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Crusades (Sources and Bibliography)

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Present knowledge of the Crusades (sources)

A history of the Crusades was begun in France in the seventeenth century by the Benedictines of the Congregation of St-Maur. (Bongars had previously published the first collection of texts bearing upon the Latin Orient, under the title of "Gesta Dei per Frances", Hanover, 1611, fol.) The publication of original Oriental texts prepared by Berthereau in the eighteenth century was prevented by the French Revolution, but in the nineteenth century the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres adopted the Benedictine plan and, in 1841, began to issue a "Collection de l'histoire des Croisades" — Western historians, 5 vols.; Eastern or Arabian historians, 4 vols.; Greek, 2 vols.; Armenian documents, 2 vols.; laws 2 vols.

The historic revival that followed the Restoration of 1815, produced works of a romantic character like those of Michaud (Histoire des Croisades, 1st ed., 3 vols., Paris, 1812-17; and 7 vols. 8vo, 1824-29); Wilken (Gesch. der Kreuzzüge, Leipzig, 7 vols., 8vo, 1807-32); and Mills (History of the Crusades, 2 vols., London, 1820). Between 1839 and 1842 King Louis Philippe established in the Versailles Museum the Halls of the Crusades, decorated with the armorial bearings of families whose ancestors had taken part in the Holy Wars. At this time was brought to light the unduly famous Courtois collection, consisting of receipts for advance-money loaned to French knights by Italian bankers and which, upon being compared with authentic texts, was found to contain a large number of forgeries. (See L. Delisle, "Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes", 1888, 304; Cartellieri, "Philipp II August", Leipzig, 1906, II, 302 sqq.) It is only within the last thirty years that the history of the Crusades has been studied in a truly scientific manner, thanks to the Société de l'Orient Latin founded by Count Riant in 1875 (principal seats at Paris and Geneva). Its publications were at first divided into geographical and historical series, the former containing the itineraries of pilgrims and the latter, chronicles, letters, and charters. The "Archives de l'Orient Latin" were published in 1881 (2 vols., Paris), but since 1893 the publications have been included in the "Revue de l'Orient Latin", a periodical bibliography of the history of the Crusades. Moreover, in all European countries national collections of documents ("Monumenta Germaniæ"; "Société de l'histoirede France"; "Rerum britannicarum medii ævi scriptores": "Fontes rerum austriacarum", etc.) have done much toward providing us with sources of the history of the Crusades. Owing to these labours the student of the Crusades may now consult:

Documents in archives

Röhricht's "Regesta regni hierosolymitani, 1097-1291" (Innsbruck, 1893), and Delaville-Leroulx's "Cartulaire général des Hospitaliers de S. Jean de Jérusalem", 4 vols., fol. (Paris, 1894). The correspondence of the popes, preserved in the Vatican archives, is one of the most important sources for the history of the Crusades. After these archives were made accessible to scholars by order of Leo XIII in 1881, the Ecole Française of Rome inaugurated the publication of the registers of the popes of the thirteenth century (Library of the Ecole Française of Rome) — Gregory IX (Auvray, ed.); Innocent IV (E. Berger, ed.); Alexander IV (de la Roncière, ed.); Urban IV (Guiraud, ed.); Clement IV (Jordan, ed.); Gregory X and John XXI (Guiraud and Cardier, ed.); Nicholas III (Gay, ed.); Martin IV (Soehnée, ed.); Honorius IV (Prou, ed.); Nicholas IV (Langlois, ed.); Boniface VIII (Faucon, ed.); Benedict XI (Grandjean, ed.). To these must be added the registers of Honorius III (Pressuti, ed.; Rome, 1888) and Clement V (Benedictines, ed.; Rome, 1885-88). For the other popes see Migne's "Patrologia Latina" and the "Annales Ecclesiastici" of Baronius and Raynaldi (Mansi, ed., Lucca, 1738-59). The archives of the Italian states of Venice, Genoa, and Naples have also been of great value for throwing new light on the history of the Crusades, e.g. Tafel and Thomas, "Urkunden zur älteren Handels- und Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig" (Fontes rerum austriacarum, XII-XIV, Venice, 1856-57); Thomas, "Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum" (Venice, 1880).

Judicial documents

Such are the "Assises de Jérusalem" (Beugnot, ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1841) and the "Règle du Temple" (Curzon, ed., Paris, 1886).


These have not yet been gathered into a single collection. The reader should consult chiefly the "Collection de l'histoire des Croisades", published by the Académie des Inscriptions, and the Série Historique" of the Société de l'Orient Latin. The most detailed account of the Christian states is that in the chronicle of William, Archbishop of Tyre (d. 1190). It comprises twenty-three books (1095-1184) and, from 1143, has the value of an original source (Historiens Occidentaux, I). This work was translated into French under the title of "Livre d'Eracles", the translation being continued until 1229 by Ernoul and until 1231 by Bernard, Treasurer of Saint-Pierre de Corbie.

Accounts of pilgrimages and itineraries, especially in the Latin Orient

The following are important: a geographical series from the fourth to the thirteenth century, issued by the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society (London, 1884-); "Recueil de voyages et mémoires", published bythe Société de Géographie (Paris, 1824-66); "Recueil de voyages et de documents pour servir à la géographie" (Paris, 1890-).

Oriental research

The history of the Crusades has profited by the progress made in the study of the Byzantine, Arabian, Armenian, and Mongolian Orient (Collection de l'histoire des Croisades: Greek historians, 2 vols., 1875; Arabian historians, 4 vols., since 1872; and Armenian documents, 2 vols., since 1869).


Finally, archæological exploration has added new elements to our knowledge of the Latin Orient. The castles of the crusaders in Palestine and the churches in French style throughout Cyprus and Syria have been discussed by Rey in his "Etudes sur les monuments de l'architecture militaire des croisés" (Paris, 1871) and by Enlart in "L'art gothique et la Renaissance en Chypre" (Paris, 1899); for coins and seals see Schlumberger's "Numismatique de l'Orient Latin" (Paris, 1878). The history of the Crusades becomes henceforth a special field of study. However, many sources of information still remain unpublished, and those that have been published are scattered through numerous collections as yet but little known.


KUGLER, Gesch. der Kreuzzüge in Collect. Oncken (1880); RÖHRICHT, Gesch. der Kreuzzüge im Umriss (Innsbruck, 1898); BREHIER, L'Église et l'Orient au moyen-âge. Les croisades (Paris. 1907); PRUTZ, Kulturgesch. der Kreuzzüge (Berlin, 1883); REY, Essai sur la domination française en Syrie pendant le moyen-âge (Paris, 1866); CONDER, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (London, 1897); RÖHRICHT, Gesch. der Königreichs Jerusalem (Innsbruck 1898); MAS-LATRIE, Hist. de l'île de Chypre (Paris, 1852-61); DELAVILLE-LE-ROUX, Les Hospitaliers en Terre Sainte et à Chypre (Paris, 1904); PRUTZ, Entwickelung und Untergang des Tempelherrenordens (Berlin, 1888); RIANT, Expéditions et pélérinages des Scandinaves en Terre Sainte (Paris, 1865); STEVENSON, The Crusades in the East (Cambridge, 1907).

I. POUQUEVILLE, Mémoire sur les établissements français au Levant depuis l'an 500 jusqu'a la fin du XVIIe siècle in Mémoires Acad. des Inscript., 2d series, X; RIANT, La donation de Hugues marquis de Toscane, au Saint Sépulcre et les établissments latins de Jérusalem au Xe siècle, ibid. (1884); IDEM, Inventaire des lettres historiques des croisades in Archives de l'Orient Latin, I.

II. HAGENMEYER, Chronologie de la première croisade (Paris, 1902); SYBEL, Gesch. des ersten Kreuzzüges (Innsbruck, 1901); CHALANDON, Essai sur le règne d'Alexis Comnène (Paris, 1900); HAGENMEYER, Peter der Eremit (Leipzig, 1879); IDEM, Epistuloe et chartoe ad historiam primi belli spectantes (Innsbruck, 1901).

III. NEUMANN, Bernard von Clairvaux und die Anfänge des zweiten Kreuzzüges (Heidelberg, 1882); SCHLUMBERGER, Renaud de Châtillon, prince d'Antioche (Paris. 1898); IDEM, Campagnes du roi Amaury I de Jérusalem en Egypte (Paris, 1906).

IV. FISCHER, Gesch. des Kreuzzüges Kaisers Friedrichs (Leipzig, 1870); ZIMMERT, Der deutsch-byzantinische Konflikt vom Juli 1189 bis Februar 1190 in Byzantinische Zeitschrift (1903); IDEM, Der Friede zu Adrianapol, ibid. (1902); STANLEY LANE POLE, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (New York, 1898); STUBBS, The Medioeval Kingdoms of Cyprus and Armenia (Oxford, 1887); CARTELLIERI, Philippe II August, II, Der Kreuzzug (Leipzig, 1906); LAVISSE, De Hermano Salzensi ordinis Teutonici magistro (Paris, 1878); ARCHER, The Crusade of Richard I (New York, 1888).

V. HURTER, Hist. du pape Innocent III (Paris, 1867); LUCHAIRE, Innocent III. La question d'Orient (Paris, 1907); WINKELMANN, Philippe von Schwaben (Leipzig, 1873); HANOTAUX, Les Vénitiens ont-ils trahi la chrétienté en 1202 in Revue Hist. (1877); RIANT, Le changement de direction de la quatrième croisade in Revue des questions historiques (1878); LIGEN, Markgraf Conrad von Montferrat (Marburg, 1881); TESSIER, La quatrième croisade (Paris, 1884); NORDEN, Der vierte Kreuzzug in Rahmen der Beziehungen des Abendlandes zu Byzanz (Berlin, 1898); NORDEN, Das Papsitum und Byzanz (Berlin, 1903); PEARS, The Fall of Constantinople (London, 1885); GERLAND, Gesch. der Kaiser Balduin I und Heinrich, 1204-1216 (Homburg, 1905); BUCHON, Recherches hist. sur la principauté française de Morée (Paris, 1845); RODD, The Princes of Achaia and the Chronicles of Morea (London, 1907); RIANT, Exuvioe sacroe Constantinopolitanoe (Geneva, 1877); RÖHRICHT, Der Kinder Kreuzzug in Historische Zeitschrift (1876).

VI. RÖHRICHT, Studien zur Gesch. des fünften Kreuzzüges (Innsbruck, 1891); IDEM, Die Kreuzfahrt Friedrich II (Berlin, 1874); BLOCHET, Les relations diplomatiques des Hohenstaufen avec les Sultans d'Egypte in Revue Hist., XXXI; CAHUN, Introduction a l'hist. de l'Asie; Turcs et Mongols (Paris, 1896); GOLUBOVICH, Biblioteca bio-bibliografica della Terra Santa e dell' Oriente Francescano (Quaracchi, 1906); TILLEMONT, Vie de Saint Louis roi de France, ed. SOCIÉTÉ DE L'HISTOIRE DE FRANCE (1847-51); BERGER, S. Louis et Innocent IV (Paris, 1893); DELABORDE, Jean de Joinville (Paris, 1895).

VII. LECOY DE LA MARCHE, La prédication de la croisade au XIIIe siècle in Rev. des quest. hist. (1890); STERNFELD, Ludwigs des Heiligen Kreuzzug nach Tunis (Berlin, 1896); RÖHRICHT, Etude sur les deniers temps du royaume de Jérusalem in Archives de l'Orient Latin, I, 619; II, 365; IDEM, Die Eroberung Akkas in Forschung zur deutsche Gesch., XX.

VIII. DELAVILLE-LE-ROUX, La France en Orient au XIVe siècle (Paris, 1885); BRIDREY, La condition juridique des croisés et le privilège de la croix (Paris, 1900); MAGNOCAVALLO, Marino Sanudo (Bergamo, 1901); HAURÉAU, Raimond Lulle in Hist. Litt. de la France, XXIX; ANDRÉ, Le bienheureux Raimond Lulle (Paris, 1900); KOHLER, Etude sur Guillaume d'Adam archevêque de Sultanyeh in Documents Arméniens, II; GAY, Le pape Clément VI et les affaires d'Orient (1342-1352) (Paris, 1904); JORGA, Philippe de Mézièves et la croisade au XIVe siècle (Paris, 1896); IDEM, Latins et Grecs d'Orient in Byzantin. Zeit., XV; PARRAUD, Vie de S. Pierre Thomas (Angers, 1895); JARRY, Le retour de la croisade de Barbarie (Biblioth. Ecole des Chartes, 1893).

IX. DE SACY, Mémoire sur une correspondance inédite de Tamerlan avec Charles VI in Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions, VI-VII; BERGER DE XIVREY, La vie et les ouvrages de l'empereur Manuel Paléologue, ibid., XIX; VAST, Le cardinal Bessarion (Paris, 1878); PEARS, The Destruction of the Greek Empire (London, 1903); VLASTO, Les derniers jours de Constantinople (Paris, 1883); SCHEFER, Le discours du voyage d'Outremer in Rev. de l'Orient Latin, III; JORGA, Notices et extraits pour servir a l'hist. des croisades au XVe siècle (Paris, 1902).

About this page

APA citation. Crusades (Sources and Bibliography). (1908). In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

MLA citation. "Crusades (Sources and Bibliography)." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. <>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Douglas J. Potter. Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ.

Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.

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