There was a period of slow development from 1831 to 1864, and a period of progress from 1864 to the present day. During the first period there were published at Warsaw 5 daily papers, 14 weeklies, and 1 monthly periodical; in Galicia, 3 daily papers, 3 semi-weeklies, and 3 weeklies; in the Grand Duchy of Posen, 1 daily paper; in Austrian Silesia, 1 weekly. Several of these that appeared before 1863 are still published. The Polish Press reflects the political conditions of the countries that have annexed the territory of Poland. In Galicia (Austria) it is entirely free; in Russia it is subject to a severe censorship, which is also the case in Germany.
One of the oldest publications in Galicia is the "Czas" (Time), daily, the organ of the Conservative party, and well edited from the literary as well as from the political point of view. Its publication began in 1848. In 1866 there appeared the "Przeglad polski" (Polish Review), which had from its beginning the collaboration of Count Stanislas Tarnowski and Stanislas Kozmian. It remains the most important historical and literary periodical of Poland. The "Czas" and the "Przeglad polski" have always maintained a strictly Catholic character. In 1867 Julius Starkla and Thaddeus Romanowicz established at Lemberg the "Dziennik Literacki" (Literary Journal), which had a short life; John Dobrzanski founded the "Gazeta Narodowa" (National Gazette), to which was united in 1869 the "Dziennik Polski" (Polish Journal). In 1871 Rev. Edward Podoiski established the "Przeglad lwowski" (Lemberg Review), which strenuously defended Catholic interests during its existence. In the same city there appeared the "Gazeta Lwowska" (Lemberg Gazette), the organ of the imperial viceroy in Galicia. In 1884 the Polish Jesuits began at Cracow the publication of the "Przeglad powszechny" (Universal Review), a periodical still published, and which has rendered important services to the Catholic cause from the scientific and literary points of view. In the same city there was published from 1881 to 1886 the "Przeglad literacki i artystyczny" (Literary and Artistic Review). In 1894 in the whole of Austria there were published 126 Polish periodicals and daily papers, of which 65 appeared at Lemberg and 29 at Cracow. At Lemberg the daily papers were the "Dziennik polski", the "Gazeta lwowska", the "Gazeta narodowa", the "Kurjer Lwowski", and the "Przeglad". There were two Catholic weeklies, the "Gazeta katolicka" and the "Tygodnik katolicki". At the present time the Catholic Press is chiefly represented by the "Gazeta koscielna" (Ecclesiastical Gazette), a small semi-weekly, poor in doctrine and immersed in politics, From the scientific standpoint the most important periodical is the "Kwaltarnik hystoryczny" (Tri-monthly historical periodical), which began publication in 1886 and the numbers of which constitute a valuable collection of historical works. No less important are the "Pamietniki literacki" (Literary Monuments), the "Ateneum polskie", the "Kosmos" (the organ of the society of naturalists of Lemberg), and the "Nasz kraj". In 1911 there appeared the only philosophical periodical of Galicia, the "Ruch filozoficzny" (Philosophical Movement).
At Cracow, besides the "Czas", there are the "Nowa Reforma" and the "Glos narodu" (Voice of the People), an organ of the clergy and of the militant Catholic party. The Socialists publish there the "Naprzód" (Forward), the official organ of their party, and the monthly periodical "Krytyka". In recent years there has been established the "Swiat Slowianski" (Slav World), the organ of the Slav club of Cracow, containing valuable information relating to the various Slav countries. The Academy of Sciences of Cracow publishes a "Bulletin international", monthly; and the "Rozprawy" (Dissertations) of mathematics, physics, and biology. Daily papers and periodicals are published also in the other Galician cities of Tarnow, Rzeszowo, Sambor, Stanislaw, Jaroslaw, and Przemysl.
One of the oldest Polish daily papers existing in Prussia is the "Dziennik poznanski" (Posen Journal), established in 1859. From 1845 to 1865 there appeared the "Przeglad poznanski", an ardent defender of Catholicism, edited by Rev. John Kozmian; in 1860 Rev. John Prusinowski published the "Tygodnik katolicki" (Illustrated Week). In 1865 Louis Rzepecki began the publication of the scientific periodical "Oswiata" (Culture), which, however, had only a short life, and was followed by the "Przeglad Wielkopolski" (Review of Great Poland), edited by Emilius Kierski. In 1870 Edmond Callier founded the "Tygodnik Wielkopolski", to which the best Polish writers contributed. The "Kurjer Poznanski", established by Theodor Zychlinski in 1872, also acquired great importance. In 1894 there were published in Prussia and in the Grand duchy of Posen the following daily papers: the "Dziennik poznanski", the "Goniec wielkopolski", the "Kurjer poznanski", the "Oredownik" (Advocate), and the "Wielkopolanin". The "Przeglad poznanski" resumed its publications under the direction of Wiadislaw Rabski, while other daily papers were published at Danzig, Thorn, Pelplin, and Allenstein. In 1909, under the direction of Wiadislaw Hozakowski, rector of the seminary of Posen, there was published the "Unitas", a monthly periodical for the clergy, well edited from the theological standpoint.
In 1841 the publication of the "Biblioteka Warszawska", a monthly periodical dedicated especially to literature, began in Russian Poland. Its excellence is still maintained. In 1904 there were published in Warsaw 9 dailies, 33 weeklies, 7 fortnightlies, and 5 monthly periodicals. At the present time there are published in Warsaw the "Dzien" (Day); the "Dziennik powszechny" (Universal Journal); the "Glos Warszawski" (Voice of Warsaw); "Glos poranny" (Voice of Morning); the "Kurjer polski"; "Kurjer Warszawski"; "Nowa Gazeta"; "Przeglad poranny"; "Widomosci Codzienne" (Daily News); "Slovo" (Word), a Nationalist paper that has great influence; and the "Warszawska Gazeta". Other dailies are published at Lublin, Kieff ("Dziennik kijowski"), at Vilna ("Kurjer litewski" and "Goniec Wilenski"), at Lodz, and at St. Petersburg. Among the periodicals, besides the "Biblioteka Warszawska", mention should be made of the "Biesiada literacka" (Literary Banquet), splendidly illustrated; the "Kultura", hostile to Catholicism; the "Przeglad filozoficzny" (Philosophical Review), a quarterly publication; the "Przeglad historyczny" (Historical Review), scientific, twice monthly; the "Swiat" (World), an illustrated weekly; and the "Tygodnik illustrowane". The Catholic press until two years ago was represented by the "Przeglad katolicki", of Warsaw, a publication of very little value theologically, and dedicated more to politics. This paper was the one most read by the clergy. Count Roger Lubienski established the "Wiara" (Faith), a weekly devoted to ecclesiastical news; and these two publications are now united into one. A scientifically important periodical, the "Kwartalnik teologiczny", lasted only a few years. At the present time, of the daily papers or periodicals for the clergy, or having a strictly Catholic programme, those most read are: the "Polakkatolik"; the "Mysl katolicka", of Censtochowa; and the "Atheneum kaptanskie", of the seminary of Wloslawek, a monthly scientific publication.
In Russia the Lithuanians publish at Vilna the "Litwa" (Lithuania) in defence of their nationality; while the Jews publish at Warsaw the "Izraelita", a weekly. The "Przewodnik bibliograficzny" (Bibliographical Guide) of Cracow, a monthly publication, and the "Przeglad bibliograficzny" of Przemysl are bibliographical periodicals which mention all Polish writings that appear, of all writings that concern Poland, and of the writings that are published in the principal Polish reviews. The number of scientific periodicals devoted to medicine, veterinary surgery, pharmaceutics, architecture, the fine arts, heraldry, archæology, philology, etc., is about 100, which is proof of the intense scientific work of the Poles, who, notwithstanding their difficult political conditions, co-operate with much ardour in modern scientific movements. The Mariavites have a special organ, "Maryawita"; and their "Wiadomosci" appears twice each week. At Warsaw there is published the tri-monthly periodical "Mysl niepolegta" (Independent Thought), full of vulgar calumnies and accusations against Catholicism.
In 1864 Polish fugitives established the "Ojczyna" (Native Land) at Leipzig, the "Przyszlosc" (The Future) at Paris, and the "Przeglad powszechny" at Dresden. At Chicago, U. S. A., the chief centre of Polish emigration, are published the "Dziennik chicagoski", the "Dzienswiety" (Holy Day), the "Gazeta katolicka", the "Gazeta polska", the "Nowe Zycie" (New Life), the "Sztandar", "Tygodnik naukowo-powiesciowy", "Wiara i ojczyna", "Zgoda", and "Ziarno", a musical publication. Other papers are published at Milwaukee, Buffalo, New York, Detroit, Philadelphia, Winona, Cleveland, Toledo, Baltimore, Pittsburg, Stevens Point, Manitowoc, Mohanoy City, and Wilkes-Barre. Brazil also has a Polish publication.
CHMIELOWSKI, Zarys najnowszej literatury polskiej (Cracow, 1895), 3-213; NAGLA, Dziennikarstwo polskie w Ameryce i jego 30-letnie dzieje (Polish Periodical Literature in America, and its history for 30 years) (Chicago, 1894).
APA citation. (1911). Periodical Literature (Poland). In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11687a.htm
MLA citation. "Periodical Literature (Poland)." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11687a.htm>.
Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Douglas J. Potter. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. February 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.