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Home > Fathers of the Church > Sermons on the New Testament (Augustine) > Sermon 54

Sermon 54 on the New Testament

[CIV. Ben.]

Again, on the words of the Gospel, Luke 10:38 , etc., about Martha and Mary.

1. When the holy Gospel was being read, we heard that the Lord was received by a religious woman into her house, and her name was Martha. And while she was occupied in the care of serving, her sister Mary was sitting at the Lord's Feet, and hearing His Word. The one was busy, the other was still; one was giving out, the other was being filled. Yet Martha, all busy as she was in that occupation and toil of serving, appealed to the Lord, and complained of her sister, that she did not help her in her labour. But the Lord answered Martha for Mary; and He became her Advocate, who had been appealed to as Judge. Martha, He says, you are occupied about many things, when one thing is necessary. Mary has chosen the better part, which shall not be taken from her. For we have heard both the appeal of the appellant, and the sentence of the Judge. Which sentence answered the appellant, defended the other's cause. For Mary was intent on the sweetness of the Lord's word. Martha was intent, how she might feed the Lord; Mary intent how she might be fed by the Lord. By Martha a feast was being prepared for the Lord, in whose feast Mary was even now delighting herself. As Mary then was listening with sweet pleasure to His most sweet word, and was feeding with the most earnest affection, when the Lord was appealed to by her sister, how, think we, did she fear, lest the Lord should say to her, Rise and help your sister? For by a wondrous sweetness was she held; a sweetness of the mind which is doubtless greater than that of the senses. She was excused, she sat in greater confidence. And how excused? Let us consider, examine, investigate it thoroughly as we can, that we may be fed also.

2. For what, do we imagine that Martha's serving was blamed, whom the cares of hospitality had engaged, who had received the Lord Himself into her house? How could she be rightly blamed, who was gladdened by so great a guest? If this be true, let men give over their ministrations to the needy; let them choose for themselves the better part, which shall not be taken from them; let them give themselves wholly to the word, let them long after the sweetness of doctrine; be occupied about the saving knowledge; let it be no care to them, what stranger is in the street, who there is that wants bread, or clothing, or to be visited, to be redeemed, to be buried; let works of mercy cease, earnest heed be given to knowledge only. If this be the better part, why do not all do this, when we have the Lord Himself for our defender in this behalf? For we do not fear in this matter, lest we should offend His justice, when we have the support of His judgment.

3. And yet it is not so; but as the Lord spoke so it is. It is not as you understand, but it is as you ought to understand it. So mark; You are occupied about many things, when one thing is needful. Mary has chosen the better part. You have not chosen a bad part; but she a better. And how better? Because you are about many things, she about one thing. One is preferred to many. For one does not come from many, but many from one.

The things which were made, are many, He who made them is One. The heaven, the earth, the sea, and all things that in them are, how many are they! Who could enumerate them? Who conceive their vast number? Who made all these? God made them all. Behold, they are very good. Very good are the things He made; how much better is He who made them! Let us consider then our occupations about many things. Much serving is necessary for the refreshment of our bodies. Wherefore is this? Because we hunger, and thirst. Mercy is necessary for the miserable. Thou breakest bread to the hungry; because you have found an hungry man; take hunger away; to whom do you break bread? Take houseless wandering away; to whom do you show hospitality? Take nakedness away; to whom do you furnish clothes? Let there be no sickness; whom do you visit? No captivity; whom do you redeem? No quarrelling; whom do you reconcile? No death; whom do you bury? In that world to come, these evils will not be; therefore these services will not be either. Well then did Martha, as touching the bodily— what shall I call it, want, or will, of the Lord?— minister to His mortal flesh. But who was He in that mortal flesh? In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God: see what Mary was listening to! The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us: see to whom Martha was ministering! Therefore has Mary chosen the better part, which shall not be taken from her. For she chose that which shall abide for ever; it shall not be taken from her. She wished to be occupied about one thing. She understood already, But it is good for me to cleave to the Lord. She sat at the feet of our Head. The more lowlily she sat, the more amply did she receive. For the water flows together to the low hollows of the valley, runs down from the risings of the hill. The Lord then did not blame Martha's work, but distinguished between their services. You are occupied about many things; yet one thing is needful. Already has Mary chosen this for herself. The labour of manifoldness passes away, and the love of unity abides. Therefore what she has chosen, shall not be taken from her. But from you, that which you have chosen (of course this follows, of course this is understood) from you, that which you have chosen shall be taken away. But to your blessedness shall it be taken away, that that which is better may be given. For labour shall be taken away from you, that rest may be given. You are still on the sea, she is already in port.

4. You see then, dearly Beloved, and, as I suppose, you understand already, that in these two women, who were both well pleasing to the Lord, both objects of His love, both disciples; ye see, I say (and an important thing it is which whosoever understand, understand hereby, a thing which, even those of you who do not understand ought to give ear to, and to know), that in these two women the two lives are figured, the life present, and the life to come, the life of labour, and the life of quiet, the life of sorrow, and the life of blessedness, the life temporal, and the life eternal. These are the two lives: do ye think of them more fully. What this life contains, I speak not of a life of evil, or iniquity, or wickedness, or luxuriousness, or ungodliness; but of labour, and full of sorrows, by fears subdued, by temptations disquieted: even this harmless life I mean, such as was suitable for Martha: this life I say, examine as best ye can; and as I have said, think of it more fully than I speak. But a wicked life was far from that house, and was neither with Martha nor with Mary; and if it ever had been, it fled at the Lord's entrance. There remained then in that house, which had received the Lord, in the two women the two lives, both harmless, both praiseworthy; the one of labour, the other of ease; neither vicious, neither slothful. Both harmless, both, I say, praiseworthy: but one of labour, the other of ease: neither vicious, which the life of labour must beware of; neither slothful, which the life of ease must beware of. There were then in that house these two lives, and Himself, the Fountain of life. In Martha was the image of things present, in Mary of things to come. What Martha was doing, that we are now; what Mary was doing, that we hope for. Let us do the first well, that we may have the second fully. For what of it have we now? How far have we it? As long as we are here, how much of it is there that we have? For in some measure are we employed in it now, and you too when removed from business, and laying aside domestic cares, you meet together, stand, listen. In so far as you do this, you are like Mary. And with greater facility do ye do that which Mary does, than I who have to distribute. Yet if I say ought, it is Christ's; therefore does it feed you, because it is Christ's. For the Bread is common to us all, of which I too live as well as you. But now we live, if you, Brethren, stand fast in the Lord. I would not that you should stand fast in us, but in the Lord. For neither is he that plants anything, neither he that waters; but God that gives the increase.

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Source. Translated by R.G. MacMullen. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. 6. Edited by Philip Schaff. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1888.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/160354.htm>.

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