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Home > Summa Theologiae > First Part of the Second Part

First Part of the Second Part (Prima Secundæ Partis)

Since, as Damascene states (De Fide Orthod. ii. 12), man is said to be made to God's image, in so far as the image implies an intelligent being endowed with free-will and self-movement: now that we have treated of the exemplar, i.e., God, and of those things which came forth from the power of God in accordance with His will; it remains for us to treat of His image, i.e., man, inasmuch as he too is the principle of his actions, as having free-will and control of his actions.

Man's Last End

GENERAL: Man's last end (1). Those things in which man's happiness (2) consists. What (3) is happiness, what is required (4) for it, and its attainment (5).

Human Acts

GENERAL: The voluntary and the involuntary (6) acts, and their circumstances (7).
WILL: Its object (8), mover (9) and manner of movement (10). Its other acts with regard to the ends: enjoyment (11) and intention (12). Its acts with regard to the means: choice (13), counsel (14), consent (15) and use (16). The acts commanded (17) by the will.
GOOD AND EVIL: The goodness and malice of human acts in general (18), of the interior act of the will (19), and in external human actions (20). The consequences (21) of human actions by reason of their goodness and malice.


GENERAL: The subject (22) of the soul's passions. Their differences (23), goodness and malice (24) and relations (25).
CONCUPISCIBLE: Love (26), its cause (27) and effects (28). Hatred (29). Concupiscence (30). Delight (31) and its cause (32), effects (33), and goodness or malice (34). Pain or sorrow (35) and its causes (36), effects (37), remedies (38), and goodness or malice (39).
IRASCIBLE: Hope and despair (40). Fear (41) and its object (42), cause (43) and effects (44). Daring (45). Anger (46) and its cause (47) and effects (48).


GENERAL: Habits in general (49), and their subject (50), cause (51), increase (52), decrease (53), and distinction (54).
VIRTUES: The essence (55) and subject (56) of virtues. The intellectual (57) virtues and their difference (58) with the moral virtues. The moral virtues in relation to the passions (59) and to one another (60). The cardinal (61) and theological (62) virtues. The cause (63) and mean (64) of virtue. The connection (65) of and equality (66) among the virtues. Their duration (67) after this life.
RELATED TO VIRTUES: The gifts (68), beatitudes (69) and fruits of the Holy Ghost (70).

Vice and Sin

GENERAL: Vice and sin in themselves (71). Their distinction (72), comparison (73) and subject (74).
CAUSE: Their general cause (75). Their internal causes such as ignorance (76), passion (77) and malice (78). Their external causes (79) such as the devil (80) and man himself (81). Original sin: its essence (82) and subject (83). Sin caused by other sins (84).
EFFECTS: The effects of sin: The corruption of nature (85), the stain of sin (86), and the debt of punishment (87) due to venial and mortal sin (88) in general, and venial sin (89) in particular.


GENERAL: The essence (90), various kinds (91), and effects (92) of law.
ETERNAL LAW: The eternal law (93).
NATURAL LAW: The natural law (94).
HUMAN LAW: Human law (95) and its power (96) and mutability (97).
OLD LAW: The old law (98) and its precepts (99): moral (100), ceremonial (101) and judicial (104). The causes (102) and duration (103) of the ceremonial precepts. The reason (105) for the judicial precepts.
NEW LAW: The law of the Gospel (106) or new law and its comparison with the old (107). What (108) the new law contains.


GENERAL: The necessity (109) and essence (110) of grace. The division (111) of grace. Its cause (112) and effects (113). Merit (114).

The Summa Theologiæ of St. Thomas Aquinas
Second and Revised Edition, 1920
Literally translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Online Edition Copyright © 2017 by Kevin Knight
Nihil Obstat. F. Innocentius Apap, O.P., S.T.M., Censor. Theol.
Imprimatur. Edus. Canonicus Surmont, Vicarius Generalis. Westmonasterii.
Nihil Obstat. F. Raphael Moss, O.P., S.T.L. and F. Leo Moore, O.P., S.T.L.
Imprimatur. F. Beda Jarrett, O.P., S.T.L., A.M., Prior Provincialis Angliæ


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