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Home > Catholic Encyclopedia > T

T

Tabæ - Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis
Tabasco - Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of Yucatan
Tabb, John Bannister - American poet and educator (1845-1909)
Tabbora - A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage
Tabernacle - Vessel holding the Blessed Sacrament
Tabernacle - Old Testament precursor to the Temple
Tabernacle Lamp - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil
Tabernacles, Feast of - One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar
Tabernacle Societies - The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches was founded at Brussels in 1848 by Anne de Meeus
Tabernacle Society - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Tabor, Mount - Distinguished among the mountains of Palestine for its picturesque site, its graceful outline, the remarkable vegetation which covers its sides of calcareous rock, and the splendour of the view from its summit
Tacana Indians - The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in different dialects, occupying the upper valleys of the Beni and Madre de Dios Rivers, on the eastern slope of the Andes, Department of Beni, north-western Bolivia
Tacapæ - Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa
Taché, Alexandre-Antonin - First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of Western Canada (1823-1894)
Taché, Etienne-Pascal - Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and Genevieve Michon; d. 30 July, 1865
Tadama - A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis
Tænarum - A titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth
Taensa Indians - A Muskhogean tribe living when first known on the west bank of the Mississippi, within the present limits of Tensas parish, Louisiana
Tahiti - Located in the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles
Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria - Happily married for 48 years, became a Third Order Trinitarian, d. 1837
Tait Indians - A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, occupying the Lower Fraser River, Yale District, British Columbia (Canada), between Nicomen and Yale
Takkali - The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the northern interior of British Columbia were originally made known by the fur traders
Talbot, James - Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury. Chiefly known for having been the last priest to be indicted in the public courts for saying Mass (1726-1790)
Talbot, John - English Catholic layman
Talbot, Peter - Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620
Talbot, Thomas Joseph - Brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury, and of Bishop James Talbot
Tallagaht, Monastery of - Situated in the barony of Uppercross
Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de - Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador (1754-1838)
Tallis, Thomas - Focusing especially on his contributions to Catholic liturgics and hymnody, even after the English Reformation
Talmud - A post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ('to teach'), and originally signified 'doctrine' or 'study'
Talon, Jean - First intendant in exercise of New France
Talon, Nicolas - French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer (1605-1691)
Talon, Pierre - A French-Canadian explorer, born at Quebec, 1676
Tamanac Indians - A tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero River, a tributary of the lower Orinoco, Venezuela
Tamassus - A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis
Tamaulipas - Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Linares
Tamburini, Michelangelo - Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus (1648-1730)
Tamburini, Thomas - Moral theologian (1591-1675)
Tametsi - The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24, of the Council of Trent
Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine - Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at Tours, 1 Nov., 1834; died there 20 June, 1910
Tanagra - A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth
Tancred - Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112
Taney, Roger Brooke - Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Tanguay, Cyprien - Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902
Tanis - A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district of Lower Egypt
Tanner, Adam - Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632
Tanner, Conrad - Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825
Tanner, Edmund - Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579
Tanner, Matthias - Taught humanities, philosophy, theology, and Scripture, was made rector of the imperial university, and guided for six years the Bohemian province of his order
Tantum Ergo - The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn of Corpus Christi
Tanucci, Bernardo - Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 April, 1793
Taoism - Religion derived from the philosophical doctrines of Lao-tze
Taos Pueblo - Town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of Shoshonean linguistic stock
Taparelli, Aloysius - Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects (1793-1862)
Tapestry - A fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering are combined
Tapis, Esteban - Entered the Franciscan Order at Gerona, 27 Jan., 1778, and joined the missionary College of San Fernando, Mexico, in 1786
Tarabotti, Helena - Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652
Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints - Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (c. 304)
Taranto - Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto
Tarapacá - Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the canon of the Camarones and on the south by the Loa River
Tarasius, Saint - Layman who became Patriarch of Constantinople by acclamation, called for the Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea, champion of Church unity and of the veneration of the holy ikons. Died 806
Tarazona - The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of Saragossa, Soria, Navarre, and Logrono
Tarbes - The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the Hautes-Pyrenees (ancient territory of Bigorre)
Tarentaise - Comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of Savoie; it is also sometimes called the Diocese of Moutiers en Tarentaise, and is suffragan of Chambery
Targum - The distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old Testament
Tarisel, Pierre - Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510
Tarkin, Saint - Eighth-century Scottish bishop
Tarnow - Diocese in western Galicia, Austria
Tarquini, Camillus - Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist (1810-1874)
Tarragona - Its suffragans are Barcelona, Lerida, Gerona, Urgel, Vich, Tortosa, and Solsona
Tarsicius, Saint - Was carrying the Blessed Sacrament on his person, and refused to surrender it when beset by a pagan mob. Martyr of the third or early fourth century
Tarsus - A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima
Tartaglia, Nicolò - Italian mathematician (1500-1557)
Tartini, Giuseppe - Provides biography and background on his becoming a musician against his parents' wishes. Includes noted works and evaluation of his technical and theoretical brilliance
Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre - Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal (1820-1898)
Tassach, Saint - Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497
Tassé, Joseph - Writer and journalist (1848-1895)
Tassin, René-Prosper - French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur (1697-1777)
Tasso, Torquato - Italian poet (1544-1595)
Tassoni, Alessandro - Italian poet (1565-1635)
Tatian - A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed with certainty except that he was born in Assyria and that he was trained in Greek philosophy
Tatwin, Saint - Archbishop of Canterbury; died 30 July, 734
Taubaté - Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a suffragan of San Paulo
Tauler, John - Article on the life and teachings of this 14th-century German Dominican mystic and author
Taunton, Ethelred - Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907
Taverner, John - English composer (1475-1535)
Tavistock Abbey - Located on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in 961
Tavium - A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra
Taxa Innocentiana - A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or accepted by episcopal chancery offices for various acts, instruments, or writings
Taxster, John de - Sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston. A thirteenth-century chronicler, of whose life nothing is known except that he was professed as a Benedictine at Bury St. Edmund's 20 Nov., 1244
Taylor, Frances Margaret - Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother of God (1832-1900)
Taylor, Ven. Hugh - The first (November 1585) to suffer martyrdom for the crime of being a priest in England who had studied abroad; the following day, a layman who had outwardly conformed was martyred for the newly defined felony of harboring such a person
Tebaldeo, Antonio - Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died. in 1537
Te Deum, The - An abbreviated title commonly given a hymn in rhythmical prose, of which the opening words, Te Deum Laudamus, formed its earliest known title
Tegernsee - Benedictine abbey of Bavaria
Tehuantepec - Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca
Teilo, Saint - Archbishop of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at Llandilo Vawr, Carmarthenshire, probably in or before 560
Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri - Biographical article on the 'Lily of the Mohawks,' who died in 1680. Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha or Takwita
Teleology - From Greek telos, end, and logos, science
Telepathy - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense'
Telese - A small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy
Telesio, Bernardino - Short article on the life and teachings of this 16th-century scholar, by William Turner
Telesphorus, Pope Saint - Martyr, died c. 136
Telesphorus of Cosenza - A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of the Great Schism
Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The - A collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins of the ancient Egyptian city of Akhetaton
Téllez, Gabriel - Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina (1571-1648)
Tellier, Michel Le - Commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to organize the royal army
Telmessus - Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra
Te Lucis Ante Terminum - The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary
Temiskaming - The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada
Temnus - A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus
Tempel, Wilhelm - German astronomer (1821-1889)
Temperance - One of the four cardinal virtues
Temperance Movements - Covers the history in Europe, the United States, and Canada
Templars, The Knights - The earliest founders of the military orders
Temple - The Latin form, templum, from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an uncovered area marked off by boundaries; especially the place marked off by the augurs to be excepted from all profane uses
Temple, Sisters of the - Established in London for educational purposes at the time of the Crusades
Temple of Jerusalem - In the Bible the sanctuary of Jerusalem bears the Hebrew name of Bet Yehovah (house of Jehovah)
Temptation - An incitement to sin whether by persuasion or by the offer of some good or pleasure
Temptation of Christ - Christ endured temptation only from without, inasmuch as His human nature was free from all concupiscence
Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de - French statesman and cardinal (1680-1758)
Ten Commandments, The - The fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will in relation to man's whole duty to God and to his fellow-creatures
Ten Thousand Martyrs, The - On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology
Tenebræ - The name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three days of Holy Week
Tenebrae Hearse - The triangular candlestick used in the Tenebrae service
Tenedos - A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades
Teneriffe - Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from Nivaria, the ancient name of the island
Teniers, David - The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; died there in 1649; the younger; born at Antwerp in 1610; died at Brussels in 1694
Tennessee - Includes geography, history, and demographics
Tenney, William Jewett - An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., 1883
Tentyris - Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda
Tenure, Ecclesiastical - System of feudal tenure was not always restricted to lands, as church revenues and tithes were often farmed out to secular persons as a species of ecclesiastical fief
Teos - Titular see; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor
Tepic - A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the Archbishopric of Guadalajara
Tepl - A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia
Teramo - Diocese in southern Italy
Terce - Essay on the office of Terce, the earliest of the 'little hours' in the day
Terenuthis - Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima
Teresa of Avila, Saint - Carmelite reformer and founder, mystic, author, d. 1582
Teresa of Lisieux, Saint - Short biographical article by Edith Donovan
Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed - Guillotined at the Place du Trone Renverse (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 July, 1794
Terill, Anthony - English theologian (1623-1676)
Termessus - A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda
Termoli - Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the mouth of the Petraglione
Ternan, Saint - Brief biography of this sixth-century bishop of the Picts
Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno - Located in the Province of Rome
Terrasson, André - A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723
Terrestrial Paradise - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden
Terrien, Jean-Baptiste - Dogmatic theologian (1832-1903)
Tertiaries - Known as 'Third Orders', those persons who live according to the Third Rule of religious orders, either outside of a monastery in the world, or in a religious community
Tertullian - Ecclesiastical writer in the second and third centuries
Teruel - A suffragan of Saragossa
Testament, Old - The Apostle St. Paul declares himself (II Cor., iii, 6) a minister 'of the new testament', and calls (iii, 14) the covenant entered into on Mount Sinai 'the old testament'
Testament, New - Jesus Christ uses the words 'new testament' as meaning the alliance established by Himself between God and the world, and this is called 'new' as opposed to that of which Moses was the mediator
Testem Benevolentiae - An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899
Test-Oath, Missouri - The terms of the oath required the affiant to deny, not only that he had ever been in armed hostility to the United States, or to the lawful authorities thereof, but that he had ever 'by act or word', manifested his adherence to the cause of the enemies of the United States
Tetzel, Johann - First public antagonist of Luther (1465-1519)
Teuchira - A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis
Teutonic Order - A medieval military order modeled on the Hospitallers of St. John
Tewdrig - Brief introduction to the Welsh martyr
Texas - Includes geography, history, demographic, and government information
Textual Criticism - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost
Thabor, Mount - Distinguished among the mountains of Palestine for its picturesque site, its graceful outline, the remarkable vegetation which covers its sides of calcareous rock, and the splendour of the view from its summit
Thabraca - A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca
Thacia Montana - A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage
Thænæ - A titular see in Africa Byzacena
Thagaste - A titular see in Numidia
Thagora - Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the 'Rabula Peutingeriana', which calls it Thacora
Thais, Saint - A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century
Thalberg, Sigismond - Life, musical highlights, comparisons with Liszt, and comments on his better and worse works
Thalhofer, Valentin - German theologian (1825-1891)
Thangmar - Historian (d. 1022)
Thanksgiving before and after Meals - The word grace, which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English took the plural form graces, means nothing but thanksgiving
Thanksgiving Day - The custom originated in 1621, when Governor Bradford of the Plymouth colony appointed a day for public praise and prayer after the first harvest
Thapsus - Titular see in Macedonia
Thasos - A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica
Thaumaci - Titular see in Thessaly
Thayer, John - New England convert and priest (1755-1815)
Theatines - A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, and Giovanni Pietro Carafa, afterwards Pope Paul IV
Theatre, The - All forms of the drama were banned by the Fathers of both East and West indiscriminately and in terms of the severest reprobation
Thebaid - The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper Egypt, Lower and Upper Thebaid
Thébaud, Augustus - Jesuit educator and publicist (1807-1885)
Thebes - A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda
Thebes - Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic Catholic diocese
Thecla, Saint - Short biography of the eighth-century Benedictine abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt
Thecla, Saints - The most famous of several saints named Thecla is Thecla of Iconium. Other saints of this name include a martyr from Gaza, an African martyr, one or two Roman martyrs, one who is purely legendary (Boniface and Thecla), and one St. Thecla of whom almost nothing is known
Theft - The secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other
Thegan (Degan) of Treves - Chronicler, died about 850. Assistant Bishop of Trier and friend of Walafrid Strabo
Theiner, Augustin - Theologian and historian (1804-1874)
Thelepte - A titular see in Byzacene
Themiscyra - A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont
Themisonium - A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea
Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron - Chemist (1777-1857)
Thennesus - A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima
Theobald, Saint - Hermit, joined the Camaldolese late in life, died in 1066
Theobald - Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1161)
Theocracy - A form of civil government in which God Himself is recognized as the head
Theodard, Saint - Archbishop of Narbonne, died 893
Theodicy - Term was introduced into philosophy by Leibniz
Theodore I, Pope - Reigned from 642 to 649
Theodore II, Pope - Son of Photius
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury - Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury (602-690)
Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Bishop in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer
Theodore of Amasea, Saint - Soldier saint, martyred in 306. After refusing a court order to sacrifice to the gods, St. Theodore was released for a time of reflection--and burnt a pagan temple
Theodore of Gaza - A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle
Theodore of Studium, Saint - Biography of this monk, priest, and abbot. He was a champion of the independence of the Church, and of the veneration of icons. St. Theodore died in 826
Theodoret - Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457
Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres - A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century
Theodoric the Great - King of the Ostrogoths
Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints - Brothers, natives of Jerusalem. Championed the veneration of images during the second Iconoclastic controversy in the East
Theodorus Lector - A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth century
Theodosiopolis - A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima
Theodosius I - Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 January, 395
Theodosius Florentini - Born at Muenster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, 15 Feb., 1865
Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint - Patron of innkeepers
Theodulf - Bishop of Orleans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a learned theologian, born in Spain about 760; died at Angers, France, 18 December, 821
Theology, Ascetical - Briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism
Theology, Dogmatic - That part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith concerning God and His works
Theology, History of Dogmatic - Detailed article broken into time periods
Theology, Moral - Limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end
Theology, Mystical - Mysticism and mystical prayer or contemplation considered from a Catholic perspective, along with a bibliography of famous Christian mystics
Theology, Pastoral - The science of the care of souls
Theology of Christ (Christology) - Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ
Theonas - Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301
Theophanes, Saint - He and his wife both entered monastic life. He signed the decrees of Nicaea II
Theophanes Kerameus - Twelfth-century archbishop and writer
Théophane Vénard - French missionary to West Tonkin, martyred in 1861
Theophilanthropists - A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the French Revolution
Theophilus - Second-century Bishop of Antioch
Theophilus - Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412)
Theosophy - A term used in general to designate the knowledge of God supposed to be obtained by the direct intuition of the Divine essence
Theotocopuli, Domenico - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614
Thera (Santorin) - Diocese in the Cyclades
Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint - Short biographical article by Edith Donovan
Thermae Basilicae - A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea
Thermopylae - A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima
Thessalonians, Epistles to the - Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul
Thessalonica - Titular metropolis in Macedonia
Theveste - Titular see of Numidia
Thibaris - Titular see in Byzacena
Thibaut de Champagne - Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, and French poet (1201-1253)
Thierry of Freburg - A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of the Order of Saint Dominic
Thiers, Louis-Adolphe - French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic (1797-1877)
Thignica - A titular see in Numidia
Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk - Dutch poet of the nineteenth century
Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk - President of the Association Tijd en Vlijt and of Constantius Buter, also a member of the Flemish Academy, and for a time, its president
Thimelby, Richard - Missionary priest (1614-1672)
Third Orders - Lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women who do not necessarily live in community and yet can claim to wear the habit and participate in the good works of some great order
Thirty Years War - Though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe
Thmuis - A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium
Thomas the Apostle, Saint - Article on Thomas in Scripture and in legend
Thomas, Charles L.A. - French composer (1811-1896)
Thomas Abel, Blessed - Biography of the priest and martyr, chaplain to Catherine of Aragon
Thomas Alfield, Venerable - Priest, twice imprisoned, twice converted, died a martyr in 1585
Thomas á Jesu - Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology (1564-1627)
Thomas à Kempis - Author of the 'Imitation of Christ', born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; died 25 July, 1471
Thomas Aquinas, Saint - Lengthy article on the life, writings, and influence of this philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. Called the Angelic Doctor. Died in 1274
Thomas Atkinson, Venerable - Priest martyred at York in 1616
Thomas Becket, Saint - Biography of this martyr, also known as St. Thomas of Canterbury, where he was archbishop and where he was murdered in 1170
Thomas Belchiam, Venerable - A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537
Thomas Christians, Saint - An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent from the Apostle St. Thomas
Thomas Cottam, Blessed - A convert to Catholicism, entered the Jesuit novitiate, was ordained a priest. Imprisoned and tortured for a year and a half, he died a martyr in 1582
Thomas Ford, Blessed - English priest, martyred at Tyburn in 1582
Thomas Garnet, Saint - Biography of the English priest and martyr, who died in 1608
Thomas Johnson, Blessed - The last of nine London Carthusians to die of starvation in prison in 1537. He died 20 September, after nearly 5 months of barbaric treatment
Thomas More, Saint - Biographical article on the Lord Chancellor of England, and martyr. Beheaded 1535
Thomas of Beckington - Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at Wells, 14 January, 1465
Thomas of Bradwardine - Theologian known as the Doctor Profundus
Thomas of Cantimpré - Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian (1201-1272)
Thomas of Celano - Franciscan poet and writer (1200-1255)
Thomas of Dover - Martyr (d. 1295)
Thomas of Hereford - Bishop of Hereford (1218-1282)
Thomas of Jesus - Reformer and preacher (1529-1582)
Thomas of Jorz - English theologian and cardinal (d. 1310)
Thomas of Strasburg - A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order
Thomas of Villanova, Saint - Spanish Augustinian, d. 1555. Educator, diligent in almsgiving, Archbishop of Valencia
Thomas Percy, Blessed - Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572
Thomas Sherwood, Blessed - Was imprisoned, tortured, and finally martyred (in 1578) for denying the royal supremacy
Thomassin, Louis - Theologian and French Oratorian (1619-1695)
Thuringia - A large part of Central Germany, bounded by the Werra River, the Saale, the Harz Mountains, and the Thuringian Forest
Thurmayr, Johannes - German scholar (1477-1534)
Thomas Thwing, Venerable - Priest, missionary to his native England, convicted of plotting to murder the king on the same evidence by which the other accused had been acquitted, martyred in 1680
Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed - Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573
Thomism - In a broad sense, the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas in philosophical and theological questions
Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana - English converts
Thompson, Francis - Poet (1859-1907)
Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David - Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada (1844-1894)
Thompson, Blessed James - Also called James Hudson. Priest who was imprisoned and then martyred at York in 1582
Thompson River Indians - Also known as Knife Indians
Thonissen, Jean-Joseph - Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government (1817-1891)
Thorlaksson, Arni - An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297
Thorney Abbey - For some three centuries the seat of Saxon hermits, or of anchorites living in community, before it was refounded in 972 for Benedictine monks by Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, with the aid of King Edgar
Thorns, Crown of - Mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded to by the early Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others, but there are comparatively few writers of the first six centuries who speak of it as a relic known to be still in existence
Thorns, Feast of the Crown of - First instituted at Paris in 1239
Thorpe, Venerable Robert - Brief account of the martyrdom of the Yorkshire priest, who was hanged in 1591
Thou, Jacques-Auguste de - French historian (1553-1617)
Thou, Nicolas de - Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou (1528-1598)
Three Chapters - (1) the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia; (2) certain writings of Theodoret of Cyrus; (3) the letter of Ibas to Maris
Three Rivers - Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec, to which it is suffragan
Throne - The seat the bishop uses when not engaged at the altar
Thuburbo Minus - A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage
Thugga - Titular see of Numidia
Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula - Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818
Thulis, Venerable John - Lancashire priest and martyr, converted some of his fellow prisoners. Was executed together with Roger Wrenno in 1615 or 1616
Thundering Legion - The story of an expedition against the Quadi led by Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo - Austrian statesman (1811-1888)
Thyatira - A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia
Thynias - A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima
Thyräus, Hermann - German Jesuit (1532-1591)
Tiara - The papal crown, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, which is shaped like a bee-hive, has a small cross at its highest point
Tibaldi, Pellegrino - Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini, decorator, mural painter, and architect. 1527-1592)
Tiberias - Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda
Tiberias, Sea of - So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1), otherwise known as 'the sea of Galilee'
Tiberiopolis - Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana
Tiberius - Brief biography of the second Roman emperor
Tibet - Includes information on geography, history, and missions
Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints - Roman martyrs, feast 11 August
Ticelia - Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis
Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas - Martyr, born at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601
Tichborne, Ven. Thomas - Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602
Ticonius - An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who appears to have had some influence on St. Augustine
Ticuna Indians - A tribe along the north bank of the upper Amazon
Tieffentaller, Joseph - Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan. 1710-1785)
Tiepolo - Article on Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo and his son Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo
Tierney, Mark Aloysius - Wrote 'The History and Antiquities of the Castle of Arundel' (London, 1834) and several controversial pamphlets. Also acted as editor of the 'Dublin Review', succeeding Quin, the first editor
Tigris, Saint - Sister of St. Patrick
Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de - French historian and priest (1637-1698)
Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of - Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632
Timbrias - A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch
Time - Article explores two questions, What are the notes, or elements, contained in the subjective representation of time? and To what external reality does this representation correspond?
Timothy and Symphorian, Saints - Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August
Timothy and Titus, Epistles to - Disciples of St. Paul
Timucua Indians - A principal group or confederacy of ancient Florida
Tincker, Mary Agnes - Novelist (1833-1907)
Tingis - A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in Mauretania Caesarea)
Tinin - Located in Dalmatia; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs
Tinos and Mykonos - A Latin diocese of the Cyclades
Tintern Abbey - In Monmouthshire, England, founded in 1131 by Walter de Clare for Cistercian monks
Tintoretto, Il - Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594
Tipasa - A titular see of Numidia
Tiraboschi, Girolamo - Italian scholar (1731-1794)
Tiraspol - Diocese in Southern Russia suffragan of Mohilev
Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto - An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school (1481-1559)
Tissot, James - French draughtsman and painter (1836-1902)
Tithes - The tenth part of the increase arising from the profits of land and stock, alotted to the clergy for their support or devoted to religious or charitable uses
Tithes, Lay - Ecclesiastical tithes, which in the course of time became alienated from the Church to lay proprietors
Titian - Biography of the artist, with bibliography
Titopolis - Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria
Titulus - In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked the confines of property
Titus, Bishop of Bostra - Born about 362-371
Titus - Biography of the first-century Roman Emperor
Titus and Timothy, Epistles to - Disciples of St. Paul
Tius - Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias
Tivoli - Diocese in the Province of Rome
Tlaxcala - A former diocese of the colony of New Spain
Tlos - A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra
Toaldo, Giuseppe - Priest and physicist (1719-1797)
Toba Indians - Tribe of the great Chaco wilderness of South America
Tobias - Name of various persons and a book in the Bible
Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de - Writer and statesman (1805-1859)
Todi - Diocese in Central Italy; immediately dependent on the Holy See
Tokio - Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments
Toledo (Spain) - Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost always to the dignity of cardinal, occupies the first place in the ranks of the higher Spanish clergy
Toledo (Ohio) - A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A., formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and erected into a separate jurisdiction, 15 April, 1910
Toledo, Francisco - Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary (1532-1596)
Tolentino and Macerata - Located in the Marches, Central Italy
Toleration, History of - Explores the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration
Toleration, Religious - The magnanimous indulgence one shows towards a religion other than his own, accompanied by the moral determination to leave it and its adherents unmolested in private and public, although internally one views it with complete disapproval as a 'false faith'
Tolomei, John Baptist - Jesuit theologian and cardinal (1653-1726)
Tomb - A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons
Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Explores the question where Mary died and was buried, either Jerusalem or Ephesus
Tomb, Altar - A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having the appearance of an altar
Tomi - A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea
Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria - Cardinal, scholar, and author, died 1713
Tongerloo, Abbey of - Founded in 1128 near Antwerp, Belgium
Tongiorgi, Salvator - Italian philosopher (1820-1865)
Tongues, Gift of - A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae, designed to aid in the outer development of the primitive Church
Tonica Indians - A small tribe living, when first known to the French, in small villages on the lower Yazoo River, Mississippi
Tonkawa Indians - A tribal group formerly ranging about the middle Trinity and Colorado Rivers, in Eastern Texas
Tonsure - A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized and confirmed Christian is received into the clerical order
Tootell, Hugh - Historian commonly known as Charles Dodd. Died 1743
Torah - Signifies first 'direction, instruction', as, for instance, the instruction of parents, or of the wise
Torbido, Francesco - Veronese painter and engraver
Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint - Pioneering missionary archbishop of Lima, founded first seminary in the Americas, d. 1606
Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco - Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer (1693-1752)
Torone - A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica
Toronto - Located in the Province of Ontario, Canada
Torquemada, Tomás de - Grand Inquisitor of Spain (1420-1498)
Torres, Francisco - Hellenist and polemicist (1509-1584)
Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de - Spanish poet and dramatist, born at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth century
Torricelli, Evangelista - Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 October, 1647
Torrubia, José - A linguist, scientist, collector of fossils and of books, writer on historical, political, and religious subjects. Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain; died in 1768
Tortona - Diocese in Piedmont, Italy
Tortosa - Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona
Toscanella and Viterbo - The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot of Monte Cimino, in Central Italy
Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo - Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer (1397-1482)
Tosephta - Hebrew, addition, supplement
Tostado, Alonso - Exegete, born at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; died at Bonilla de la Sierra, near Avila, 3 Sept., 1455
Tosti, Luigi - Benedictine historian (1811-1897)
Totemism - Constitutes the group of superstitions and customs of which the totem is the center
Totonac Indians - One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish conquest the coast province of Totonicapan
Touchet, George Anselm - Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689
Toulouse - Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne
Tournai - Diocese in Belgium
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de - French botanist (1656-1708)
Tournély, Honoré - Theologian (1658-1729)
Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de - Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 December, 1668; died in confinement at Macao, 8 June, 1710
Touron, Antoine - Dominican biographer and historian (1686-1775)
Tours - Archdiocese in France
Toustain, Charles-François - French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur (1700-1754)
Touttée, Antoine-Augustin - French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation (1677-1718)
Tower of Babel - Information on the history, site, and construction of the tower
Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de - Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents; died there in 1670
Tradition and Living Magisterium - The word tradition refers sometimes to the thing (doctrine, account, or custom) transmitted from one generation to another sometimes to the organ or mode of the transmission
Traditionalism - A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude
Traducianism - In general the doctrine that, in the process of generation, the human spiritual soul is transmitted to the offspring by the parents
Trajan - Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117
Trajanopolis - Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope
Trajanopolis - A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea
Tralles - A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor
Trani and Barletta - Diocese in Italy
Transcendentalism - The terms transcendent and transcendental have antithetical reference to experience or the empirical order
Transept - A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica
Transfiguration - Culminating point of Christ's public life, as His Baptism is its starting point, and His Ascension its end
Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the - Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. Matthew (Chapter 17)
Transubstantiation - The change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the Body and Blood of Christ
Transvaal - Vicariate apostolic. Portion of south Africa
Transylvania - Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bacs
Trapani - Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo
Trapezopolis - A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea
Trappists - The Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de Rance (b. 1626; d. 1700) in the Abbey of La Trappe, and often now applied to the entire Order of Reformed Cistercians
Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints - Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century
Treason, Accusations of - A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics from 1570 onwards is the statement that the victims devoted to imprisonment, torture, and death suffered not for their religious belief but for treason against the queen and her government
Trebizond - An Armenian Catholic diocese
Trebnitz - A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia
Tredway, Lettice Mary - Abbess of the Convent of Notre-Dame-de-Sion
Tregian, Francis - Confessor, born in Cornwall, 1548; died at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608
Tremithus - Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus
Trent - Diocese; suffragan of Salzburg
Trent, Council of - Main object was the definitive determination of the doctrines of the Church in answer to the heresies of the Protestants
Trenton - Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York
Tresham, Sir Thomas - Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem
Treviso - Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy)
Tribe, Jewish - The earlier Hebrew term rendered in English versions by the word 'tribe' is shebet, while the term matteh, prevails in the post-exilic writings
Tricarico, Diocese of - Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy), near the River Perrola
Tricassin, Charles Joseph - Theologian of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes; d. in 1681
Tricca - Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly
Trichinopoly, Diocese of - Located in India, suffragan of Bombay
Trichur - Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar Rite
Tricomia - Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima
Triduum - Three days. Frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices
Trier - Diocese; suffragan of Cologne
Triesnecker, Francis a Paula - Astronomer (1745-1817)
Triest-Capo d'Istria - Suffragan diocese of Goerz-Gradiska
Trincomalee - Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo
Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of - Located in the Province of Salerno
Trinitarians, Order of - Towards the end of the twelfth century the order had 250 houses throughout Christendom, where its benevolent work was manifested by the return of liberated captives
Trinity, The Blessed - The term employed to signify the central doctrine of the Christian religion, the truth that in the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, these three persons being truly distinct one from another
Trinity College - An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C
Trinity Sunday - The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity
Triple-Candlestick - A name given along with several others to a church ornament used only in the office of Holy Saturday
Trissino, Giangiorgio - Italian poet and scholar (1478-1550)
Tritheists - Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity
Trithemius, John - Scholar and Benedictine abbot (1462-1516)
Trivento - Diocese in southern Italy
Trivet, Nicholas - Author of a large number of theological and historical works and commentaries on the classics, more especially the works of Seneca
Troas - A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont
Trocmades - Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus
Trokelowe, John de - A Benedictine monk of St. Albans and monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth and death are unknown
Trondhjem, Ancient See of - In 997 Olaf Trygvesson founded at the mouth of the River Nid the city of Nidaros, afterwards called Trondhjem
Trope - A collective name which, since about the close of the Middle Ages or a little later, has been applied to texts of great variety (in both poetry and prose) written for the purpose of amplifying and embellishing an independently complete liturgical text
Tropology, Scriptural - The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ
Troy, John Thomas - Archbishop of Dublin (1739-1823)
Troyes - Diocese comprising the Department of Aube
Truce of God - A temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God which is perpetual
Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto - Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1514-1573)
Trudo, Saint - Late seventh century priest and monastic founder
Trudpert, Saint - Seventh-century missionary in Germany
True Cross, The - (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True Cross; (4) Principal Feasts of the Cross
Trueba, Antonio de - Spanish poet and folklorist (1821-1889)
Trullo, Council in - Particular council held in A.D. 692
Trujillo - Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, in North-west Peru, formed by Gregory XIII
Trumpets, Feast of - The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year
Trumwin, Saint - Seventh-century missionary bishop among the Picts
Trustee System - In the exercise of inherent rights of administering property, the Church often appoints deputies
Trusts and Bequests - Defined as the right enforceable solely in equity to the beneficial enjoyment of property of which the legal title is in another
Truth - Defines ontological, logical, and moral truth
Truth Societies, Catholic - Covers their establishment in various countries
Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha - Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November
Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von - Bishop of Trent, d. 1860
Tschupick, John Nepomuk - A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784
Tuam - The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly speaking, from the Shannon westwards to the sea, and comprises half of County Galway, and nearly half of Mayo, with a small portion of south Roscommon
Tuam, School of - Founded by St. Jarlath, it rivalled Clonmacnoise as a center of Celtic art in the eleventh century
Tübingen, University of - Located in Wuertemberg; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477
Tubunae - A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis
Tucson - Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe
Tucumán - Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 February, 1897
Tudela - Diocese in Spain
Tuguegarao - Diocese in the Philippines
Tulancingo - Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico
Tulasne, Louis-René - Botanist (1815-1885)
Tulle - Diocese comprising the Department of Correze
Tunic - A vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper part only a slit for putting the garment over the head, and, on the sides, either sleeves or slits through which the arms can be passed
Tunis - French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa
Tunja - Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogota, in the Republic of Colombia, South America
Tunkers - A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite
Tunstall, Cuthbert - Bishop of London, later of Durham (1474-1559)
Tunstall, Venerable Thomas - Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616
Tunsted, Simon - English Minorite (d. 1369)
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques - Baron de L'Aulne, French minister (1727-1781)
Turin - The chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and was formerly the capital of the Duchy of Savoy and of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Turin, Shroud of - A relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that it is the actual 'clean linen cloth' in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ
Turin, University of - Founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were interrupted by the wars of Lombardy
Turkestan - Details of Chinese Turkestan and Russian Turkestan
Turkish Empire - Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the caliphate of Baghdad and independent Turkish principalities
Turnebus, Adrian - Philologist (1512-1565)
Turpin - Archbishop of Reims
Tuscany - A division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, Livorno, Massa and Carrara, Pisa, and Siena
Tuy - Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago
Twenge, Saint John - Canon regular, prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington. Miracle-worker, d. 1379
Twiketal of Croyland - English abbot (d. 975)
Tyana - Titular see of Cappadocia Prima
Tychicus - Disciple and companion of St. Paul
Tynemouth Priory - Located on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier Saxon church built first in wood, then in stone, in the seventh century, and famous as the burial-place of St. Oswin, king and martyr
Types in Scripture - Offers several definitions
Tyrannicide - The killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a tyrant by a private person for the common good
Tyre - Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese
Tyrie, James - Scottish theologian (1543-1597)
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