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Home > Catholic Encyclopedia > M > Mozarabic Rite

Mozarabic Rite

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. History and Origin; II. Manuscripts and Editions; III. The Liturgical Year; IV. The Divine Office; V. The Mass; VI. The Occasional Services.

History and origin

The name "Mozarabic Rite" is given to the rite used generally in Spain and in what afterwards became Portugal from the earliest times of which we have any information down to the latter part of the eleventh century, and still surviving in the Capilla Muzárabe in Toledo cathedral and in the chapel of San Salvador or Talavera, in the old cathedral of Salamanca. The name is not a good one. It originated in the fact that, after its abolition in Christian Spain, the rite continued to be used by the Christians in the Moorish dominions who were known as Mazárabes or Muzárabes. The form Mostárabes is also found. The derivation of the word is not quite certain, but the best theory seems to be that it is musta’rab, the participle of the tenth form of the verb ’araba, and that it means a naturalized Arab or one who has adopted Arab customs or nationality, an Arabized person. Some, with less probability, have made it a Latin or Spanish Compound, Mixto-Arabic. The meanings, which are not far apart, applied entirely to the persons who used the rite in its later period, and not to the rite itself, which has no sign of any Arab influence. The names Gothic, Toledan, Isidorian, have also been applied to the rite—the first referring to its development during the time of the Visigothic kingdom of Spain, the second to the metropolitan city which was its headquarters, and the third to the idea that it owed, if not its existence, at any rate a considerable revision to St. Isidore of Seville. Dom Férotin (Liber Ordinum) prefers Rite Wisigothique.

Its origin is still discussed, and the various theories have been already set forth under AMBROSIAN RITE, CELTIC RITE, and GALLICAN RITE. Suffice it to say that whatever theory applies to the Gallican Rite applies equally to the Mozarabic, which is so nearly identical with it in construction as to leave no doubt of a common origin. The theory of Pinius (op. cit. in bibliography) to the effect that the Goths brought with them from Constantinople and Asia Minor a Greek Liturgy, which, combined with the already existing Romano-Spanish Rite, formed the new rite of Spain, is not founded on more than conjecture. There is no definite information concerning the Spanish variety of the Hispano-Gallican Rite until the end of the sixth and beginning of the seventh century (that is to say, until the period of transition from Arianism to Catholicism in the Visigothic kingdom), and, since the whole of Spain, including the Suevic kingdom in Galicia which had been annexed by the Visigothic king Leovigild, was then under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Toledo, it may be presumed that the Toledo Rite was used throughout the whole peninsula. This had not been the case somewhat earlier. In 538 Profuturus, Bishop of Braga and Metropolitan of the Suevic kingdom, had consulted Pope Vigilius on liturgical matters. Vigilius sent him rather full information concerning the Roman usages in the Mass and in baptism. The Council of Braga (561), held at the time of the conversion of the Arian Suevi to Catholicism, decided (cc, iv, v) that the orders of Mass and baptism obtained from Rome by Profuturus should be exclusively used in the kingdom. This probably continued as long as the Suevi remained independent, and perhaps until the conversion of the Visigothic king Recared to Catholicism in 589. Though until this date the kings and the Teutonic ruling class were Arians, the native Spanish population was largely Catholic, and the rite—which was possibly revised and added to by St. Leander of Seville and the first Council of Toledo in 589, described and perhaps arranged by his brother and successor, St. Isidore (d. 636), and regulated by the Fourth Council of Toledo in 633—was no doubt that previously in use among the Spanish Catholics. This is confirmed by the scanty liturgical decrees of the various Spanish councils of the sixth century. What the Arians used we have no means of knowing, and there is no reason to suppose that, whatever it was, its influence continued after the conversion of Recared and the submission of the Arian bishops. But the rite described by St. Isidore, allowing of course for the modifications and variations of many centuries, is substantially that now know as the Mozarabic.

Dom Marius Férotin, O.S.B. (to whom the present writer is indebted for much help), in his edition of the Mozarabic "Liber Ordinum", dismisses the idea of any Oriental origin, and describes it as a purely Western rite, "the general framework and numerous ceremonies of which were imported from Italy (probably from Rome)", while the remainder (lessons, prayers, hymns, etc.) is the work of Spanish bishops and doctors, with additions from Africa and Gaul. Without accepting the Italian or Roman origin as more than a very reasonable conjecture, we may take this as an excellent generalization. There was a period of development during the seventh century under St. Isidore, who was the moving spirit of the Council of Toledo (657-67), to whom certain masses are attributed, and St. Julian (680-90), who, according to his biographer and successor, Felix, wrote a Mass-book "de toto circulo anni", and a book of collects, as a revision of the old books with additions of his own. But after the Moorish invasion, which began in 710, the Spanish Christians had little leisure for improving their liturgies, and, except for some prayers, hymns, and masses attributed to Abbot Salvus of Albelda (tenth century), nothing seems to have been added to the rite from the eighth to the eleventh century. In 870 Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, and afterwards emperor, wishing to see what the ancient Gallican Rite had been like, had priests sent from Spain to say the Toledan Mass before him. In the latter part of the eighth century, the Spanish Rite had fallen under some suspicion owing to quotations cited by Elipandus of Toledo in support of his Adoptionist theories, and the Council of Frankfort (794) spoke somewhat disparagingly of possible Moslem influence on it. Some of the passages still remain, in spite of Alcuin's suggestion that the original and proper readings must have been assumptio and assumptus, not adoptio and adoptatus (or adopticus); but they all can bear an orthodox explanation. It was in consequence of this suspicion that in 924 John X sent a legate (Zanedo, Zannello, or Jannello) to Santiago to examine the Spanish Rite. He reported favourably upon it, and the pope gave it a new approbation, changing only, as Sr. Moraleda y Estaban says (El Rito Mozárabe), the Words of Consecration to the Roman Use. This condition is still observed, but whether that has always been the case since 924 or not, there is no evidence to show. The old Spanish formula is given in the modern books—"ne antiquitas ignoretur", as Leslie says in his notes to the Mozarabic Missal—but the Roman is used in actual practice.

Of the existing manuscripts of the rite, though a very few may possibly be of the ninth century, almost all are of dates between the ratification by John X and the introduction of the Roman Rite in the second half of the eleventh century, during which period the old Spanish Rite held undisturbed possession of the whole of Spain, whether under Christian or Moorish rule. During these centuries the Christian kingdoms were gradually driving back the Moors. Besides Asturias and Navarre, which had never been quite conquered, Galicia, Leon, and Old Castile had been regained, and the Kingdom of Aragon had been formed. In 1064 Cardinal Hugo Candidus was sent from Rome by Alexander II to abolish the Spanish Rite, some vague attempts in that direction having been already made by his predecessor Nicholas II, who had also wished to abolish the Ambrosian Rite at Milan. The centralizing policy of the popes of that period included uniformity of liturgical practice. The Spanish kings and clergy were against the change then, and Bishops Munio, of Calahorra, Eximino of Oca, and Fortuno of Alava were sent to Italy with Spanish office-books, including a Liber Ordinum from Albelda, and a Breviary from Hirache, to defend the rite. The books were carefully examined by the Council of Mantua (1067), and were pronounced not only free from heresy but also worthy of praise. But in Aragon King Sancho Ramirez was in favour of the change, and on 22 March, 1071, the first Roman Mass was sung in the presence of Cardinal Hugo Candidus and the king in the Monastery of San Juan de la Peña (near Jaca, at the foot of the Pyrenees and the burial place of the early kings of Aragon). The Roman Rite was introduced into Navarre on the accession of Sancho of Aragon to the throne in 1074, and into Cataluña a little later. Meanwhile Alfonso VI became King of Castile and Leon, and St. Gregory VII became pope. Alfonso, influenced by the pope, by St. Hugh of Cluny, and by his first wife Agnes, daughter of William, Duke of Gascony and Guienne and Count of Poitiers, introduced the Roman Rite into Castile and Leon in 1077. This was resisted by his subjects, and on Palm Sunday, 1077, according to the "Chronicon Burgense", occurred the incident of "El Juicio de Dios". Two knights—"one a Castilian and the other a Toledan", says the chronicle—were chosen to fight "pro lege Romana et Toletana". The champion of the Spanish Rite, Juan Ruiz de Matanzas, who was the victor, was certainly a Castilian, but it is improbable that the champion of the Roman Rite, whose name is not recorded, was a Toledan, and the Annals of Compostella say that one was a Castilian and the other of the king's party. The "Chronicon Malleacense", which alleges treachery, calls the latter "miles ex parte Francorum", and at the later ordeal by fire in 1090 the Roman Rite is called impartially "romano", "frances", or "gallicano". It is said that two bulls, one named "Roma" and the other "Toledo", were set to fight, and there also the victory was with Toledo.

But, in spite of the result of the trials by battle, Alfonso continued to support the Roman Rite, and a Council of Burgos (1080) decreed its use in Castile. In 1085 Toledo was taken and the question of rites arose again. The Mozarabic Christians, who had many churches in Toledo and no doubt in the country as well, resisted the change. This time another form of ordeal was tried. The two books were thrown into a fire. By the time the Roman book was consumed, the Toledan was little damaged. No one who has seen a Mozarabic manuscript with its extraordinarily solid vellum, will adopt any hypothesis of Divine Interposition here. But still the king, influenced now by his second wife Constance, daughter of Robert, Duke of Burgundy and son of King Robert the Pious of France, and by Bernard, the new Archbishop of Toledo, a Cistercian, insisted on the introduction of the Roman Rite, though this time with a compromise. All new churches were to use the Roman Rite, but in the six old churches, Sts. Justa and Ruffina, St. Eulalia, St. Sebastian, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. Torquatus, the Mozárabes might continue to have their old rite, and might hand it on to their descendants. Flores mentions also the Ermita de S. Maria de Alficen, which is probably the church of St. Mary which Neale says "disappeared, we know not how, some centuries ago." But the rite still continued in the Moorish dominions, as well as in certain monasteries, apparently, according to Rodrigo Ximenes, Archbishop of Toledo (1210-49), even in the Christian kingdoms.

When King James of Aragon conquered Valencia in 1238, he found there Mozarabic Christians using the old rite, and the same apparently happened when Murcia and all Andalusia except Granada were conquered by Ferdinand III in 1235-51. When Ferdinand and Isabella took Granada in 1492, there were certainly some Mozarabic Christians there, as well as Christian merchants and prisoners from non-Moorish countries, but whether the Mozarabic Rite was used by them does not appear. With the discouragement which began with Alfonso VI came the period of decadence. The civil privileges (fueros) of the Toledo Mozárabes, which, though in 1147 Pope Eugene III had definitely put them under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese, included a certain amount of independence, were confirmed by Alfonso VII in 1118, by Peter in 1350, by Henry II in 1379, and by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1480 (later also by Philip II in 1564, by Charles II in 1699, and by Philip V in 1740). But in spite of this the "Roman Rite prevailed so much that it was introduced even into Mozarabic churches, which only used the old rite for certain special days, and that in a corrupted form from old and imperfectly understood manuscripts This and the dying out of many Mozarabic families gradually brought the rite very low. There was a spasmodic attempt at a revival, when in 1436 Juan de Todesillas, Bishop of Segovia, founded the college of Amiago (originally a Benedictine house, a little to the south-west of Valladolid), where the priests were to use the Gothic Rite. The foundation lasted five years and then became Carthusian. Thus, when Francisco Ximenes de Cisneros became Archbishop of Toledo in 1495, he found the Mozarabic Rite in a fair way to become extinct. He employed the learned Alfonso Ortiz and three Mozarabic priests, Alfonso Martinez, parish priest of St. Eulalia, Antonio Rodrigues of Sts. Justa and Ruffina, and Jeronymo Guttierez of St. Luke, to prepare an edition of the Mozarabic Missal, which appeared in 1500, and of the Breviary, which appeared in 1502. He founded the Mozarabic Chapel in Toledo cathedral, with an endowment for thirteen chaplains, a sacristan and two mazos sirvientes, and with provision for a sung Mass and the Divine Office daily. Soon afterwards, in 1517, Rodrigo Arias Maldonado de Talavera founded the Capilla de San Salvador, or de Talavera, in the Old Cathedral of Salamanca, where fifty-five Mozarabic Masses were to be said yearly. They were later reduced to six, and now the rite is used there only once or twice a year.

When the church of St. Mary Magdalene at Valladolid was founded by Pedro de la Gasca in 1567, an arrangement was made for two Mozarabic Masses to be said there every month. This foundation was in existence when Flores wrote of it in 1748, but is now extinct. At that time also the offices of the titular saints were said according to the Mozarabic Rite in the six Mozarabic churches of Toledo, and in that of Sts. Justa and Ruffina the Mozarabic feast of the Samaritan Woman (first Sunday in Lent) was also observed. Except for the Capilla Mozárabe in the cathedral, all else was Roman. In 1553 Pope Julius III regulated mixed marriages between Mozarabic and Roman Christians. The children were to follow the rite of the father, but, if the eldest daughter of a Mozarab married a Roman, she and her husband might choose the rite to which she and her children should belong, and if she became a widow she might return to the Mozarabic Rite, if she had left it at her marriage. These rules are still in force, and the writer is informed by Don Férotin that the present Mozárabes are so proud of their distinctive rite, involving, as it does, pedigrees dating back to the eleventh century at least, that no Mozarabic heiress will ever consent to desert her own rite if she should marry a member of the Roman Rite. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the Mozarabic Rite attracted some attention among the liturgical scholars of the period, and certain dissertations were written and texts published, of which more will be said in the section on manuscripts and editions. In 1842 all the Mozarabic parishes in Toledo except two, Sts. Justa and Ruffina and St. Mark, were suppressed, and their parishioners, something under a thousand in number, were added to those of the two surviving parishes. By the Concordat of 1851 the chaplains of the Capilla Mozárabe were reduced from thirteen to eight, but the continuance of the above two parishes was provided for, and at that time the parochial Mass in these was always Mozarabic. It has almost entirely ceased to be so now, and it is only in the Capilla Muzárabe in the cathedral and in the Capilla de Talavera at Salamanca that the rite can be seen at present—in the former daily (in a High Mass at nine a.m.), and in the latter once or twice a year. Only the Missal and Breviary were published by Ximenes, and only four manuscripts of the "Liber Ordinum" (which contains the services of the Ritual and Pontifical) are known to exist. Hence it is that in all the sacraments except the Eucharist, and in all the occasional offices the Mozárabes now follow the Roman Rite. One effect of the Mozarabic Rite yet remains in the cathedral services of the Roman Rite. According to Simonet (Historia de los Mozárabes de España), the Canto Melódico or Eugeniano, attributed to Eugenius II, Archbishop of Toledo (647-57), is still alternated with the Gregorian plain chant in all the Graduals of the Mass except on ferials, and certain hymns are still sung to the Eugenian melodies. When Jeronimo Romero, choirmaster of Toledo cathedral, wrote his note on the Canto Melódico in Lorenzana's edition of the Mozarabic Breviary of 1775, it seems to have been still more extensively used, but in the specimens which he gives (the beginning of the Gradual for Sts. Peter and Paul) the textus or canto firmo is only a variety of the ordinary plain chant, and the glossa duplex and glossa simplex, which he calls "Eugenian", seem rather too modern counterpoints for the seventh century.

Manuscripts and editions

Of the existing manuscripts of the Mozarabic Rite many, as might be expected, are in the cathedral chapter library at Toledo, but until quite recent times the Benedictine Abbey of Silos, between thirty and forty miles to the south of Burgos, possessed nearly as many. Most of these are now elsewhere, some having been purchased in 1878 by the British Museum, and others by the Paris Bibliothèque Nationale. There are other manuscripts in the Royal Library, in the Library of the Royal Academy of History, and in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid, in the Cathedral Library at Leon, in the University Library at Santiago de Compostela, and in the chapter library at Verona. It will be seen from the list which follows that nearly all the existing manuscripts come either from Toledo or from the neighbourhood of Burgos. There is also an interesting collection of transcripts, made from 1752 to 1756 under the direction of the Jesuit Father, A. M. Burriel, from Toledo manuscripts in the Biblioteca Nacional at Madrid. All the original manuscripts are anterior to the conquest of Toledo in 1085, most of them being of the tenth or eleventh century. The arrangement of the books of that period was peculiar. The variable parts of the Mass and the Divine Office, whether sung by the choir or said by the celebrant or the deacon, were usually combined in one book, a sort of mixed sacramentary, antiphonary, and lectionary, usually with musical neumes to the sung portions. Most of the manuscripts are very imperfect, and it is not quite clear under what name this composite book was known. Probably it was called "Antiphonarium" or "Antiphonale". But such books existed also as antiphoners with choir parts only and sacramentaries with the priest's part only, and the usual modern practice is to call the composite books by the descriptive name of "Offices and Masses". They contain under each day the variables of Vespers and Matins and of the Mass. Sometimes one Mass is made fuller by the addition of some of the invariables, as a model of a complete Mass. The Missale Omnium Offerentium, the separate book answering to the Ordinary of the Mass (see Section V, THE MASS), does not exist in any early manuscript, but there is a Missa Omnimoda in the principal Silos manuscript of the "Liber Ordinum", which is a model Mass of the type found in that book. The book of "Offices and Masses" was supplemented for the Divine Office by the Psalter, which in its fullest form (as in the British Museum Add. manuscript 30851) contained the whole book of Psalms, the Canticles, chiefly from the Old Testament, sixty- seven to a hundred in number, the Hymns for the year, and the "Horæ Canonicæ." For the Mass it would seem to require no supplement, but the Prophecies, Epistles, and Gospels are found also in a separate book known as "Liber Comitis", "Liber Comicus" or "Comes". The Prayers of Vespers and Matins and the Prayers which follow the Gloria in Excelsis at Mass are also found combined in the "Liber Orationum", and the Homilies read at Mass are collected in the "Homiliarum", though some are also given in the composite "Offices and Masses". The occasional services of the Ritual and Pontifical are found in the "Liber Ordinum", which contains also a number of Masses. There is one manuscript (at Silos) which contains the Lessons of the now obsolete Nocturnal Office.

The following are the manuscripts of the several books:

Office and Masses.—(a) Toledo, Chapter Library, 35.4, eleventh century. Contains from Easter to the twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost. Belonged to the parish of St. Olalla (Eulalia) at Toledo. (b) 35.5, tenth or eleventh century, 194 ff. Contains from the first Sunday of Lent to the third day of Easter week. (c) 35.6, eleventh century, 199 ff. Contains from Easter to Pentecost and feasts as far as SS. Just and Pastor (6 Aug.). (d) Madrid, Royal Academy of History, F. 190, tenth or eleventh century, 230 ff. Belonged to the Monastery of San Milan (St. Æmilianus) de la Cogolla in the Rioja. (e) Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, formerly at Toledo (35.2), eleventh century, 121 ff. Contains the Lenten Offices up to Palm Sunday. Colophon "Finitur deo gratias hic liber per manus ferdinandi johannis presbiteri eglesie sanctarum juste et rufine civitatis Toleti in mense Aprilis." (f) Silos, eleventh century, paper octavo, 154 ff. (g) British Museum, Add. 30844, tenth century. Contains Offices and Masses for the Annunciation (18 Dec.), St. Thomas, Christmas, St. Stephen, St. Eugenia (27 Dec.), St. James the Less (28 Dec.), St. James the Great (30 Dec., but called St. John), St. Columba (31 Dec.), the Circumcision, Epiphany, St. Peter's Chair (22 Feb.), the Ascension, and the Sunday after the Ascension. The Mass for the Annunciation is a model Mass with some of the invariable parts inserted. Homilies are inserted in some of the Masses, and the liturgical part is preceeded by a collection of Homilies. Belonged to the Abbey of Silos. (h) British Museum, Add. 30845, tenth century. Contains Offices and Masses for the Feast of St. Quiriacus (4 or 20 May), and of Feasts from St. John Baptist (24 June) to St. Emilian (12 Nov.), thirty-seven in all, though not all in their proper order. Belonged to the Abbey of Silos. (i) British Museum, Add. 30846, tenth century. Contains Offices and Masses for Easter Week, followed by the Canticles for the same period, and the Hymns for Eastertide to Pentecost, including the Feasts of Sts. Engratia (16 April), Torquatus and Philip (1 May), and the Invention of the Cross (3 May).

Antiphoners.—There is one manuscript which describes itself as "Antiphonarium de toto anni circulo, a festivitate S. Aciscli [17 Nov.] usque ad finem", containing the choir parts, but not the priest's part of the Offices and Masses. This is the book known, quite erroneously, as the "Antiphoner of King Wamba", preserved in the Cathedral Library at Leon. It is a vellum manuscript of the eleventh century (Era 1107 = A.D. 1069), 200 ff., transcribed by one Arias, probably from a much older book, which perhaps did belong to King Wamba (672-80). Dom Férotin describes it as very complete.

Sacramentaries.—(a) Toledo Chapter Library, 35.3, late tenth century, 177 ff. Contains Masses for the year. In the initial of that for St. Peter's Chair (22 Feb.) are the words "Elenus Abbas Acsi indignus scripsit". It belonged to the parish of St. Olalla (Eulalia) at Toledo. Dom Férotin describes it as a Sacramentary, and says that it is complete. An edition by him will soon be published. (b) There is another manuscript at Toledo mentioned but with no identifiable number by Burriel, Eguren, and Simonet, which is said by them to contain "Missas omnes tam de tempore quam de sanctis per totum anni circulum". There is a copy of it among the Burriel manuscripts at Madrid, and Eguren ascribes the original to the ninth century.

Psalters.—(a) Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, formerly at Toledo (35.1), tenth century, 174 ff. Contains the Psalter with antiphons, the Canticles, and the Hymnal. On f. 150 are the words "Abundantius presbyter librum mauro presbytero scriptor" (sic). The prologue of the Hymnal is an acrostic in verse which reads (Mavricvs obtante Veraniano edidyt". This manuscript was used by Cardinal Lorenzana for the Psalter, Canticles, and Hymnal in his edition of the Mozarabic Breviary. There is a copy among the Burriel manuscripts (b) British Museum, Add. 30851, eleventh century. Contains Psalter, Canticles, Hymnal, and "Horæ Canonicæ", the last (though imperfect) being much fuller than the printed Breviary and containing the now obsolete Night Offices, as well as the other Hours and a number of offices for special occasions. It has been edited by J. P. Gilson for the Henry Bradshaw Society. (c) Santiago de Compostela, University Library, Cabinete de Reservados No. 1, dated Era 1093 (= A.D. 1055), "Petrus erat scriptor, Frictosus denique pictor." Contains Psalter, 100 Canticles, and the Night Offices, but not the Hymnal. The Psalter is preceded by a poem addressed by Florus of Lyons to Hyldradus (here called Ysidorus Abbas), Abbot of Novalese near Susa in Piedmont (825-7). There is a full description of this manuscript in Férotin's "Deux Manuscrits wisigothiques de la Bibliothèque de Ferdinand I". (d) Royal Library, Madrid, 2. J. 5, dated Era 1097 (= A.D. 1059). Contains ninety-nine Canticles nearly agreeing with the Compostela Psalter. There is a formula of confession, in which the names of Queen Sancia and the Infanta Urraca appear, and which contain an extraordinary list of sins. The manuscript belonged in the fourteenth century to the Benedictine monastery of St. Maria de Aniago near Simancas, which in 1436 became for a time a Mozarabic chapter (see Section I. HISTORY AND ORIGIN), then to the Colegio de Cuenca at Salamanca. It is fully described in Férotin's "Deux Manuscrits wisigothiques". (e) A Psalter and Canticles of the tenth century, 122 ff., sold at the Silos sale in 1878, present owner unknown.

Liber Comicus, Liber Comitis, Comes, containing the Prophecies, Epistles, and Gospels used at Mass. (a) Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Nouv. Acquis. Lat. 2171, eleventh century. Belonged to Silos from 1067, when it was given to the abbey by Sancho de Tabatiello to 1878. Edited by Dom Morin (Maredsous, 1893). (b) Toledo, Chapter Library, 35.8, ninth or tenth century. Imperfect, containing only from "Dominica post infantum" to the Saturday of the fourth week of Lent. (c) Leon, Cathedral Library. A little earlier than 1071, when it was given to the cathedral by Bishop Pelagius. Begins with the first Sunday of Advent and ends with what it calls "the twenty-fourth Sunday". According to Dom Férotin it is rich in Votive Masses, but incomplete in much else. (d) Madrid, Royal Academy of History, No. 22 (old number F. 192), dated Era 1111 (= A.D. 1073). Written by Petrus Abbas. Belonged to the Benedictine abbey of San Milan de la Cogolla.

Homiliarium.—(a) Toledo Chapter Library, 131 ff., mentioned by Burriel and Simonet. A copy of 1753 is among the Burriel manuscripts at Madrid. (b) Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Nouv. Acquis. Lat., 2176, eleventh century, 390 ff. Contains Homilies from Christmas onward. Formerly belonged to Silos. (c) Nouv. Acquis. Lat. 2177, eleventh century, 770 ff. Contains homilies from Epiphany to Christmas. Belonged to Silos. (d) British Museum, Add. 30853, eleventh century, 324 ff. Contains Homilies and a Penitentiale.

Liber Ordinum.—(a) Silos, dated Era 1090 (= A.D. 1052), 344 ff. Copied by Bartolomæus Presbyter for Domingo, Abbot of San Prudentio de Laturce in the Rioja. Dom Férotin conjectures that it is the very copy sent in 1065 to Alexander II. San Prudentio was a cell of Albelda. Of the four books sent to Rome one was "Liber Ordinum majoris Albaldensis Cenobii", and one of the deputation, Eximino of Oca, was a personal friend of St. Dominic of Silos. The manuscript contains a very full collection of the Ritual and Pontifical Offices and a large number of votive and other Masses. Fully edited and described by Dom Férotin in his "Liber Ordinum". (b) Silos, dated Era 1077 (= A.D. 1039). Written by Joannes Presbyter. Contains Calendar, Baptism, Visitation etc. of the Sick. Commendation of the Deaf, Matrimony, a large collection of prayers and blessings, and Votive Masses. Edited by Dom Férotin. (c) Silos, eleventh century, 142 ff. Contains also Hours, which are offices for every hour of the twelve, as well as Ordo Peculiaris (Aurora), ante Completa, ad Completa, post Completa, ante lectulum, and in nocturnis. Edited, except the Hours, by Dom Férotin. (d) Madrid, Royal Academy of History, No. 56 (old number F. 224), eleventh century, 155 ff. Belonged to San Milan de la Cogolla in the Rioja. Contains a Ritual and a number of Masses. Edited by Dom Férotin.

The descriptions of all the above manuscripts (except those in the British Museum, which the writer has examined for himself) are worked out from those given by Férotin, Ewald and Loewe, Simonet, Eguren, and the list of the Burriel transcripts in Fernandez de Navarrete's "Coleccion de Documentos" (see bibliography). Very full descriptions of the principal manuscripts will appear in Dom Férotin's forthcoming edition of the Mozarabic Sacramentary. The lists of Toledo manuscripts given by Lorenzana and Pinius are too vague for purposes of identification. The four manuscripts (Add. 30847-30850), described in the Catalogue of Additional Manuscripts of the British Museum for 1878 as Mozarabic, are all Roman, three being Romano-monastic and one secular.

Printed Editions: Missale Mixtum or Complete Missal.—Cardinal Ximenes's edition, Toledo, 1500, fol. Alexander Leslie's edition, Rome, 1755, 4to. Caridinal Lorenzana's edition, with Leslie's notes and additional notes by F. Arévalo, Rome, 1804, fol. Reprint of Leslie's edition in Migne, P.L., LXXXV, Paris, 1850.

Missale Omnium Offerentium, containing, besides the "Missa Omnium Offerentium", the Lesser Hours and the Commons. Edition by Lorenzana and F. Fabian y Fuero. Angelopoli (Los Angeles, Mexico), 1770, fol. Reprint, Toledo, 1875, fol. The "Missa Omnium Offerentium" is given also in La Bigne's "Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum", 1609, 1618, 1654; in J. M. Neale's "Tetralogia Liturgica", 1849; in Hammond's "Ancient Liturgies", 1878; translated and edited by T. Kranzfelder in Reithmayer's "Bibliothek der Kirchenväter", No. 215, 1869, and in J. Perez's "Devocionario Mozárabe", Toledo, 1903.

Breviary.Cardinal Xímenes's edition, Toledo, 1502, fol. Cardinal Lorenzana's edition, Madrid, 1775, fol. Reprint in Migne (P.L., LXXXVI), Paris, 1850.

Liber Ordinum. Edited by Dom M. Férotin in Cabrol and Le Clerc's "Monumenta Ecclesiæ Liturgica", V, Paris, 1904, quarto.

Liber Orationum.—Printed in Bianchini's edition of the works of Cardinal Tommasi, Rome, 1741, fol.

Psalter, Canticles, Hymnal, and Hours.—In Lorenzana's Breviary of 1775 and the Migne reprint, from the Toledo manuscript. In the Henry Bradshaw Society's Publications, vol. XXX, edited by J. P. Gilson, London, 1905, from the British Museum manuscript

Liber Comicus.—Edited by Dom G. Morin from the Paris manuscript in "Anecdota Maredsolana", I, Maredsous, 1893.

The liturgical year

In the present printed books, the offices are divided after the Roman fashion into "Officium Canonicum per Annum" (answering to the "Officium de Tempore") and the "Sanctorale". As in the Roman books, the fixed feasts from Christmas Eve to the Epiphany (except that the Breviary puts two in the "Sanctorale") come in the "de Tempore", and the Missal, but not the Breviary, includes also St. Clement (23 Nov.), St. Saturninus (29 Nov.), St. Andrew (30 Nov.), St. Eulalia (10 Dec.), the Annunciation (18 Dec.), and St. Thomas the Apostle (21 Dec.) in the same part, though several intermediate feasts come in the "Sanctorale". In the manuscripts (e.g. in the two Libri Orationum, Add. manuscript 30852 and the Verona manuscript printed in Bianchini's edition of Thomasius, which has a very complete sequence of the year) the two parts are not distinguished, and the whole set of days, fixed and moveable, are given in one series. The "Officium per Annum" of the modern books begins with the first Sunday of Advent, as in the Roman, but the "Sanctorale" begins with Sts. Julianus and Basilissa (7 Jan.), and ends in the Missal with St. Eugenia (12 Dec.), while the Breviary includes in it also Sts. Justus and Abundus (16 Dec.), the Annunciation (18 Dec.), St. Thomas the Apostle (21 Dec.), the Translation of St. James the Great (30 Dec.), and St. Columba (31 Dec.). There are six Sundays of Advent, as there were in the Gallican and are now in the Ambrosian. The key day for Advent Sunday is therefore St. Martin (11 Nov.), as it is in the Ambrosian Rite, and, as according to the Council of Mâcon (581), it was in the Gallican, but Advent Sunday is that next after, not, as in the Roman, that nearest to the key day. Thus Advent Sunday may be on any day from 12 to 18 Nov.

The four feasts which follow Christmas Day are now the same as in the Roman Rite, including St. Thomas of Canterbury. The next day is the Translation of St. James the Great and the last day of the year is St. Columba, Virgin and Martyr, though the Calendar of the Missal includes also St. Sylvester. But, according to the Calendar of the Breviary, the twenty-ninth is "Jacobi Fratris Domini", and there is an office for his feast, as well as a direction to use the Common of one pontiff martyr for St. Thomas of Canterbury, and for the thirtieth there is an Office for the feast (translation) "Sancti Jacobi Fratris Sancti Joannis". In the Missal St. James the Less is not mentioned here in the Calendar, but the Mass of the twenty-ninth is his; there is nothing of St. Thomas, and the table of contents of the Ximenes Missal refers to the Mass of that day as "in translatione Jacobi Zebedei", which it certainly is not. There is no Mass for the Translation of St. James the Great in the printed book, though that for his martyrdom (25 July) is given as the specimen full Mass "Omnium Offerentium" instead of the Ordinary; but in Add. manuscript 30844 (tenth century) there is one which follows the Mass of St. James the Less, though by mistake it is called by the name of St. John the Evangelist. In that manuscript the days after Christmas are St. Stephen, St. Eugenia, St. James (Frater Domini), St. James the Great, St. Columba, leaving one day unoccupied. In Add. 30850, a tenth-century Liber Orationum, "De Alisione Infantum", which according to the present calendars would occupy that day (28 or 29 December), is given next after the Epiphany. In the Hymnal printed with Lorenzana's Breviary, the vacant day is occupied by St. John the Evangelist, and the rest are as in Add. 30844. The Circumcision is on 1 January. If a Sunday occurs between that day and the Epiphany it is "Dominica ante Epiphaniam". The Mass is that of the Kalends of January (i.e. New Year's Day). The three days before the Epiphany are "Jejunia in Kalendis Januarii", said to have been set apart as fasts in contemptum superstitionis gentilium, just as fasts were forbidden during Advent ob impietatem Priscillianistarum, who, denying the Incarnation, fasted at that season. There are analogous instances of this sort of fasting (or not fasting) ad lites et contentiones in the Byzantine practice of not fasting on certain days before Lent begins because of the Artziburion fast of the Armenians and the Ninevite Fast of the Jacobites and Nestorians. After the Epiphany (called also "Apparitio Domini') to Lent nine Sundays are given, the last being "Dominica ante Cineres", the rest being numbered one to eight "Post octavam Epiphaniæ".

Ash Wednesday (Feria quarta in capite jejunii) is an evident late Roman borrowing, rather clumsily inserted, for the Sunday that follows, though called "Dominica prima Quadragesimæ", has a Mass and an Office in which Alleluia is used, and at Vespers there is the well- known "Endless Alleluia" (Alleluia Perenne) hymn. In the Hymnal this hymn is entitled "Ymnus in carnes tollendas". The true liturgical Lent does not begin till the Monday after Ash Wednesday. The old Mass Lections of the Sundays in Lent have been disturbed in their order in consequence of the Gospel for the first Sunday (Christ in the Wilderness) being given to Ash Wednesday, and that of the second (The Samaritan Woman) is given to the first, that of the third (The Healing of the Blind Man) to the second, while, so as to keep the Gospel "Jam autem die festo mediante" for Mid-Lent Sunday, that of the fifth (the Raising of Lazarus) is given to the third and a new Gospel (The Good Shepherd) is given to the fifth. The sixth is Palm Sunday, called only "Dominica in Ramis Palmarum", but including, between the Prophecy and Epistle at Mass, the Traditio Symboli in the form of a "Sermo ad Populum". On Maundy Thursday there occurs the same process of removing one of two consecrated Hosts to the Altar of Repose (called monumentum and Sepulchrum) as in the Roman Rite, and there is a service ad lavandos pedes, in both cases with different words. The Washing of the Feet takes place "clausis ostiis et laicis omnibus foris projectis", and the feet of certain priests are washed by the bishop and dried by the archipresbyter. "Postea ad cenam conveniunt." On Good Friday there is a penitential service "ad Nonam pro indulgentia", which consists largely of preces interspersed with cries of various cases of the word "indulgentia" many times repeated, and contains passages similar to the Improperia of the Roman Rite, as well as lections, including the Passion according to St. Matthew. It is the remains of the solemn reconciliation of penitents, and is mentioned by the fourth Council of Toledo (633), canon vi. This is followed by the Adoration of the Cross and the Procession and Communion of the Presanctified. The Easter Eve services are similar to those of the Roman Rite: the New Fire, the Easter Candle, the Prophecies (of which there are only ten, seven of which agree more or less with those of the Roman Rite, though not all in the same order), and the Blessing of the Font. But the words used throughout are very different. Even the "Exultet" is not used, but another hymn of similar import. Before the "Benedictio Cerei" there is a "Benedictio Lucernæ", and the Litany is used for the two processions, to the Font before the Blessing and back again after it.

From Easter to Pentecost there is no peculiarity except that the numbering of the Sundays includes Easter Day and that the four days before Whit-Sunday are fasts. Formerly (e.g. in the time of St. Isidore) these fasts came after Pentecost, though they answered to rogation or litany days. Leslie conjectures that the alteration was made because of the Whit-Sunday baptisms. There is no Blessing of the Font on the vigil of Pentecost, but there are allusions to baptism in the services of the vigil and the day itself. The following Sunday only commemorates the Holy Trinity in certain of the prayers at Mass (for which there is a direction to use those of Palm Sunday which have allusions to the Trinity, instead of those for the Sunday, which are to be transferred to the following Tuesday), in the title "in die Sanctissime Trinitatis", and in the hymns in the Breviary Office. Otherwise the day, as far as there is anything defininte about it, is treated as the Octave of Pentecost and the allusions are to the Holy Spirit. Corpus Christi is kept on the following Thursday, and the Mass and Office, though naturally enough influenced by the Roman propers, are composed on a purely Mozarabic plan. In the Missal seven Sundays after Pentecost have Masses, as well as the Sunday before the fast of the Kalends of November. In the Breviary the Sundays after Pentecost are only three. There is a direction in the Breviary that if there is no Feast on any Sunday during that season, one of these three offices must be used. Two sets of three-day fasts occur in this season, one before the Feast of St. Cyprian (13 Sept.) and one before that of St. Martin (11 Nov.). They have nothing to do with either St. Cyprian or St. Martin, whose days only serve as key-days to them (cf. Holy Cross and St. Lucy, as key-days to the September and December ember-days). The November fast is called "jejunia Kalendarum Novembrium". They are really days of Litany or Rogation, and are both mentioned by St. Isidore; the September fast is evidently mentioned by the fifth Council of Toledo (can. i), though obviously by a mistake it calls it "dies Iduum Decembrium", and the November one by the Council of Gerona. In the Sanctorale there are of course a large number of Spanish saints who either do not occur at all or receive only cursory mention in the Roman Calendar, but there are also many that are common to the whole Church, and in the modern books a number of feasts, some of which were instituted after the period of the manuscripts, have been added.

There are two modern forms of the Calendar. In that prefixed to the Breviary a rather small number of days are marked, hardly any (as in the Ambrosian Calendar) during the possible Lenten period, but offices of references to the Common are given in a large appendix for a great number of other saints. In that prefixed to the Missal all these days are put in one series, as their Masses are in the body of the book. There are a good many discrepancies in the existing manuscript calendars, and it is not always quite easy to determine the exact day of some of the older feasts, but now most of the days which are common to both have been assimilated to the Roman. The Annunciation is kept twice, on 25 March and on 18 December. The last, called "Annunciatio S. Mariæ Virginis de la O", is really the "Expectatio Partus B. M. V." Its name is referred to a curious custom in the Toledan Use, according to which the whole choir sing a loud and prolonged O at Vespers on that day, to signify, it is said, the eager desire of the saints in Limbo, the Angels in Heaven, and of all the world for the birth of the Saviour. This or the Antiphons known as the "Great O's" may be the cause of the name, which is known outside Spain. The tenth Council of Toledo (656) ordered the Annunciation to be kept on that day, because 25 March came either in the Lenten or Easter period, and thus was unsuitable, and shortly afterwards St. Ildefonsus, with reference to this decree, calls it "Expectatio Puerperii Deipare". In the printed Missal the same Mass is ordered also for 25 March, but no Office is given in the Breviary. (Cf. the Ambrosian custom of keeping the Annunciation on the sixth Sunday of Advent for the same reason.) Sometimes there are other disagreements between the modern Missal and Breviary. Thus, the Decollation of St. John Baptist is given for 29 Aug. (the Roman, and also the Byzantine day) in the Missal, but for 24 Sept. (the old Mozarabic day, as appears from the manuscripts) in the Breviary. In both, 1 May is Sts. Philip and James, and the Mass is the same, mutatis nominibus, as that of Sts. Peter and Paul, while the Office is similar to that of Sts. Simon and Jude. But in the manuscripts St. Philip alone is mentioned, St. James the Less being, as we have seen, already provided with a day in Christmastide, not only in them but also in the printed books. But 1 May is also the feast of St. Torquatus and his companions, the Apostles of Spain, who naturally eclipse the other Apostles. The Sunday before the Nativity of St. John Baptist is kept as "Dominica pro adventu St. Joannis Baptistæ". As its position with regard to the general sequence of Sundays is variable, its Mass and Office are given in the Sanctorale. The classification of feasts is very simple. There are Principal Sundays, which are those of Lent and Advent, and of course Easter Day and Whit-Sunday. Feasts are "sex capparum", "quatuor capparum", and "novem lectionum", the last being also called "duarum capparum". The distribution of these titles is occasionally rather arbitrary, and the Missal and Breviary do not always agree. If a feast comes on a Principal Sunday it is transferred to the next day, unless that is a greater feast, when it is put off to the next free day. If two equal feasts fall on the same day (the example given is Sts. Philip and James and St. Torquatus), the office is that of the saint who has a proprietas (proper), unless the other is the Vocatio (patronal feast) of the church, in which case the one with a proper is transferred. If a feast comes on an ordinary Sunday, the Sunday is omitted (quia satis habebit locum per annum) and the feast is kept. During the Octaves which are kept "secundum Regulam Gregorianum", any vacant day is of the Octave, but the Office is not said solemniter except on the Octave day. If a greater feast is followed by a lesser one, the Vespers is of the greater but the last Lauda, with its prayer, is of the lesser. These rules, which do not differ in principle from those of the Roman Rite, are prefixed to the printed Breviary. Their comparative simplicity is probably more apparent than real.

The divine office

The present Mozarabic Divine Office differs from all others in several points. As a general rule, which applies to every other rite, Eastern or Western, the Divine Office may be defined as the recitation of the Psalter with accompanying antiphons, lections, prayers, canticles, etc., and the nucleus is the more or less regular distribution of the Psalter through the Canonical Hours, generally of one week. In the Mozarabic Rite there is now no such distribution of the Psalter. Psalms are used at all the Hours except Vespers—when, except in fasting time, there are none—but they are as a rule fixed psalms. In the first three weeks of Lent and during the three-day fasts before the Epiphany, St. Cyprian's Day, and St. Martin's Day, and the four-day fast before Pentecost, there are three selected psalms (or sometimes one or two psalms divided into three) at Matins, Terce, Sext, and generally at None, and usually one selected psalm at Vespers, but there is no consecutive order; some psalms are repeated many times, while others are omitted altogether. In the week after the first Sunday after the Epiphany, psalms i … xxi, xxiii, xxiv are said consecutively at Matins and Terce, three psalms or divisions of psalms at each until the Thursday, two at Terce on the Friday, and none except the usual fixed psalms on the Saturday. In the manuscripts (e.g. in the Psalter in Add. manuscript 30851) there are indications of a more regular distribution of the psalms. At Matins, which is a morning and not a night Office, there are no lessons like that of the Roman Rite and its variants, but a certain similarity of construction exists in the sets of three Antiphonæ followed by a responsory, which sets, though normally there is only one, are increased to two, three, four, and even five on certain days, though this increase is rather capricious and inconsistent. The Silos Lectionary of 1059 consists of lessons for the now obsolete Night Office; such lessons as there are now occur at Lauds, where there is one variable with the day, which is sometimes called Prophetia, and at Prime, Terce, Sext, and None, where there are two short Lessons, a Prophetia from one of the Prophets or from the Apocalypse and an Epistola from one of the Epistles. These have about four variations with the seasons, except during the fasts, when there are long, additional lessons at Terce, Sext, and None (cf. the lessons at Terce during Lent in the Ambrosian Rite), varying every day and also of varying number. Another peculiarity is the existence of an extra hour, called Aurora (also Ordo Peculiaris), before Prime. In a Liber Ordinum at Silos, besides the usual Hours and this Ordo Peculiaris, Offices are given for all the intermediate hours of the twelve, as well as ante Completa, post Completa, and ante Lectulum. Vespers, Matins, and Lauds are very variable, but there is much less variability in the Lesser Hours and Compline. A considerable part of the Office is made up of responsoria, constructed on similar principles to those of the Roman Rite, but called by the various names of Antiphona, Lauda, Sono (or Sonos), or Matutinarium according to their position in the Office. (Antiphona also means the antiphon of a psalm or canticle, which is of the same form as in the Roman Rite.) They vary in form, but the general plan is: Verse, Response, Verse, repetition of first Response, Gloria, second repetition of Response or of first Verse and Response. The first Lauda at Vespers and the Sono are generally without the Gloria and the second repetition of the Response. These various responsories and also the psalms, canticles, etc. are generally followed by Orationes, which are usually founded on them, with or without special reference to the day or season.

The construction of the Hours is as follows: Before every Hour except Lauds, which follows on after Matins: Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison; Pater Noster; Ave Maria, are said secretly, kneeling. Then, standing, In nomine D. N. J. C. lumen cum pace. R. Deo Gratias. V. Dominus sit semper vobiscum. R. Et cum spiritu tuo. This elongated form of the Dominus vobiscum is said very frequently after collects and responsories and in various other places. The form of the Gloria, which also occurs very frequently, is: Gloria et honor Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto in sæcula sæculorum. Amen.

Vespers (Ad Vesperos).—(1) Lauda followed by its oratio. Alternative names are psalmus and vespertinum, and the words are nearly always from the psalms. This form of Lauda has no Gloria. (2) Sono on Sundays and feasts, but not on ferials except in paschal time. This is also without Gloria. (3) Alleluia, followed by an antiphona with Gloria. Sometimes there are two antiphona with Gloria. Sometimes there are two antiphona, each followed by its oratio. In Lent, on the fasts, and in the week after the Octave of the Epiphany, a selected psalm with the Octave of the Epiphany, a selected psalm with its antiphon takes the place of this antiphona. (4) Second Lauda, with Alleluias interspersed in rather variable fashions, with Gloria. The Regula in the beginning of the Breviary has this definition: "Antiphona est quæ dicitur sine Alleluia; et Lauda quæ cum Alleluia dicitur", but this is not an exhaustive definition, and, as in the Roman Rite, Alleluia is not used in Lent. (5) Hymn. This of course varies with the day. There is a great wealth of hymns in the Mozarabic Breviary. (6) Supplicatio, a Bidding Prayer generally beginning "Oremus Redemptorem mundi D. N. J. C., cum omni supplicatione rogemus", and continuing with a clause applicable to the day, with response: "Præsta æterne omnipotens Deus", and Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison. (7) Capitula, a prayer of the diffuse Gallican type, often embodying the idea of the Supplicatio. (8) Pater noster, divided into petitions with a response of Amen to each except "Panem nostrum etc." when it is "Quia Deus es", and followed by an occasionally varying Embolismus. (9) Benedictio in four clauses with Amen after each, and preceded by "Humiliate vos ad benedictionem". (10) Third Lauda, with Gloria. Sometimes there are more than one of these, each followed by an oratio. On feasts sex capparum the altar is censed while this Lauda is sung. (11) Then follow Commemorations which are in the form of a short Lauda and oratio. (12) Dismissal: "In nomine D. N. J. C. perficiamus in pace. R. Deo Gratias." The orationes at Vespers, unlike those at Matins and Lauds, begin immediately without "Dominus sit semper vobiscum". Each has two Amens, one before and one after the final clause, "Per misericordiam etc."

Compline (Completoria).—(1) Psalm 4:7-10, followed by three Alleluias. (2) Psalm 133, followed by three Alleluias. (3) Six selected psalms and other verses. (4) Hymn, "Sol Angelorum respice", with Psalm 12:4, as versicle and response. (5) Psalm 90. (6) Psalm 90:5 and Psalm 133:3-5, with "Memor esto mei Domine" as response to each verse, and Gloria. (7) Hymn, "Cultor Dei memento". (8) Three Supplicationes of similar form to that at Vespers. (9) Pater noster, with Embolismus. (10) Benedictio. (11) Dismissal, as at Vespers. (12) Commemoratio. Psalm 16:8-9, as Lauda, followed by an oratio. (13) "In nomine D. N. J. C. in hac nocto dormiamus et requescamus in pace. R. Deo Gratias". There are a few additions on Saturdays, the principal Feasts, in Lent (when there is also a short "Ordo ante Completoria"), and "De traditione Domini" (Passiontide) after the psalms, some variant hymns, and "Miserationes" with variant capitulæ and Benedictiones for each day of the week, and for the "Traditio Domini".

Matins (Ad Matutinum).—The week-day form is: (1) Antiphon of Our Lady, Ave Regina Cælorum. (2) In nomine D. N. J. C. etc., as before the other Hours. (3) Generally Psalm 50 with a variable antiphon (in the Roman sense) before and after it, and an oratio. Sometimes Psalm 3 is used here (e.g. during Lent and on other fasts and during Paschal time), and sometimes Psalm 56. (4) The Antiphonæ. These are in sets of three antiphonæ and a responsorium. The last only differs from the antiphonæ in name. To each is appended its oratio. During the first three weeks of Lent and the fasts of Epiphany, Pentecost, St. Cyprian, and St. Martin, and on four days of the week after the Octave of the Epiphany, three varying psalms with antiphons and orationes followed by a responsorium and oratio take the place of the antiphonæ. There is usually only one set of Antiphonæ etc., but there may be (e.g. on the Feast of Sts. Fructuosus, Augurius, and Eulogius) as many as five. On Sundays Matins begins with the hymn "Æterne rerum conditur", and except during Paschal time (when only Psalm 3 is said), there are three psalms (3, 50 and 56) with their orationes, instead of only one of these.

Lauds (In Laudibus) follows immediately on Matins with no preliminary except "Dominus sit semper vobiscum". Its order is: (1) A variable Canticle from the Old and occasionally from the New Testament, with an antiphon before and after it. Sometimes an oratio follows. On Christmas Day the Magnificat is said in addition to the first Canticle and on the Annunciation instead of it. (2) On Sundays and feasts, the Canticle "Benedictus es Domine Deus Patrum nostrorum" (Daniel, iii, 52 sq.), which includes a very much compressed form of the Benedicite. It is sometimes followed by an oratio. On ferials an antiphona or responsorium, called Matutinarium, takes the place of this canticle. (3) The Sono, generally the same as that at Vespers. This, as at Vespers, is not used on ferials, except in Paschal time. (4) The Laudate Psalms (148, 149, 150) preceded by a variable Lauda. On some ferials only Psalm 150 is ordered. (5) The Prophetia, a lection from the Old Testament, or in Paschal time from the Apocalypse. (6) The Hymn of the day. (7) Supplicatio, as at Vespers. (8) Capitula, as at Vespers. (9) Pater noster and Embolismus, as at Vespers. (10) Lauda, as at Vespers. (11) Benedictio, as at Vespers. The Vesper order of these last two is reversed. The last six are as a rule a different set from those at Vespers. (12) Commemorationes, as at Vespers. (13) Dismissal, as at Vespers. In Lent and in the other fasts, Lauds begins with Psalm l and its antiphon. On these occasions Psalm 3 is used at Matins.

Aurora.—A very simple office, without variations, said before Prime only on ferials. (1) Psalm 69 and 118, pts. 1-3, under the one antiphon, "Deus in adjutorium etc." (2) Lauda. (3) Hymn "Jam meta noctis transiit", with its versicle, of which there are three variants. (4) Kyrie eleison etc. (5) Pater noster with Embolismus, said as at Vespers. (6) Preces, a short litany for all sorts and conditions of men. There are two forms of this.

Prime, Terce, Sext, None.—These are constructed on the same plan, and may be taken together. The order is: (1) The Psalms. At Prime, seven (lxvi; cxliv, 1-12; cxliv, 13-21; cxii; cxviii, pts. 4-6); at Terce, four (xciv, cxviii, pts. 7-9); at Sext, four (liii; cxviii, pts. 16, 17, 18); at None, four (cxlv; cxxi; cxxii; cxxiii), in each case under one antiphon. (2) Responsorium, varying with the day. These variations are chiefly "commons" of classes of saints and for Lent, Advent, Christmas, and Easter. The Psalms and Responsoria are without orationes. (3) Prophetia, a lection from the Old Testament or Apocalypse. (4) Epistola, a lection from the Epistles. At Prime these lections do not vary and are very short; at Terce, Sext, and None there is more variety, and during Lent and on the fasts, when these Hours are differently arranged, there are very long lections. (5) Lauda, with Alleluias or "Laus tibi etc." (6) Hymn. There are a few variants for different seasons in each hour. (7) At Prime on Sundays and Feasts here follow the Te Deum, Gloiria in Excelsis, and Credo; on ferials, instead of the first two, the Benedictus es Domine Deus (Daniel 3) and the Miserere (Ps. l) are said. At the other three Hours the Clamores, short supplications for mercy and pardon (a different set for each Hour), are said here. (8) Supplicatio, as at Vespers. (9) Capitula, as at Vespers. (10) Pater noster etc., as at Vespers. (11) Benedictio, as at Vespers. The last four have only a few variants, and generally have reference to the usual events commemorated at the Hours. On the fasts and in the week after Epiphany there are special lessons varying in number, and these are generally followed by three psalms, with their antiphons and orationes and a responsorium with its oratio, as at the Matins of those seasons. Then follow Preces, the Hymn, Capitula, and the rest as on the other days.

At the end of Vespers, Compline, and Lauds certain fixed Commemorationes, appropriate to the Hour, are said, and after Compline and the Lesser Hours, Salve Regina is said throughout the year, but after Lauds, Salve Regina, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Ecce Maria genuit Salvatorem, Sub tuum præsidium, and Regina cæli according to the season. There are many other variations, for at Vespers, Matins, and Lauds nearly everything is variable according to the day and the season, and a good deal is so at the Lesser Hours. Some few things may have been altered and added since, but the Divine Office as described above, which is that in the present use, does not seem to differ materially in structure from that indicated in the tenth and eleventh century manuscripts in the British Museum, except that there were formerly also certain Night Offices—"Ordo ante Lectulum", "Ad Nocturnos", "Ad Medium Noctis" etc.—which are given in Add. 30851 and elsewhere. Possibly these were only for monastic use.

The mass

In the present Mozarabic Mass two books are used, the Missale Omnium Offerentium and the complete Missal. The Missale Omnium Offerentium contains what in the Roman Rite would be called the Ordinary and Canon. As nearly the whole Mass varies with the day, this book contains a specimen Mass (that of the Feast of St. James the Great) set out in full with all its component parts, variable or fixed, in their proper order. On all other days the variables are read from the complete Missal. The reason of the name Omnium Offerentium has not been very satisfactorily determined. It would naturally mean "of all who offer", and the phrase "et omnium offerentium … peccata indulge" occurs at the oblation of the chalice. There does not seem to be any reason why this one phrase, which is not in a very striking position, should give its name to the whole service, unless those are right who (like Perez in his "Devocionario Mozárabe") apply the name only to the Missa Catechumenorum. There are indeed quite as improbable origins as this in liturgical nomenclature. But it is possible to conjecture another origin. In the Celtic languages the word for Mass is derived from some Latin word whose origin was the verb offero. The Cornish, Welsh, and Breton have offeren; the Gaelic aifrionn or aifreann. These are generally referred to offerendum, and in support of this we find the French offrande and Spanish ofrenda, both in the sense of a religious offering, equivalent to the Welsh offrwm and Cornish offryn. But the Celtic words are more probably derived from offerentia, a word which is used by Tertullian (Adv. Marc., xxiv) in the general sense of the act of presenting an offering, but which was perhaps used for a time in Celtic countries in the special sense of the Holy Offering. Thus it may be conjectured that the Spanish expression was originally "Missale Omnium Offerentiarum", "Missal of all Masses", which is just what it is. It has been suggested that offerens may have been used in very debased Latin in the sense of an act of offering as well as of one who offers. This would explain the Mozarabic phrase still better.

The Order of the Mass is as follows:

(1) The Preparation.—This consists of prayers during vesting, which for the most part resemble those of the Roman Rite in meaning and sometimes in actual wording. These are followed by a responsory and oratio for pardon and purity, after which the priest goes to the altar and says Ave Maria, In nomine D. N. J. C., Sancti Spiritus adsit nobis gratia, Judica me, with the Antiphon Introibo, Confiteor, with the absolution and the subsequent versicles and responses. The Confiteor differs from the Roman form and there are versicles and responses before it. Then Aufer a nobis, a longer form than the Roman. Then follows the Salutation of the Cross. The priest makes the sign of the cross on the altar, kisses the altar and says a responsory "Salve crux pretiosa" and an oratio. A good deal of this preliminary matter was borrowed by Cardinal Ximenes from the Toletan (Roman) Missal, and is not Mozarabic. On great feasts the priest directly he enters sings to a rather florid piece of plain chant a prayer "Per gloriam nominis tui etc." for help.

(2) The Preparation of the Chalice and Paten.—The corporal is unfolded, the chalice and paten are ceremonially purified, the wine is poured in, and the bread is placed on the paten. To each of these acts there is a prayer or a blessing. A preparation of the chalice before Mass, instead of at the Offertory, is to be inferred from the Irish tracts (see CELTIC RITE). It is still the Byzantine practice, and is retained by the Dominicans at low mass. Yet in the Mozarabic Missa Omnium Offerentium there is a direction to put wine into the chalice during the Epistle, but it is not done.

(3) Ad Missam Officium.—This is the Introit. Officium is a common alternative name, used, among other places, in the Sarum Missasl. The old Mozarabic term (see Add. manuscript 30844) was Prælegendum or Prolegendum. Anatiphona ad Prælegendum is the name given by St. Germanus of Paris. It is in the form of a responsory, with Alleluias and Gloria.

(4) The Canticle or Canticles.—This is now Gloria in Excelsis, omitted in Advent (except on Feasts) and Lent. On Easter Day a Latin farced Trisagion, "Sanctus Deus, qui sedes super cherubim, etc.", with optionally also the Benedicite in its abridged form, and on the Sunday in Adventu S. Joannis Baptistæ the Benedictus are sung as well. In Add. manuscript 30844 the Trisagion (‘ágios ‘o theós, k.t.l.) is given in Greek (transliterated) and Latin in this place on the Annunciation (18 Dec., the Mass for which day is in that manuscript a fuller one than the others, and like the Mass for Advent Sunday in the printed Missal is given by way of an Ordinary of the Mass) and the Circumcision, and the Latin farced Trisagion now used on Easter Day is given for Christmas Day. This shows that the Ajus of St. Germanus and the Bobbio Missal was certainly the Trisagion.

(5) Oratio.—Though this takes the position of the Roman Collect, it is really a supplementary prayer to the Gloria in excelsis. It is the usual practice (though like most things Mozarabic, not invariable) for psalms, hymns, canticles, and every sort of responsory to be followed by prayers which more or less sum up the leading ideas of what they follow. This is why so many Mozarabic, Gallican, and Celtic prayers are named with reference to what they follow—post Ajus, post Prophetiam, post Nomina, post Pacem etc. This Oratio on a considerable number of days merely continues the idea of the Gloria with little or no reference to the day, even on the Sundays of Advent, when the Gloria itself is omitted. These are mostly in the Temporale, and there are nine Orationes of frequent use; but on certain days (e.g. Christmas Day, the Sunday before the Epiphany, Epiphany, Ascension, Pentecost, Corpus Christi, all the Commons, and between thirty and forty days in the Sanctorale) this Oratio refers to the day and not to the Gloria.

(6) The Prophecy.—This is a lection usually from the Old Testament, except in Paschal time, when it is from the Apocalypse. (See AMBROSIAN RITE.) During Lent and other Fasts, there are two of these lections, one from one of the books of Solomon and the other from the Pentateuch or one of the Historical Books.

(7) The Hymnus Trium Puerorum occasionally follows the Prophecy. This is the Benedictus es (Daniel 3:52-5) with an abridged form of the Benedicite, the whole preceded by Daniel 3:49-51, rather freely quoted. The fourth Council of Toledo (can. xiv) ordered this "in omnium missarum solemnitate". It occurs in the manuscripts on days when it is not given in the printed books. It used to be followed by Psalm 105, Confitemini, but now this is reduced to one verse.

(8) Psallendo (a responsory).—On the second and third Sundays and on weekdays in Lent it is a Tractus, which consists of psalm verses without repetitions, as in the Roman Rite. The Tract or Psallendo on Sundays of Lent, except Palm Sunday when the Traditio Symboli comes here, is followed by the Preces, a short penitential litany, differing each Sunday. Neale points out that these are in verse, though not written so.

(9) The Epistle, or in Paschal time a lection from the Acts of the Apostles, preceded by "silentium facite", proclaimed by the deacon.

(10) The Gospel, preceded only by a short prayer "Comforta me Rex Sanctorum" and the "Munda cor meum corpusque ac labia" (the rest as in the Roman Rite), followed by the Blessing, which is not in the Roman form. These of course are said secretly. The giving out of the Gospel and the response and the censing are similar to the Roman. After the reading the priest signs the Gospel with the cross and kisses it, saying: "Ave Verbum Divinum: reformatio virtutum; restitutio sanitatum."

(11) The Offertory.—This consists of (a) The Lauda, a verse between two Alleluias. It is what St. Germanus calls the Sonus, sung during the procession of the Oblation. There is now no procession, but while it is being sung the Oblation ceremonies go on. (b) The oblation of the bread and wine with prayers resembling but not identical with the Roman. It is at the covering of the chalice with the filiola (pall) that the prayer containing the words "omnium offerentium" (see above) is said. (c) The Blessing of the Oblation, for which two alternative prayers are given, one of which, that generally used, is the "In spiritu humilitatis" and "Veni sanctificator" of the Roman Rite. (d) The censing, with a blessing similar to the Roman blessing at the beginning of Mass, but a different prayer. (e) "Adjuvate me fratres", with response—the Mozarabic form of the "Orate fratres". (f) The Sacrificium, which is what St. Germanus calls Laudes. This with the Lauda forms the equivalent of the Roman Offertorium, here divided in the books by the ceremonies of the Oblation, though in practice there is very little division. (g) When there are offerings, the priest is directed to receive them and say to the offerer: "Centuplum accipias et vitam possideas in Regno Dei." This is the remains of the Offering by the people. (See AMBROSIAN RITE.) The words are retained, but the offering is no longer made. This is followed in the books by the Benedictio Panis (cf. the Pain Bénit still used in France, and formerly in England). The form of this is nearly identical with the first of those given in the Roman and Sarum Missals. But it is now no longer used. (h) The Lavabo, with only the first three verses of the psalm. It is followed by a final blessing "super oblationem cum tribus digitis".

(12) The Prayer of Humble Access, said with bowed head by the priest.

St. Isidore in his "Etymologies" (vi, 19) mentions a dismissal of catechumens with a deacon's Proclamation as occurring at this point.

Here begins the Missa Fidelium, which contains the Seven Prayers spoken of by St. Isidore. These seven prayers are:—

(13) Ad Missam Oratio, Oratio Missæ or simply Missa.—This is often, but not always, a Bidding Prayer. The Gallican name is Præfatio. It is followed in the Mozarabic by "Agios, Agios, Agios, Domine Rex æterne, tibi laudes et gratias" sung by the choir, preceded by Oremus (one of the only two instances of this word), and followed by a short invitation to intercessary prayer, a very much compressed form of the Prex (see CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE) sung by the priest.

(14) Alia Oratio.—This, in the Gallican books, is generally headed "Collectio sequitur". The Reichenau fragments (see GALLICAN RITE) are not always quite clear as to whether there are one or two prayers here, and whether this is to be identified with the Collectio or the Ante Nomina of those leaves, but neither of these have reference to the Nomina which follow, nor has the Mozarabic Alia Oratio, except in the unvarying ending "Per misericordiam tuam, Deus noster, in cujus conspectu sanctorum Apostolorum et Martyrum, Confessorum atque Virginum nomina recitantur." This is followed by another fixed passage reciting how "Sacerdotes nostri [here, according to Leslie, the deacon recited the names of the Archbishop of Toledo and other metropolitans of Spain] Papa Romensis [here the name of the reigning pope was inserted] et reliqui [i.e. according to Leslie's conjecture, the Bishops of Carthage, Milan, Lyons etc.]," and all priests, deacons, clerks, and surrounding peoples offer the oblation for themselves and for all the brotherhood with a response: "Offerunt pro se et pro universa fraternitate". Then follow the Diptychs or lists of names commemorated, which are in two parts, Apostles and Martyrs, a list consisting of Our Lady, St. Zachary, St. John (Baptist), the Innocents, the Apostles and St. Mark and St. Luke. To this there is a response "et omnium Martyrum". The second list is "Item pro spiritibus pausantium", with forty-seven names, beginning with Sts. Hilary, Athanasius, Martin, Ambrose, and Augustine, and going on with a list of Spanish persons, many of them archbishops of Toledo, both before and after the Conquest. To this the response, as in the Stowe Missal (see CELTIC RITE), is "et omnium pausantium".

(15) The Oratio Post Nomina continues the intercession. This, the third prayer of St. Isidore's list, is variable with the day, except for the ending, "Quia tu es vita vivorum, sanitas infirmorum et requies omnium fidelium defunctorum in æterna sæcula sæculorum."

(16) The Pax, with the prayer Ad Pacem, St. Isidore's fourth prayer. The prayer is variable, with a fixed ending, "Quia tu es vera pax nostra etc." After the prayer the priest pronounces the benediction, "Gratia Dei Patris omnipotentis, pax et dilectio D.N.J.C. et communicatio Spiritus Sancti sit semper cum omnibus nobis." In all the principal Eastern liturgies except that of St. Mark, this passage from 2 Corinthians 13, is separated from the Pax and comes immediately before the Sursum corda dialogue, its place before the Pax being taken by e’iréne pâsin or its equivalent. In St. Mark and in the Roman it does not occur, but in the latter ever since the late fourth, or early fifth century at least, the Pax has been associated with the Communion, not with the beginning of the Missa Fidelium. In the Gallican the Pax came as in the Mozarabic. The Ambrosian now follows the Roman, but probably did not always do so. (See AMBROSIAN RITE ; CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE.) In the Mozarabic Mass, the priest says "Quomodo adstatis pacem facite," and the choir sing a responsory, "Pacem meam do vobis etc.", "Novum mandatum do vobis, etc.", during which "accipiat Sacerdos pacem de patena", saying "Habete osculum dilectionis et pacis ut apti sitis sacrosanctis mysteria Dei", and gives the kiss of peace to the deacon (vel puero), who passes it on to the people.

(17) The Illatio or Inlatio.—This is called Præfatio in the Roman and Conftestatio or Immolatio in the Gallican. With the Post-Sanctus it forms St. Isidore's fifth prayer. There are proper Illationes to every Mass. The form is similar to the Roman Preface, but generally longer and more diffuse, as in the Gallican. It is preceded by a longer dialogue than the usual one: "Introibo ad altare Dei mei. R. Ad Deum qui lætificat juventutem meam. V. Aures ad Dominum. R. Habemus ad Dominum. V. Sursum Corda. R. Levemus ad Dominum. V. Deo ac D. N. J. C. qui est in cælis dignas laudes, dignasque gratias referamus. R. Dignum et justum est. V. Dignum et justum est, etc." The Illatio ends in all manner of ways, but always leading by way of the angels to the Sanctus. This is "Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt cæli et terra gloria majestatis tuæ. Osanna filio David. Benedictus etc. Agyos, Agyos, Agyos, Kyrie o Theos."

(18) The Post-Sanctus, part of St. Isidore's fifth prayer, is variable, according to the day, but almost always begins "Vere sanctus, vere benedictus D. N. J. C.", and generally ends "Ipse Dominus ac Redemptor æternus". All liturgies except the Roman and the Romanized Celtic have some form of a very similar Post-Sanctus, which leads up to the Recital of the Institution. Even the Ambrosian has one for Easter Eve. The occurrence of a part of the Intercession after the Sanctus in the Roman makes a great difference here. The last words of the Mozarabic Post-Sanctus ought to anticipate "Qui pridie etc.", as in the Gallican, but there is an interpolation—"more suo adeo imperite ut interpolatio manifesta est", as Leslie says—as follows: "Adesto, adesto, Jesu bone Pontifex in medio nostri sicut fuisti in medio discipulorum tuorum, et sancti † fica hanc oblationem † ut sanctificata sumamus per manus sancti Angeli tui [cf. the clause "Supplices te rogamus" of the Roman Canon] sanctæ Domine et Redemptor æterne." The age of the interpolation is unknown, but it is probably much older than the Ximenian Missal, though it does not occur in the Missa Omnimoda in the Silos Liber Ordinum of 1052. It may have originated as a sort of parenthetical ejaculation (influenced by the Roman Canon) said secretly by the priest with bowed head before beginning the Recital of the Institution, which, like the Post- Sanctus, was possibly then said aloud. The present printed form of the Recital is that of 1 Corinthians 11:23-26: "D. N. J. C. in qua nocte tradebatur etc." This agrees with the principal Eastern liturgies, but the Gallican had "Qui pridie quam pateretur" or some variant thereof, and the Mozarabic must once have had the same, possibly (as Leslie suggests) combining both datings with "Qui pridie quam pateretur" and "in ipsa nocte qua tradebatur etc." The form in the Silos Liber Ordinum of 1052 begins as at present, and in Toledo 35.6 it begins "Quoniam Dominus Jesu in qua nocte." It is certain that the Roman form of the Words of Institution was not used by the Spanish Church before the mission of Zannello (see above) in 924. It was then that the practice arose of saying the Roman form, instead of what was written, and that is what is done now. In the Ximenian edition the Roman Words were not printed at first, but later were printed on separate slips and gummed on to the margin. In the later editions they appear as footnotes. Elevation is ordered in the printed Missal after the Consecration of each species.

(19) The Post-Pridie.St. Isidore calls it confirmatio sacramenti, "ut oblatio quæ Deo offertur sanctificata per Sanctum Spiritum corpori Christi et sanguine confirmetur", which seems as if he took it to be an Epiklesis, needed to complete the consecration, but (in Ep. vii ad Redemptorem, sect. 2) he speaks also of "verba Dei … scilicet, Hoc est corpus meum", being the "substantia sacramenti". In the Gallican books there are several of these prayers with some sort of Invocation of the Holy Spirit, some quite unmistakable, others quite vague. The majority have no sign of any Epiklesis, and this is the case with the Mozarabic, perhaps fourteen or fifteen Masses have either a definite Epiklesis or what with some ingenuity and emendation can be made to look like one, while in the rest it is generally the Great Oblation, often with allusions to the day. It is followed by a fixed prayer resembling the clause Per quem hæc omnia in the Roman Canon, and a second elevation preceded by "Dominus sit semper vobiscum etc." and "Fidem quam corde credimus ore autem dicamus". On Sundays and most feasts sex capparum and quatuor capparum the Creed is recited; this has several verbal differences from the Roman form, among others, credimus, confitemur and expectamus, vivificantorem, adorandum et conglorificandum, Omousion Patri, hoc est ejusdem cum Patre substantiæ etc. St. Isidore (De Eccl. Off., I, xvi) mentions the recitation of the Creed "tempore sacrificii", but with him sacrificium sometimes means the offertory, sometimes the whole Mass. On certain days, chiefly in Lent and in votive Masses, there is an Antiphona ad Confractionem Panis (cf. the Confractorium of the Ambrosian Rite), said instead of the "Fidem quam corde credimus etc." During it or the Creed the Fraction takes place. The Host is first divided into two halves, then one half is divided into five and the other into four parts. Seven of these particles are arranged in the form of a cross, five, named Corporatio (Incarnation), Nativitas, Circumcisio, Apparitio (Epiphany), and Passio forming the upright part, and two, named Mors and Resurrectio, the arms. These last are arranged on either side of the Particle Nativitas with the Gloria and Regnum, placed together on one side. (For instances of complicated Fractions, see CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE.) Then the priest washes his fingers, "purget bene digitos", and the chalice being covered, says aloud "Memento pro vivis".

(20) The Ad Orationem Dominicam, St. Isidore's seventh and last prayer, varies with the day, and, like the Agyos after the Ad Missam Oratio is preceded by Oremus. It ends introducing the Pater Noster, sung by the priest, the choir responding Amen to each clause except "Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie" when the response is "Quia Deus es". The invariable Embolismus is a long intercessory prayer followed by the Commixture. The particle Regnum is held over the chalice, during Paschal time and on Corpus Christi, with the words "Vicit Leo ex tribu Juda, radix David, Alleluia. Qui sedes super cherubim, radix David, Alleluia", and then dropped into the chalice, with the words "Sancta Sanctis et conjunctio Corporis D. N. J. C. sit sumentibus et potantibus nobis ad veniam et defunctis fidelibus præstetur ad requiem."

(21) The Benediction.—The deacon proclaims "Humiliate vos ad Benedictionem", and the priest pronounces a Blessing in three, four, or five clauses, variable according to the day, with a response of Amen to each clause. In the Gallican Rite the long Benediction was reserved for bishops only, a short form (Pax et caritas D. N. J. C. et communicatio sanctorum omnium sit semper nobiscum) being said by priests. The Benedictions continued in France long after the extinction of the Gallican Rite (see GALLICAN RITE) and in England. In the Sarum Manual of 1554 directions are given for Episcopal Benedictions, with the same preliminary proclamation as in the Mozarabic.

(22) The Communion.—The choir sing a fixed responsory called Ad Accidentes, beginning "Gustate et videte", composed of Psalm 33:8-22, with Alleluias after each verse. There are variations in Lent and Eastertide (cf. CELTIC RITE; GALLICAN RITE). The same verses are mentioned by St. Cyril of Jerusalem and occur in some Eastern liturgies. Then follows the antiphon which answers to the Roman Communio which is usually "Refecti Christi Corpore et Sanguine, te laudamus, Domine. Alleluia (3)", with a variant in Lent "Repletum est gaudio os nostrum, etc." This is followed by the Post-Communion, a prayer or a Bidding Prayer variable with the day, but with a rather small selection, only a few days having separate proper Post-Communions of their own, four or five being used over and over again, one for Feasts of our Lord and another for saints' days, varied only in the name of the feast. During the singing of the Ad Accidentes and Communio the priest makes his communion, with private devotions not unlike those of the Roman Rite, but including the two "Ave in avum, etc.", passages which are found also in the Sarum and other local Missals. Just before his communion the priest holds the particle Regnum over the chalice saying aloud "Memento pro mortuis" (or "pro defunctis", for both forms are found).

(23) The Dismissal.—Of this there are two forms, that for ordinary days being "Missa acta est in nomine D. N. J. C. perficiamus cum pace. R. Deo gratias", and that for greater feasts, "Solemnia completa sunt in nomine D. N. J. C. votum nostrum sit acceptum cum pace. R. Deo gratias". Then follows "Salve Regina" with versicle and responses and the collect, "Concede nos famulos tuos etc.", which of course is not Mozarabic, and after that the Blessing "In unitate Sancti Spiritus benedicat vos Pater et Filius".

It will be seen that the fixed elements of this Mass are very few. These are: the Preparations; generally the Gloria; the Prayers etc. of the Offertory; the Nomina; the Pax, but not its prayer; the Sursum Corda; the Sanctus; the Recital of the Institution with its preliminary prayer; a prayer following the Post-Pridie; the Creed; the priest's part of the Fraction, Commixture, and Communion; the Lord's Prayer and Embolismus, but not its introduction; and the Salve Regina and Blessing. The variables, which in point of time and written space take up by far the larger proportion of the Mass, are: The Officium (Introit); the Oratio after the Gloria, the Prophecy, the Psallendo; the Epistle; the Gospel; the Lauda; the Sacrificium; Ad Missam Oratio; Alia Oratio; Post Nomina; Ad Pacem; Illatio; Post-Sanctus; Post-Pridie; Antiphona ad Confractionem Panis; Ad Orationem Dominicam; the Benediction; Ad Accidentes; Communio; Post-Communion; the Dismissal. To these may be added the additional Canticles on certain days.

The occasional services

At the present day those who belong to the Mozarabic Rite use the Roman Ritual, and, as their bishop is the Archbishop of Toledo, who is of the Roman Rite, the Roman Pontifical is also used for them. The date at which the old Spanish Ritual and Pontifical services ceased to be used is not known. The four existing manuscripts of the Liber Ordinum, which contains these services, are all of the eleventh century, and belonged either to Silos or to San Millan de la Cogolla. There are none at or from Toledo, and, when Cardinal Ximenes had the Missal and Breviary printed, there was evidently no need to print a Ritual and Pontifical, as they were probably no longer used. Of the eleventh century manuscripts of the Liber Ordinum published by Dom Férotin, one (the Silos manuscripts of 1052) contains a very complete set of occasional services. They consist of: (1) The Blessing of Oil, Salt, and Water; (2) Baptism; (3) Ordinations; (4) The Unction and Visitation of the Sick; (5) The Blessing of Virgins, Abbesses, Widows, and Conversi; (6) The Order of Penance and Reconciliation of heretics and schismatics and for the conversion of Jews; (7) The Order of Death and Burial; (8) Ritus pro Rege observandus; (9) Various Blessings; (10) Orders for Holy Week and Easter; (11) The Order of Matrimony. These are followed by a large number of Masses, chiefly votive. Of these services the following may be noted:—

(1) Baptism.—The order is:—(a) Insufflation. The priest breathes thrice, with the words "Exorcizo te immunde spiritus hostis humani generis". (b) Insignation. The sign of the Cross on the forehead, and exorcism towards the west. (c) Unction with oil on mouth and ears, with "Effeta, effeta, effeta cum sancto spiritu in odorem suavitatis. Bene omnia fecit et surdos fecit audire et mutos loqui". (d) Imposition of hands. (e) Traditio symboli. (f) Blessing of the font preceded by exorcism. (g) Interrogations and Renunciations. (h) Baptism, with "Ego te baptizo in Nomine etc., ut habeas vitam æternam." (i) Chrismation on forehead, with "Signum vitæ æternae quod dedit Deus Pater Omnipotens per Jesum Christum Filium suum credentibus in salutem." (k) Imposition of hands, with prayer. (l) "Post hæc velantur a sacerdote infantes ipsi qui baptizati sunt caput: quo peracto communicat eos" (i.e. the Vesting and Communion). On the third day the children are brought to the priest, who says over them the "Benedictiode Albis". Except in the case of converts from Arianism, no separate order of Confirmation is given. The Chrismation and Imposition of hands after Baptism, followed as it was by Communion, was evidently the only normal form of Confirmation. In the case of Arian converts the words are: "Et ego te chrismo in Nomine etc., in remissionem omnium peccatorum ut habeas vitam æternam", followed by the imposition of hands and a prayer. The ceremony of feet-washing, retained in the Celtic and Gallican Baptisms, does not appear in the Spanish Liber Ordinum, though mentioned by the Council of Elvira in 305 (see GALLICAN RITE).

(2) Ordinations.—The minor ordinations are those of clericus, sacrista, and custos librorum. These orders are preceded by "Oratio super eum qui capillos in sola fronte tondere vult"—which looks like a relic of the Celtic tonsure (see CELTIC RITE), but, as Dom Férotin conjectures, is probably of the nature of an offering "des prémisses de la chevelure" (cf. the Trichokouría, seven days after Baptism, in the Byzantine Rite)—by "Orate super parvulum quem parentes ad doctrinam offerunt" and "Benedictio super parvulum qui in ecclesia ad ministerium Dei detonditur". The "clericus" of the next section is evidently also "parvulus". The sacrista has a ring given to him with the words: "Esto ianitor adituum et præpositus ostiariorum". The custos librorum receives "anulum de scriniis", and is also appointed "senior scribarum". Then follows a curious "Ordo super eum qui barbam tangere cupit". The priest takes wax from a taper and puts a crumb of it on the right, left, and middle of the chin. Prayers are said alluding to the anointing of Aaron's beard. Then "Ista explicita intromittit in anulo barbam cum cera, et in anulo barbam et ceram capulat qui barbam tangit dicens, In Nomine etc. et accipit in linteo nitido. Peracta ista omnia absolvit diaconus dicens, Missa acta est. Et post hæc si est monachus radit barbam". The ordinations of subdeacon, deacon, archdeacon, priest, archpriest, and abbot are very simple. To the subdeacon is given by the archdeacon the "ministerium ad manus lavandos" and a chalice and paten. The bishop gives him the book of St. Paul's Epistles. The bishop puts the stole (orarium) on the left shoulder of a deacon, and delivers a "ferula" to an archdeacon and archpriest, a "manuale" (book of sacraments) to a priest, and a staff and book of the Rule to an abbot. In each case these are accompanied by prayers, and a confirmatio addressed to the newly ordained, which is more or less an explanation of his duties and status. In the case of a priest the assistant priests are directed to lay their hands on him as, vested in stole and chasuble, he kneels before the altar, and, though there is no direction for the bishop to do so, it is evident from the wording of his "Benedictio" that he lays his hands on him also. There is no order given for the consecration of a bishop. The blessings of nuns and other religious are quite simple, veiling with prayer and benediction, and for an abbess the delivery of a staff and the putting on of a mitre.

(3) The Unction of the Sick is given together with an order for the blessing of the unguent. This was done on the Feast of Sts. Cosmas and Damian, the physician-martyrs (27 Sept.), not, as elsewhere in the West, on Maundy Thursday. The bishop makes a cross (a cross pattée with a pendant and the A and O[mega] is figured in the book) with a graphium (style), saying an antiphon "Sicut unguentum in capite etc.", and a prayer and benediction, both referring to the healing of the sick. The Unction of the sick was on the head only, with the sign of the Cross and the words "In Nomine Patris etc." Antiphons referring to sickness and its healing are then said. There is provision for anointing many sick persons at the same time.

The rest of the occasional services do not call for much remark. They are for the most part very simple blessings and prayers, not unlike those found in the Roman Ritual. They include, however, a few of a type found also in the Greek Euchologion for the cleansing of any polluted person, place, or thing, e.g. "super his qui morticinum comedunt vel suffocatum", "super vas in quo (sic) aliquid immundum ceciderit", etc., and the Orders when the king goes out to battle with his army, and when he returns, have a considerable historical interest.

Sources

PINCUS, De Liturgia Antiqua Hispanica in Acta SS., July, VI, 1-122, reprinted in Bianchini's edition of Thomasius; THOMASIUS, Opera omnia, ed. BIANCHINI, I (Rome, 1741); FLOREZ, España Sagrada (Madrid, 1748); FÉROTIN, Liber Ordinum in CARROL AND LECLERCQ, Monum. Eccles. Liturg., V (Paris, 1904); FÉROTIN, Hist. de l'Abbage de Silos (Paris, 1897); IDEM, Deux Manuscrits wisigothiques de la Bibliothèque de Ferdinand I in Revue de l'Ecole de Chartes, LXII (1901); P.L.: vol LXXXIII, ST. ISIDORE; vol. LXXXV, Mozarabic Missal, ed. LESLIE; vol. LXXXVI, Mozarabic Breviary, ed LORENZANA; vol XCVI, ST. ILDEPHONSUS and ST. JULIAN OF TOLEDO; MORALEDA Y ESTABAN, El Rito Mozárabe (Toledo, 1857); HERNANDEZ DE VIERA, Rubricas generales de la Misa Gothica Mozárabe (Salamanca, 1772); PEREZ, Devocionario Mozárabe (Toledo, 1903); NEALE, The Mozarabic Liturgy in his Essays on Liturgiology (London, 1863); W. C. B ISHOP, The Mozarabic Rite in Church Quarterly (Oct., 1906; Jan., 1907); SIMONET, Historia de los Mozárabes in Memorias de la Real Academia de la Historia, XIII (Madrid, 1903); BULDU, Historia de la Iglesia de España (Barcelona, 1856-7); PARRO, Toledo en la mano (Toledo 1857); GAMERO, Historia de la ciudad de Toledo (Toledo, 1862); PISA, Descripcion de la imperial ciudad de Toledo (Toledo, 1605); BURRIEL, Correspondencia, etc. in vol. XIII (1848) of FERNANDEZ DE NAVARRETTE, ETC. Collección de documentas inéditos para la historia de España (Madrid, 1842—); IDEM, Paleografía española (Madrid, 1758); EGUREN, Memoria descriptiva de los códices notables conservados en los archivos ecclesiásticas de España (Madrid, 1859); RIAÑEZ, Critical and bibliographical notes on early Spanish music (London, 1887); EWALD AND LOEWE, Exempla scriptura Visigotica (Heidelberg, 1883); BEER, Handschriftenschätze Spaniens in Sitzungsberichte, Philosophisch-Historische Classe der kaisrl. Akad. der Wissenschaften Wiens, CXXI-CXXIV; AUDRY, Iter Hispanicum (Paris, 1902; tr London, 1904); PROBST, Die abendland. Messe von fünften bis zum achten Jahrh. (Münster, 1896); MABILLON, De Liturg. Gallicana (Paris, 1685); MURATORI, Liturgie Romnana Vetus (Venice, 1748); NEALE AND FORBES, Ancient Liturgy of the Gallican Church (Burntisland, 1855-67); LUCAS, Early Gallican Liturgies in Dublin Review (July, 1893 Jan., 1894); MOYES, Mozarabic Rite and Anglican Orders in The Tablet (15, 22, 29 Jan., 1910), 86-8, 123-4, 163-5; HAMMUND, Ancient Liturgies (Oxford, 1878); BÄUMER, Gesch. des Breviers (Freiburg, 1895; French tr., Paris, 1905); E. BISHOP, Kyrie Eleison in Downside Review, XIX (1900); LABBÉ Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio (Florence, 1759—); ANTONIO, Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus (Madrid, 1788); IDEM, Bibliotheca Hispana Nova (Madrid, 1783-88). Cf. also the various editions of the service-books mentioned in the section of this article on manuscripts and editions.

About this page

APA citation. Jenner, H. (1911). Mozarabic Rite. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10611a.htm

MLA citation. Jenner, Henry. "Mozarabic Rite." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10611a.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by WGKofron. With thanks to Fr. John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio.

Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. October 1, 1911. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.

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