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E

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This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for E or use the search box at the top of this page.

Easter - Includes information on the feast and customs
Easter Controversy - The dispute regarding the proper time of observing Easter
Eastern Churches - Eastern Churches depended originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople
Eastern Schism - From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East
Ebionites - Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God's body
Ecclesiastes - The name given to the book of Holy Scripture which usually follows the Proverbs; the Hebrew Qoheleth probably has the same meaning
Ecclesiastical Addresses - Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence
Ecclesiastical Architecture - All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber
Ecclesiastical Art - Article explores the origin, history, and types
Ecclesiastical Buildings - This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever be the name given to them, church, chapel, oratory, and basilica
Ecclesiastical Forum - Ecclesiastical jurisdiction is distinguished into that of the internal and external forum
Ecclesiasticus - The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament
Eck, Johann - Theologian and principal adversary of Luther. Detailed profile by J.P. Kirsch
Eckhart, Meister - Biographical article on the Dominican theologian and mystic. Includes bibliography
Eclecticism - A philosophical term meaning either a tendency of mind in a thinker to conciliate the different views or positions taken in regard to problems, or a system in philosophy which seeks the solution of its fundamental problems by selecting and uniting what it regards as true in the various philosophical schools
Economics - The social science which treats of man's activities in providing the material means to satisfy his wants
Ecstasy - Offers details of false views
Ecumenical Councils - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I
Ecumenism - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it
Eden, Garden of - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden
Edessa - A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene
Edinburgh - Derives its name from the time (about A.D. 620) when the fortress of Edwin's burgh was raised on a lofty spur of the Pentland Hills, overlooking the Firth of Forth, and established the Anglian dominion in the northern part of the Northumbrian Kingdom
Editions of the Bible - Includes Hebrew and Greek editions
Edmund Campion, Saint - English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article
Edmund the Martyr, Saint - Short biography of the King of East Anglia, who died in 870
Edom - Also known as Idumea
Education - In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence is developed, knowledge acquired, and character formed. In a narrower sense, it is the work done by certain agencies and institutions, the home and the school, for the express purpose of training immature minds
Education of the Blind - Includes statistics and history
Education of the Deaf - History, aids, and alphabets are discussed
Edward III - Detailed biographical article on the King of England
Edward the Confessor, Saint - Short biography of the King of England, who died in 1066
Edward the Martyr, Saint - King of England, assassinated at the age of 16 or 17 at the behest of his stepmother. St. Edward was murdered in 979
Eginhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt
Egoism - Synopsis of this ethical system, and short refutation
Egypt - Provides information on history, religion, and literature
Einhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt
El Cid - Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen
Elect - Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological term it is equivalent to 'chosen as the object of mercy or Divine favour, as set apart for eternal life'
Election - In its broadest sense election means a choice among many persons, things, or sides to be taken. In the stricter juridical sense it means the choice of one person among many for a definite charge or function
Election, Papal - The method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. . .
Eleutherius, Pope Saint - Native of Nicopolis, served as deacon in the Roman Church, d. about 189
Elevation, The - The Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively recent introduction
El Greco - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614
Eli - Discusses the Old Testament priest, and the New Testament father of Joseph
Elias - Old Testament prophet
Eligius, Saint - Or Eloi. Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, founded several monasteries, d. 660
Elijah - Old Testament prophet
Eliseus - A Prophet of Israel
Elisha - A Prophet of Israel
Elizabeth - The wife of Zachary, mother of St. John the Baptist, and relative of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some believe that it was Elizabeth who proclaimed the Magnificat
Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States
Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint - Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia. Biographical article on the princess, widow, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1231
Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint - Queen, also known as St. Isabel, d. 1336
Elohim - The common name for God
Elvira, Council of - Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far from Granada
Ember Days - The days at the beginning of the seasons ordered by the Church as days of fast and abstinence
Embolism - An insertion, addition, interpretation. The word has two specific uses in the language of the Church; in the prayer and in the calendar
Embroidery - In Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ornament vestments
Emiliani, Saint Jerome - Soldier, priest, founder of the Order of Somascha, d. 1537
Emmanuel - Signifies 'God with us' (Matthew 1:23), and is the name of the child predicted in Isaias 7:14: 'Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel'
Emmaus - A titular see in Palaestina Prima, suffragan of Caesarea
Emmerich, Anne Catherine - An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near Coesfeld, in the Diocese of Munster, Westphalia, Germany; died at Dulmen, 9 February, 1824
Empiricism - Primarily, and in its psychological application, the term signifies the theory that the phenomena of consciousness are simply the product of sensuous experience, i.e. of sensations variously associated and arranged
Encyclical - According to its etymology, an encyclical is nothing more than a circular letter. In modern times, usage has confined the term almost exclusively to certain papal documents which differ in their technical form from the ordinary style of either Bulls or Briefs, and which in their superscription are explicitly addressed to the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, and bishops of the Universal Church in communion with the Apostolic See
Energy, The Law of Conservation of - Includes the history and philosophy
England (Before 1066) - History of the occupation, conversion, and development
England (1066-1558) - This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
England (After 1558) - Article on the relation of the post-Reformation Catholic church to the English state
English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729) - Since this article was published, some of the causes for canonization have been successful, and others have progressed from 'venerable' to 'blessed.'
English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the - The restoration of the English hierarchy in 1850 was a milestone for English Catholics after the Penal Times
English Literature - Latin, French, Italian, Greek, and Spanish literatures are a few of the influences
English Revolution of 1688 - The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole
Enoch - The name of the son of Cain, of a nephew of Abraham, of the first-born of Ruben, and of the son of Jared and the father of Mathusala
Enoch, Book of - Introductory article
Envy - Taken to be synonymous with jealousy
Epact - The surplus days of the solar over the lunar year; hence, more freely, the number of days in the age of the moon on 1 January of any given year. The whole system of epacts is based on the Metonic Lunar Cycle, and serves to indicate the days of the year on which the new moons occur
Eparchy - Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire
Ephesians, Epistle to the - The letter which, in the manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul, bears the title 'To the Ephesians' comprises two parts distinctly separated by a doxology (Eph., iii, 20 sq.)
Ephesus - A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century B.C. by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists
Ephesus, Council of - The third ecumenical council, held in 431
Ephesus, Robber Council of - The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and have thus been preserved. The remainder of the Acts are known only through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, published from the British Museum MS. Addit. 14,530, written in the year 535
Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of - One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed
Ephod - a kind of garment, which differed according to its use by the high-priest, by other persons present at religious services, or as the object of idolatrous worship
Ephraem, Saint - Long article on the life and works of the hermit, deacon, poet
Epicureanism - In its popular sense, the word stands for a refined and calculating selfishness, seeking not power or fame, but the pleasures of sense, particularly of the palate, and those in company rather than solitude
Epiklesis - The name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies (and originally in Western liturgies also) after the words of Institution, in which the celebrant prays that God may send down His Holy Spirit to change this bread and wine into the Body and Blood of His Son
Epiphanius of Salamis - Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop
Epiphany - The feast was called among the Syrians denho (up-going), a name to be connected with the notion of rising light expressed in Luke. I, 78
Episcopalians - Protestant denomination born from Anglicanism
Epistemology - That branch of philosophy which is concerned with the value of human knowledge
Epistle (in Scripture) - The Old Testament exhibits two periods in its idea of an epistle: first, it presents the epistle under the general concept of a book or a writing; secondly, it regards the epistle as a distinct literary form. The New Testament presents a very highly developed form of an epistle
Erasmus, Desiderius - Article by Joseph Sauer. An extensive overview of the life, works and impact of this scholar
Erastus and Erastianism - The name 'Erastianism' is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience of the Church to the State
Erin, The Twelve Apostles of - Twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the School of Clonard in Meath
Eriugena, John Scotus - Article by William Turner recounts this scholar's life and influence, and evaluates his teachings
Error - Reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides the lack of information which it implies, it adds the positive element of a mental judgment, by which something false is held to be true, or something true avouched to be false
Esau - The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob
Eschatology - A survey of the subject in various pre-Christian religions and cultures, an examination of the development of eschatology in the Old Testament, brief overview of Christian teaching
Escorial, The - A building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about twenty-seven miles northwest of Madrid. Its proper title is El Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial, Escorial being the name of a small town in the vicinity
Esdras - Or Ezra. Article on the man and the books which bear his name
Eskimo - A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook Inlet in Alaska to the mouth of the St. Lawrence
ESP - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense'
Essence and Existence - Essence, described as that whereby a thing is what it is. Existence is that whereby the essence is an actuality in the line of being
Essenes - One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century B.C., the others being the Pharisees and the Sadducees
Establishment, The - The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive relation between the two is frequently expressed in English by the use of the word 'establishment'
Esther - Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 B.C.)
Eternity - Eternity is defined by Boetius (De Consol. Phil., V, vi) as 'possession, without succession and perfect, of interminable life'
Ethelbert, Saint - King of Kent, a worshipper of Odin well into his adulthood, converted to Christianity, d. 616. Biography
Etheldreda, Saint - Queen of Northumbria, twice married for reasons of state, d. 679. Biography
Ethics - Many writers regard ethics as any scientific treatment of the moral order and divide it into theological, or Christian, ethics (moral theology) and philosophical ethics (moral philosophy)
Ethiopia - Includes geography, history, and religion
Eucharist, Introduction to the - The name given to the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar its twofold aspect of sacrament and Sacrifice of Mass, and in which Jesus Christ is truly present under the bread and wine
Eucharist, as a Sacrament - Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the Blessed Eucharist is unquestionably a sacrament of the Church
Eucharist, as a Sacrifice - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy'
Eucharist, Early Symbols of the - The earliest and always the favourite symbol of the Eucharist in the monuments was that inspired by the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves and fishes; the banquet of the seven Disciples appears only in one (second-century) catacomb scene; the miracle of Cana in two, one of which is of the early third, the other of the fourth, century
Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy
Eucharistic Prayer - Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations
Eudes, Blessed Jean - French missionary, religious founder, writer, d. 1680
Eugene I, Saint, Pope - Made bishop of Rome after Pope St. Martin I had been in exile for 14 months. Eugene died in 657
Eugene II, Pope - Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827
Eugene III, Pope - Cistercian monk and abbot chosen by unanimous vote of the College of Cardinals to succeed Lucius II. Blessed Eugene died in 1151
Eugene IV, Pope - Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1447
Eugenics - Eugenics literally means 'good breeding'. It is defined as the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally
Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint - Martyred 12 February, 304, patron saint of sailors
Eunomianism - A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 until 381; as a sect it is not heard of after the middle of the fifth century
Europe - The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and Africa, had its origin in ancient times
Eusebius, Saint - Bishop of Vercelli, exiled for defending St. Athanasius, anti-Arian, martyr, d. 371
Eusebius, Saint, Pope - Reigned for only four months, in 309 or 310, was deported, died in exile, is counted as a martyr
Eusebius, Chronicle of - Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the 'Chronograph' or 'Chronographies'; the second he terms the 'Canon', or 'Canons', and also the 'Chronological Canons'
Eusebius of Cæsarea - Biographical article on the 'Father of Church History.'
Eusebius of Nicomedia - Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the Martyr, in whose famous school he learned his Arian doctrines
Eustachius, Bartolomeo - A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period
Euthanasia - From Greek eu, well, and thanatos, death, easy, painless death
Eutyches - An heresiarch of the fifth century
Eutychianism - Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some Monophysites condemned Eutyches, the name Eutychians is given by some writers only to those in Armenia
Eutychianus, Saint, Pope - The successor of Pope Felix I. Eutychianus died in 283
Evangelical Church - Almost from the beginning the new Evangelical Church was split, first into two communions, the Lutheran and the Reformed, then into a multitude of sects
Evangelical Counsels - The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed
Evangelist - In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; Eph., iv, 11; II Tim., iv, 5. It seems to indicate not so much an order in the early ecclesiastical hierarchy as a function
Evaristus, Pope Saint - Sometimes called Aristus. Martyr, died about 107
Eve - First woman; wife of Adam
Eve of a Feast - In the first ages, during the night before every feast, a vigil was kept. In the evening the faithful assembled in the place or church where the feast was to be celebrated and prepared themselves by prayers, readings from Holy Writ (now the Offices of Vespers and Matins), and sometimes also by hearing a sermon
Evil - In a large sense, described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the desires and needs of individuals; whence arises, among human beings at least, the sufferings in which life abounds
Evolution, Catholics and - Discussed under the headings: (1) Scientific Hypothesis vs. Philosophical Speculation; (2) Theistic vs. Atheistic Theories of Evolution; (3) The Theory of Evolution vs. Darwinism; and (4) Human Evolution vs. Plant and Animal Evolution
Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of - History, definition, and various arguments
Ex Cathedra - Literally 'from the chair', a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is more particularly applied to the definitions given by the Roman pontiff
Examination of Conscience - By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law
Exarch - A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically
Excardination and Incardination - In the ecclesiastical sense the words are used to denote that a given person is freed from the jurisdiction of one bishop and is transferred to that of another
Excommunication - Exclusion from the communion, the principal and severest censure, is a medicinal, spiritual penalty that deprives the guilty Christian of all participation in the common blessings of ecclesiastical society
Exegesis, Biblical - The branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture
Exodus (See Pentateuch) - The name of the first five books of the Old Testament.
Exorcism - Exorcism is (1) the act of driving out, or warding off, demons, or evil spirits, from persons, places, or things, which are believed to be possessed or infested by them, or are liable to become victims or instruments of their malice; (2) the means employed for this purpose, especially the solemn and authoritative adjuration of the demon, in the name of God, or any of the higher power in which he is subject
Exorcist - (1) In general, any one who exorcises or professes to exorcise demons (cf. Acts 19:13); (2) in particular, one ordained by a bishop for this office, ordination to which is the second of the four minor orders of the Western Church
Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament - A manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing it, with proper solemnity, to the view of the faithful in order that they may pay their devotions before it
Extension - Philosophical term. From Lat. ex-tendere, to spread out
Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense'
Extreme Unction - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill
Exultet - The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy Saturday
Eyck, Hubert and Jan van - Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and consequently of all the schools of painting in the North of Europe
Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien - Biographical article on the French priest and founder
Ezekiel - Son of Buzi, and was one of the priests who, in the year 598 B.C., had been deported together with Joachim as prisoners from Jerusalem
Ezra - Or Esdras. Article on the man and the books which bear his name

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