographical article on the first American to be named a saint
Rose of Viterbo, Saint - Third order Franciscan, preached repentance. She died at the age of 17, in 1252
Rose Window - A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled with stained glasses
Rosea - The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of Rosea in Syria
Roseau - Diocese; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I
Rosecrans, William Starke - American soldier and politician
Roseline, Saint - A Carthusian prioress. She died in 1329
Rosh Hashanah - The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year
Rosicrucians - The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic-theosophic 'Rosicrucian Brotherhood', described in the pamphlet 'Fama Fraternitatis R.C.'
Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark - Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536
Roskoványi, August - Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology (1807-1892)
Rosmini and Rosminianism - Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, 1797, at Rovereto, Austrian Tyrol; died 1 July, 1855, at Stresa, Italy
Rosminians - The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata, is a religious congregation founded by Antonio Rosmini, first organized in 1828
Ross - Diocese in Ireland
Ross, School of - Ross-Carbery, formerly Ross-Ailithir
Rossano - Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy
Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico - Italian sculptor (1427-1478)
Rosselino, Bernardo - Italian sculptor (1409-1464)
Rosselli, Cosimo - Italian fresco painter (1439-1507)
Rossi, Bernardo de - Italian theologian and historian (1687-1775)
Rossi, Giovanni Battista de - Christian archaeologist, best known for his work in connection with the Roman catacombs (1822-1894)
Rossi, Pellegrino - Diplomat, economist and statesman (1787-1848)
Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio - Article focusing on his musical innovations and his church music
Rostock, Sebastian von - Bishop of Breslau (1607-1671)
Rostock, University of - Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419
Roswitha - A celebrated nun-poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, Roswitha, Hrotswitha, Hrosvitha, and Hrotsuit; born probably between 930 and 940, died about 1002
Rota, Sacra Romana - One of three tribunals instituted by the 'Sapienti Consilio' constitution of 1908
Roth, Heinrich - Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar (1620-1668)
Rothe, David - Bishop of Ossory in Ireland (1573-1650)
Rottenburg - Diocese; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine
Rotuli - Rolls in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one side, was wound like a blind about its staff
Rouen, Archdiocese of - Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and Seez as suffragans: it also includes the Department of the Seine Inferieure
Rouen, Synods of - The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650
Rouquette, Adrien - Scholar and missionary to the Choctaw Indians (1813-1887)
Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste - French poet (1670-1741)
Rovezzano, Benedetto da - Sculptor and architect (1490-1530)
Rowsham, Stephen - Sixteenth-century English priest and martyr
Royal Declaration, The - The name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in accordance with provisions of the 'Bill of Rights' (1689) and of 'the Act of Succession' (1700), every sovereign succeeding to the throne of Great Britain was required to make in the presence of the assembled Lords and Commons
Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul - Philosopher and French politician (1763-1845)
Ruadhan, Saint - Irish founder of the monastery of Lorrha, one of the 'twelve apostles of Erin,' d. 584
Ruben - Proper name meaning both a patriarch and a tribe of Israel
Rubens, Peter Paul - Flemish painter (1577-1640)
Rubrics - Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica, rubric, signified the red earth used by carpenters to mark on wood the line to follow in cutting it; according to Juvenal the same name was applied to the red titles under which the jurisconsults arranged the announcements of laws
Rubruck, William - Thirteenth-century Franciscan missionary and writer of travels
Rudolf of Fulda - French chronicler (d. 862)
Rudolf of Habsburg - German king (1218-1291)
Rudolf of Rüdesheim - Bishop of Breslau (1402-1482)
Rudolf von Ems - Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century
Rueckers, Family of - Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp
Ruffini, Paolo - Physician and mathematician (1765-1822)
Rufford Abbey - A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about two miles south of Ollerton in Nottinghamshire
Rufina, Saints - Brief notices on four saints of this name
Rufinus, Saint - Record of the eleven saints named Rufinus in the Roman Martyrology
Rufus, Saint - Record of the ten saints named Rufus in the Roman Martyrology
Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de - Spanish dramatic poet (1580-1639)
Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio - Linguist and pioneer of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay (1585-1652)
Ruiz de Montoya, Diego - Spanish theologian (1562-1632)
Rule of Faith, The - The word rule (Lat. regula, Gr. kanon) means a standard by which something can be tested, and the rule of faith means something extrinsic to our faith, and serving as its norm or measure
Rule of St. Augustine - Names the five documents sometimes identified as the Rule of Augustine, quickly narrows the field to two contenders, settles on Letter 211. Also deals with Augustine's relation to monasticism
Rule of St. Benedict - Lengthy article on the text of the Rule and its composition, some analysis, and practical application
Rumania - A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian Mountains, and the Pruth
Rumohr, Karl Friedrich - German art historian (1785-1843)
Rupe, Alanus de - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475)
Rupert, Saint - First Bishop of Salzburg (d. 718)
Rusaddir - A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana
Rusicade - A titular see of Numidia
Ruspe - Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the 'Tabula' Peutinger
Russell, Charles - English lawyer, journalist and politician (1832-1900)
Russell, Charles William - Irish professor and writer (1812-1880)
Russell, Richard - Bishop of Vizeu in Portugal (1630-1693)
Russia - Geography and history
Russia, The Religion of - There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity of Russia; according to one of them, Russia was Catholic from the times when she embraced Christianity until the twelfth century; the other holds that Russia was always Orthodox
Russian Language and Literature - Russian is a Slav language belonging to the Indo-European family
Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint - Monk from Gaul, became bishop of Narbonne. Zealous opponent of the Arians and Nestorians
Ruth, Book of - One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament
Ruthenian Rite - There is no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but the name is often used for the modifications which the Ruthenians have introduced in the Byzantine or Greek Rite
Ruthenians - A Slavic people from Southern Russia, Galicia and Bukowina in Austria, and North-eastern Hungary
Rutter, Henry - English priest and writer (1755-1838)
Ruvo and Bitonto - Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, the ancient Rubi, situated on a calcareous hill, contains a fine Norman cathedral of the eleventh century
Ruysbroeck, Blessed John - Article on the Admirable Doctor, 'undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish mystics,' author, who died in 1381
Ruysch, John - Astronomer, cartographer, and painter (d. 1533)
Ryan, Father Abram J. - Poet, newspaper editor and Confederate chaplain (1839-1886)
Ryan, Patrick John - Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia (1831-1911)
Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley - English Oratorian priest and controversialist (1837-1907)
Ryken, Theodore James - Founder of the Xaverian Brothers (1797-1871)
Copyright © 2009 by Kevin Knight. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

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