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Sa, Manoel de - Portuguese theologian and exegete, b. at Villa do Conde (Province Entre-Minho-e-Douro), 1530; d. at Arona (Italy), 30 Dec., 1596
Saavedra, Fajardo Diego de - Statesman and author, b. at Algezares, Murcia, Spain, in 1584; d. at Madrid in 1648
Saavedra Remírez de Baquedano, Angel de - Spanish poet and statesman, b. at Cordova, 10 March, 1791; d. at Madrid, 22 June, 1865
Saba and Sabeans - This Saba (Sheba) must not be confounded with Saba (Seba) in Ethiopia of Isaiah 43:3 and 45:14. It lies in the Southern Arabian Jof about 200 miles northwest of Aden
Sabaoth - In Hebrew, plural form of 'host' or 'army'. The word is used almost exclusively in conjunction with the Divine name as a title of majesty: 'the Lord of Hosts', or 'the Lord God of Hosts'
Sabbas, Saint - St. Sabbas, or Sabas. Basilian monk, hermit, founded the monastery at Mar Saba near Jerusalem. Died 532. Article also mentions five other saints of this name
Sabbatarians, Sabbatarianism - Defines Sabbatarianism as a rigorist conflation of the Christian Sunday with the Jewish Sabbath, devotes attention to Seventh-Day Sabbatarianism as well
Sabbath - The seventh day of the week among the Hebrews, the day being counted from sunset to sunset, that is, from Friday evening to Saturday evening
Sabbatical Year - The seventh year, devoted to cessation of agriculture, and holding in the period of seven years a place analogous to that of the Sabbath in the week; also called 'Year of Remission'
Sabbatine Privilege - The name Sabbatine Privilege is derived from the apocryphal Bull 'Sacratissimo uti culmine' of John XXII, 3 March, 1322
Sabina, Saint - Martyr in 126 or 127, at Rome
Sabinianus, Pope - Reigned 604-606. The son of Bonus, he was born at Blera (Bieda) near Viterbo. In 593 he was sent by St. Gregory I as apocrisiarius or Apostolic nuncio to Constantinople; but in some respects his administration of the office did not come up to Gregory's expectations
Sabran, Louis de - Jesuit (1652-1732)
Sabrata - A titular see in Tripolitana. Sabrata was a Phoenician town on the northern coast of Africa, between the two Syrta. With Oca and Leptis Magna it caused the Greek name Tripolis to be given to the region
Sacchoni, Rainerio - A learned and zealous Dominican, born at Piacenza about the beginning of the thirteenth century; died about 1263
Sacra Jam Splendent - The opening words of the hymn for Matins of the Feast of the Holy Family
Sacramentals - In instituting the sacraments Christ did not determine the matter and form down to the slightest detail, leaving this task to the Church, which should determine what rites were suitable in the administration of the sacraments. These rites are indicated by the word Sacramentalia, the object of which is to manifest the respect due to the sacrament and to secure the sanctification of the faithful
Sacraments - Presents the necessity, the nature, the origin and cause, the number, the effects, the minister, and the recipient of the Sacraments
Sacrament, Reservation of the Blessed - The practice of preserving after the celebration of the Liturgy a portion of the consecrated elements for the Communion of the sick or for other pious purposes. The extreme antiquity of such reservation cannot be disputed
Sacred Heart, Brothers of the - A congregation founded in 1821 by Pere Andre Coindre, of the Diocese of Lyons, France. Its constitutions were modeled upon the constitutions of St. Ignatius based upon the Rule of Saint Augustine. Its members bind themselves for life by the simple vows of religion
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the - Description, spiritual significance, and historical background of devotion to the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionary Sisters of the - A religious congregation having its general mother house at Rome, founded in 1880 by Mother Francis Xavier Cabrini
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionaries of the - A religious congregation of priests and lay brothers with the object of promoting the knowledge and practice of devotion to the Heart of Jesus as embodied in the revelations to Margaret Mary Alacoque
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the - Founded in Belgium
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the - An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education
Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, Congregation of the - Better known as the Congregation of Picpus, was founded by Father Coudrin, b. at Coursay-les-Bois, in Poiton on 1 March, 1768
Sacrifice - This term is identical with the English offering (Latin offerre) and the German Opfer
Sacrifice of the Mass - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy'
Sacrilege - The violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. In a less proper sense any transgression against the virtue of religion would be a sacrilege
Sacris Solemniis - The opening words of the hymn for Matins of Corpus Christi and of the Votive Office of the Most Blessed Sacrament, composed by St. Thomas Aquinas
Sacristan - An officer who is charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents. In ancient times many duties of the sacristan were performed by the doorkeepers (ostiarii), later by the mansionarii and the treasurers
Sacristy - A room in the church or attached thereto, where the vestments, church furnishings and the like, sacred vessels, and other treasures are kept, and where the clergy meet and vest for the various ecclesiastical functions
Sadducees - A politico-religious sect of the Jews during the late post-Exile and New-Testament period. The old derivation of the name from tsaddiqim, i.e. the righteous; with assumed reference to the adherence of the Sadducees to the letter of the Law as opposed to the pharasaic attention to the superadded 'traditions of the elders', is now generally discredited
Sadler, Thomas Vincent Faustus - Missionary born 1604; died at Dieulward, Flanders, 19 Jan., 1680-1
Sadlier, Mary Anne Madden - Authoress, b. at Cootehill, Co. Cavan, Ireland, 30 Dee., 1820; d. at Montreal, Canada, 5 April, 1903
Sadoleto, Jacopo - Cardinal, humanist, and reformer (1477-1547)
Sagalassus - A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch
Sagard, Théodat-Gabriel - Seventeenth-century French Recollect lay brother, missionary, and historian
Sahagún, Bernardino de - Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagun, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590
Sahaptin Indians - A prominent tribe formerly holding a considerable territory in Western Idaho and adjacent portions of Oregon and Washington
Sahara, Vicariate Apostolic of - Vast desert of northern Africa, measuring about 932 miles from north to south and 2484 miles from east to west, and dotted with oases which are centres of population
Sailer, Johann Michael - Professor of theology and Bishop of Ratisbon, b. at Aresing in Upper Bavaria 17 October, 1751; d. 20 May, 1832, at Ratisbon
Sainctes, Claude de - French controversialist, b. at Perche, 1525; d. at Crevecoeur, 1591
Saint Albans, Abbey of - Located in Hertfordshire, England; founded about 793 by Offa, king of the Mercians
Saint Albert - Diocese in Canada
Saint Andrews and Edinburgh - The exact date of the foundation of the See of St. Andrews is, like any others in the earliest history of the Scottish Church, difficult, if not impossible, to fix
Saint Andrews, University of - The germ of the university is to be found in an association of learned ecclesiastics, formed in 1410, among whom were: Laurence of Lindores, Abbot of Scone, Richard Cornwall, Archdeacon of Lothian, Wm. Stephen, afterwards Archbishop of Dunblane. They offered courses of lectures in divinity, logic, philosophy, canon and civil law
Saint Andrews, Priory of - One of the great religious houses in Scotland and the metropolitan church in that country before the Reformation
Saint Asaph, Ancient Diocese of - Founded by St. Kentigern about the middle of the sixth century when he was exiled from his see in Scotland
Saint Augustine, Abbey of - Benedictine monastery, originally dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul, founded in 605 outside of the City of Canterbury, on the site of the earlier Church of St. Pancras
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes
Saint Benedict, Medal of - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict
Saint Bonaventure, College of Saint - At Quaracchi, near Florence, Italy, famous as the centre of literary activity in the Order of Friars Minor, was founded 14 July, 1879, by Mgr. Bernardino del Vago, Archbishop of Sardis, then minister general of the order
Saint Boniface - Archdiocese; the chief ecclesiastical division of the Canadian West, so-called after the patron saint of the German soldiers who were among its first settlers
Saint-Brieuc - Diocese; comprises the Department of the Cotes du Nord. Re-established by the Concordat of 1802 as suffragan of Tours, later, in 1850, suffragan of Rennes
Saint-Claude - The Diocese of Saint-Claude comprised in the eighteenth century only twenty-six parishes, subject previously to the Abbey of Saint-Claude, and some parishes detached from the Dioceses of Besancon and Lyons
Saint Cloud - A suffragan of the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minn., comprises the counties of Stearns, Sherburne, Benton, Morrison, Mille Lacs, Kanabec, Grant, Pope, Stevens, Isanti, Traverse, Douglas, Wilkin, Otter-Tail, Todd, Wadena, in the State of Minnesota, an area of 12,251 square miles. The bishop resides in St. Cloud, Stearns county
Saint-Cosme, Jean-François Buisson de - Born in Quebec, Canada, February, 1667; killed, 1707. Entering the Seminaire des Missions Etrangeres of Quebec, he was ordained in 1690 and after serving for a time at Minas, Nova Scotia (then Acadia), was assigned to the western mission
Saint-Denis, Abbey of - Situated in a small town to which it has given its name, about four miles north of Paris
Saint-Denis - Diocese erected in 1850 as suffragan of Bordeaux, includes the Island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean about 350 miles cast of Madagascar
Saint-Dié - Diocese comprising the Department of the Vosges
Saint Gall - A Swiss bishopric directly subject to the Holy See. It includes the Canton of St. Gall and, as a temporary arrangement, the two half-cantons of Appenzell Outer Rhodes and Appenzell Inner Rhodes
Saint George, Orders of - Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as mutually independent bodies having nothing in common but the veneration of St. George, the patron of knighthood
Saint George's - Diocese in Newfoundland. Beginning at Garnish it takes in the western portion of the south coast and then stretches along the Gulf of St. Lawrence, northwards, almost as far as the Straits of Belle Isle, lying between 55°20' and 59°30' west longitude and between 47°30' and 51°20' north latitude
Saint Hyacinthe - Diocese in the Province of Quebec, suffragan of Montreal
Saint Isidore, College of - In Rome, originally founded for the use of Spanish Franciscans during the pontificate of Gregory XV
Saint James of Compostela, Order of - Founded in the twelfth century, owes its name to the national patron of Spain, St. James the Greater
Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne - Diocese of Mauramanensis. Includes the arrondissement of Saint Jean-de-Maurienne in the Department of Haute Savoie
Saint-John, Ambrose - Oratorian; b. 1815; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 24 May, 1875; son of Henry St. John, descended from the Barons St. John of Bletsoe
Saint John - Diocese in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada
Saint John's University - The legal title of a Catholic boarding-school at Collegeville, Minnesota, conducted by the Benedictine Fathers of St. John's Abbey
Saint Joseph, Diocese of - The City of St. Joseph, Missouri, was founded by Joseph Robidoux, a Catholic. At the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1866, St. Joseph was among the new episcopal sees proposed
Saint Joseph's College, University of - Founded in 1864 by Rev. Camille Lefebvre in Memramcook, New Brunswick, Canada
Saint Louis (Missouri) - Created a diocese 2 July, 1826; raised to the rank of an archdiocese 20 July, 1847
Saint Louis, University of - Probably the oldest university west of the Mississippi River, was founded in the City of St. Louis in 1818 by the Right Reverend Louis William Du Bourg, Bishop of Louisiana
Saint Lucius, Monastery of - Located in Chur, Switzerland. The Church of St. Lucius was built over the grave of this saint, whose relics were preserved in it until the sixteenth century
Saint Mark, University of - The highest institution of learning in Peru, located at Lima, under the official name of Universidad Mayor de San Marcos. Reputed to be the oldest university in the New World, created by a royal decree of 12 May, 1551
Saint Omer, College of - Well-known Jesuit college at St. Omer, often spoken of under the anglicized form of St. Omers or St. Omer's, founded by Father Parsons in 1592 or 1593
Saint-Ouen, Abbey of - Located in Rouen, France, this abbey was a Benedictine monastery of great antiquity dating back to the early Merovingian period
Saint Paul (Minnesota) - Archdiocese comprising the counties of Ramsey, Hennepin, Chisago, Anoka, Dakota, Scott, Wright, Rice, Lesueur, Carver, Nicollet, Sibley, Meeker, Redwood, Renville, Kandiyohi, Lyon, Lincoln, Yellow Medicine, Lac-Qui-Parle, Chippewa, Swift, Goodhue, Big Stone, and Brown, which stretch across the State of Minnesota from east to west, in about the center of its southern half
Saint Paul-without-the Walls - An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the great Apostle in the Via Ostia was marked by a cella memoriae, near which the Catacomb of Comodilla was established
Saint Peter, Basilica of - The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the first century the gardens of Agrippina lay
Saint Peter, Tomb of - The history of the confusion and conflicting authorities surrounding the location of the tomb of Saint Peter
Saint Petersburg - The imperial residence and second capital of Russia, lies at the mouth of the Neva on the Gulf of Finland
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon - Prefecture apostolic comprising the only French possession in North America, a group of islands
Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de - Born 16 January, 1675; died in Paris, 2 March, 1755
Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism - Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, was born in Paris, 17 Oct., 1760; died there, 19 May, 1825. He belonged to the family of the author of the 'Memoirs'
Saint-Sulpice, Society of - Founded at Paris by M. Olier (1642) for the purpose of providing directors for the seminaries established by him
Saint Sylvester, Order of - The Order is neither monastic nor military but a purely honorary title created by Gregory XVI, 31 Oct., 1841
Saint Thomas, Diocese of - Diocese comprising the Islands of Sao Thome and Principe, in the Gulf of Guinea
Saint Thomas, University of - University in Manila, founded in 1619 by the Dominican Miguel de Benavides, Archbishop of Manila
Saint Thomas of Guiana - Diocese; suffragan of Caracas, erected by Pius VI on 19 Dec., 1791, comprises the former state of Bermudez, districts of Nueva Esparta and Guayana, and territories of Amazonas, Caura, Colon, Orinoco, and Yuruary, in the south and east of Venezuela
Saint Thomas of Mylapur - Diocese. Suffragan to the primatial See of Goa in the East Indies
Saint-Vallier, Jean-Baptiste de - Second Bishop of Quebec, b. at Grenoble, France, 14 Nov. 1653; d. at Quebec, Canada, 26 Dec., 1727; son of Jean de La Croix de Chevrieres, and Marie de Sayne
Saint-Victor, Abbey of - In 1108 William of Champeaux retired to a small hermitage dedicated to St. Victor, the martyr soldier. He was followed by many disciples and induced again to take up his lectures. Hence the origin of the Royal Abbey and School of St. Victor
Saint-Victor, Achard de - Canon regular, Abbot of St-Victor, Paris, and Bishop of Avranches, b. about 1100; d. 1172
Saint Vincent de Paul, Society of - International association of Catholic laymen engaging in personal service of the poor
Sainte Anne d'Auray - A little village three miles from the town of Auray, in the Diocese of Vannes, famous for its sanctuary and for its pilgrimages, or pardons, in honour of St. Anne
Sainte Anne de Beaupré - Devotion to Saint Anne, in Canada
Sainte-Claire Deville, Charles - Geologist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 26 February, 1814; d. in Paris 10 October, 1876
Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-Etienne - Chemist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 11 March, 1818; d. at Boulogne, 1 July, 1881
Sainte-Geneviève, Abbey of - In Paris, founded by King Clovis who established there a college of clerics, later called canons regular
Saint-Flour - Diocese comprising the Department of Cantal, and is suffragan of the Archbishopric of Bourges
Saint Francis Mission - A noted Catholic Indian mission village under Jesuit control near Pierreville, Yamaska district, Province of Quebec, Canada
Saint Francis Xavier's College, University of - University in Nova Scotia founded in 1885 under the name of St. Francis Xavier's College
Saints, Canonization of - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis
Saints, Communion of - The doctrine expressed in the second clause of the ninth article in the received text of the Apostles' Creed: 'I believe... the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints'
Saints, Legends of the - The legenda are stories about the saints, and often include a mix of historical fact and unhistorical embellishments
Saints Vincent and Anastasius, Abbey of - Located near Rome
Sala, George Augustus Henry - Journalist, b. in London, 24 Nov., 1828; d. at Brighton, 8 Dec., 1895, having been received into the Church before death
Salamanca - Article on the Spanish diocese
Salamanca, University of - Spanish university. Had its beginning in the Cathedral School under the direction, from the twelfth century, of a magister scholarum (chancellor)
Salamis - A titular see in Cyprus. Salamis was a maritime town on the eastern coast of Cyprus, situated at the end of a fertile plain between two mountains, near the River Pediaeus
Salamis, Epiphanius of - Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop
Salamon, Louis-Siffren-Joseph - Bishop of Saint-Flour; b. at Carpentras, 22 Oct., 1759; d. at Saint-Flour, 11 June, 1829
Salazar, Domingo de - Born in La Rioja, in the village of La Bastida on the banks of the Ebro, 1512; died in Madrid, 4 December, 1594. Devoted to the conversion of natives of the new world
Sale - Saliensis. Diocese in Victoria, Australia, comprises all the territory known as Gippsland
Salem - An abbey situated near the Castle of Heiligenberg, about ten miles from Constance, Baden (Germany)
Salerno - Diocese in Campania, Southern Italy. The city is situated on the gulf of the same name, backed by a high rock crowned with an ancient castle
Salesian Society, The - Founded by Saint John Bosco, takes its distinctive name from its patron, Saint Francis de Sales
Salford - The Diocese of Salford comprises the Hundreds of Salford and Blackburn, in Lancashire, England, and was erected 29 Sept., 1850
Salimbene degli Adami - Chronicler, b. at Parma, 9 Oct., 1221; d. probably at Montefalcone about 1288
Salisbury, Ancient Diocese of - The diocese was originally founded by Birinus, who in 634 established his see at Dorchester in Oxfordshire, whence he evangelized the Kingdom of Wessex. From this sprang the later Dioceses of Winchester, Sherborne, Ramsbury, and Salisbury
Saliva Indians - The principal of a small group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock (the Salivan), centering in the eighteenth century, about and below the junction of the Meta and Orinoco, in Venezuela
Salle, Saint John Baptist de la - Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers
Salmanticenses and Complutenses - Authors of the courses of scholastic philosophy and theology, and moral theology
Salmas - A Chaldean see, included in the ancient Archdiocese of Adhorbigan, or Adherbaidjan
Salmeron, Alphonsus - Jesuit Biblical scholar, born at Toledo, 8 Sept., 1515; died at Naples, 13 Feb., 1585
Salome - Daughter of Herod Philip and Herodias at whose request John the Baptist was beheaded
Salt - Always used for the seasoning of food and for the preservation of things from corruption, had from very early days a sacred and religious character
Salta, Diocese of - Comprises the civil Provinces of Salta and Jujuy in the northern part of the Republic of Argentina
Saltillo, Diocese of - Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Linares, or Monterey
Salt Lake, Diocese of - Includes the State of Utah, and slightly more than half of the State of Nevada
Salto - Diocese in Uruguay, suffragan to Montevideo
Salutati, Coluccio di Pierio di - Italian Humanist b. in Tuscany, 1331; d. 4 May, 1406
Saluzzo - Diocese in the Province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Upper Italy
Salvatierra, Juan Maria - Missionary born at Milan, 15 November, 1648; died at Guadalajara, 17 July, 1717
Salvation - Salvation has in Scriptural language the general meaning of liberation from straitened circumstances or from other evils, and of a translation into a state of freedom and security
Salve Mundi Salutare - A poem in honour of the various members of Christ on the Cross
Salve Regina - The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Salvete Christi Vulnera - The Roman Breviary hymn at Lauds of the feast of the Most Precious Blood, is found in the Appendix to Pars Verna of the Roman Breviary (Venice, 1798)
Salvianus - Fifth-century Latin writer
Salzburg - The Archdiocese of Salzburg is conterminous with the Austrian crown-land of the same name
Salzmann, Joseph - Founder of St. Francis Provincial Seminary (St. Francis, Wisconsin) known as the 'Salesianum', one of the best known pioneer priests of the North-west, b. at Muenzbach, Diocese of Linz, Upper Austria, 17 Aug., 1819; d. at St. Francis, Wisconsin, 17 Jan., 1874
Sámar and Leyte - The names of two civil provinces in the Visayan group of the Philippines
Samaria - A titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palestine Prima. In the sixth year of his reign (about 900 B. C.) Amri, King of Israel, laid the foundations of the city to which he gave the name of Samaria, 'after the name of Semer the owner of the hill'
Samaritan Language and Literature - History of the changes in the language as affected by the changing religious and ethnic culture of the land
Sambuga, Joseph Anton - Theologian, b. at Walldorf near Heidelberg, 9 June; 1752; d. at Nymphenburg near Munich 5 June, according to Sailer, but 5 January according to other statements, 1815
Samoa - A group of islands situated in the south Pacific
Samogitia - A Russian diocese, also called Telshi (Telshe), including the part of Lithuania lying on the Baltic
Samos - Titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish Soussan-Adassi, is 181 sq. miles in area and numbers 55,000 inhabitants, nearly all of whom are Greek schismatics
Samosata - A titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis, capital of Commagenum
Sampson, Richard - English bishop (d. 1554)
Samson - Most famous of the Judges of Israel
Samson - Abbot of St. Edmunds (1135-1211)
Samson, Saint - Biography of this Welsh-born abbot, reluctant bishop, confessor. Died about 565
Samuco Indians - The collective name of a group of tribes in southwestern Bolivia
Samuel, First and Second Books of - Known as the First and Second Books of Kings in the Authorized Version, in the Hebrew editions and the Protestant versions these are known as 1st and 2nd Samuel, with the Third and Fourth Books of Kings being styled First and Second Books of Kings
San Antonio, Diocese of - Comprises all that portion of the State of Texas between the Colorado and Rio Grande Rivers, except the land south of the Arroyo de los Hermanos, on the Rio Grande, and the Counties of Live Oak, Bee, Goliad, and Refugio
San Carlos de Ancud - The most southern of the Chilian dioceses
San Gallo - A celebrated family of architects, sculptors, painters, and engravers, which flourished in Italy during the Renaissance period, from the middle of the fifteenth to the end of the sixteenth century. The founder of the family was Francesco Giamberti (1405-80), a Florentine wood-carver; he had two sons, Giuliano and Antonio
Sanhedrin - The supreme council and court of justice among the Jews
San José de Costa Rica - The Republic of Costa Rica, Central America, constitutes this diocese as a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Guatemala
Sánchez, Alonzo - Jesuit missionary and writer, born in Mondejar, Guadalajara, Spain, in 1547; died at Alcala, 27 May, 1593
Sánchez, Alonzo Coello - Painter - Born at Benyfayro, Valenciz, Spain, in 1513 or 1515; died at Madrid, 1590
Sánchez, José Bernardo - Franciscan missionary - Born at Robledillo, Old Castile, Spain, 7 September, 1778; d. at San Gabriel, California, 15 January, 1833
Sanchez, Thomas - Religious scholar and author - Born at Cordova, 1550; died in the college of Granada, 19 May, 1610
Sanctifying Grace - Treatise on this fundamental building block of Christianity
Sanction - Sanction signifies the authoritative act whereby the legislator gives a law value and binding force for its subjects
Sanction, Pragmatic - An edict formally issued by the emperor or king
Sanctity - Explains the meaning of the term 'sanctity' as employed in somewhat different senses in relation to God, to individual men, and to a corporate body
Sanctorum Meritis - The hymn at First and Second Vespers in the Common of the Martyrs in the Roman Breviary. Its authorship is often attributed to Rabanus Maurus (d. 856), Archbishop of Mainz
Sanctuary - A consecrated place of refuge
Sanctuary - Church architecture term
Sanctus - The Sanctus is the last part of the Preface in the Mass, sung in practically every rite by the people (or choir). One of the elements of the liturgy of which exists the earliest evidence
Sandals, Episcopal - Unlike the ancient sandals, which consisted merely of soles fastened to the foot by straps, the episcopal sandals are in the form of low shoes, and resemble slippers
Sandemanians - An English form of the Scottish sect of Glassites, followers of John Glas (b. 1695; d. 1773) who was deposed from the Presbyterian ministry in 1728, for teaching that the Church should not be subject to any league or covenant, but should be governed only by Apostolic doctrine
Sandeo, Felino Maria - Often quoted under the name of Felinus, Italian canonist of the fifteenth century
Sander, Anton - Historian, b. at Antwerp, 1586; d. at Afflighem, Belgium, 10 Jan., 1664
Sander, Nicholas - English exile - Born at Charlwood, Surrey, in 1530; died in Ireland, 1581
Sandhurst - Diocese in Victoria, Australia; suffragan of Melbourne
Sandomir - Ancient Polish city with existing traces of prehistoric construction
Sands, Benjamin and James - U.S. Navy admirals
Sandwich Isands - Vicariate Apostolic comprising all the islands of the Hawaiian group
Sandys, Venerable John - Brief account of the martyrdom of the English priest, which took place in 1586
Sanetch Indians - A sub-tribe of the Songish Indians
San Francisco - Archdiocese established 29 July 1853 to include multiple counties in the State of California, U.S.A
San Juan - Diocese in the Argentine Republic at the foot of the Cordillera of the Andes
Sankt Pölten - Diocese in Lower Austria
San León del Amazonas - Prefecture Apostolic in Peru
San Luis Potosí - Diocese in Mexico, erected by Pius IX in 1854. It includes the State of San Luis Potosí, and a small portion of the State of Zacatecas
San Marco and Bisignano - Diocese in the Province of Cosenza in Calabria, Italy
San Marino - An independent republic lying between the Italian Provinces of Forli, Pasaro, and Urbino
San Martino al Cimino - A prelature nullius in the territory of the Diocese of Viterbo, Province of Rome
San Miniato - A city and diocese in the Province of Florence, central Italy
Sannazaro, Jacopo - Italian and Latin poet, b. at Naples, 28 July, 1458; d. at Rome, in Aug., 1530
San Salvador - The name given by Columbus to his first discovery in the New World. It is one of the Bahama group of islands
San Salvador - Diocese. The Republic of Salvador, often incorrectly called San Salvador from the name of its capital, is the smallest and most thickly populated state of Central America
San Sepolcro, Piero da - Painter, b. at Borgo San-Sepolcro, about 1420; d. there, 1492
San Severino - San Severino is a small town and seat of a bishopric in the Province of Macerata in the Marshes, Central Italy
Sanseverino, Gaetano - Restorer of the Scholastic philosophy in Italy, b. at Naples, 1811; d. there of cholera, 16 Nov., 1865
San Severo - Diocese in the Province of Foggia (Capitanata), Southern Italy, situated in a fertile plain, watered by the Radicosa and Triolo
Sansovino, Andrea Contucci del - Sculptor of the transition period at the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century. Born at Monte San Sovino, Arezzo, 1460; died 1529
Santa Agata dei Goti, Diocese of - In the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy; the city, situated on a hill at the base of Monte Taburno, contains an ancient castle
Santa Casa di Loreto - Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the 'Holy House' of Loreto has been numbered among the most famous shrines of Italy
Santa Catharina - Diocese; suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Porto Alegre (Sao Pedro do Rio Grande), in Brazil, South America, created in 1906
Santa Cruz de la Sierra - Diocese in Bolivia, erected on 6 July, 1605, as suffragan of Lima, but since 2 July, 1609, it has been dependent on La Plata (Charcas)
Santa Fe (New Mexico) - Archdiocese in New Mexico, erected by Pius IX in 1850 and created an archbishopric in 1875
Santa Fe (Argentina) - Diocese in the Argentine Republic, suffragan of Buenos Aires
Santa Lucia del Mela - Prelature nullius within the territory of the Archdiocese of Messina, Sicily
Santa Maria (Brazil) - A Brazilian see, suffragan of Porto Alegre
Santa Maria de Monserrato - An abbey nullius in Brazil
Santa Marta - Diocese in Colombia, erected in 1535, its first bishop being Alfonso do Tobes
Santander - Diocese in Spain which takes its name not from St. Andrew as some believe, but from St. Hemeterius (Santemter, Santenter, Santander), one of the patrons of the city and ancient abbey
Sant' Angelo de' Lombardi - Diocese in the Province of Avellino, Southern Italy. The city was established by the Lombards at an unknown period
Sant' Angelo in Vado and Urbania - Diocese; S. Angelo in Vado is a city in the Marches, on the site of the ancient 'Tifernum Metaurense', a town of the Umbrian Senones, near the River Metaurus, believed to have been destroyed by the Goths
Santarem - Prelature nullius created in 1903, in the ecclesiastical Province of Belem do Para
Santa Severina - Diocese in the Province of Catanzaro in Calabria, Southern Italy. Situated on a rocky precipice on the site of the ancient Siberena, it became an important fortress of the Byzantines in their struggles with the Saracens
Santiago, University of - Founded in 1501 by Diego de Muros (Bishop of the Canaries), and Lope Gomez Marzo, who on 17 July, 1501, executed a public document establishing a school and academy for the study of the humanities
Santiago del Estero - Diocese in the Argentine Republic, erected 25 March, 1907, suffragan of Buenos Aires
Santini, Giovanni Sante Gaspero - Astronomer, b. at Caprese in Tuscany, 30 Jan., 1787; d. at Padua, 26 June, 1877
Santo Domingo, Archdiocese of - Erected on 8 August, 1511, by Julius II who by the Bull 'Pontifex Romanus' on that date established also the Sees of Concepcion de la Vega and of San Juan of Porto Rico
Santos, João dos - Dominican missionary in India and Africa, b. at Evora, Portugal; d. at Goa in 1622
San Xavier del Bac, Mission of - One of the eight missions founded by the Spanish Padres between 1687 and 1720 in the Pimeria Alta, within the present limits of the State of Arizona
São Carlos do Pinhal - Diocese; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America, created on 7 June, 1908
São Luiz de Cáceres - Diocese in Brazil, suffragan of Cuyaba
São Luiz de Maranhão - Diocese; suffragan of Belem de Para, comprises the State of Maranhao in Northern Brazil
São Paulo - Ecclesiastical province in the Republic of Brazil, South America
São Salvador de Bahia de Todos os Santos - Brazilian archdiocese established in 1551
São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro - Ecclesiastical province of Rio de Janeiro, the third of the seven constituting the Brazilian episcopate
São Thiago de Cabo Verde - This diocese has the seat of its bishopric on the Island of S. Nicolau
Sappa - Diocese in Albania, established in 1062
Sara - Wife of Abraham and also his step-sister
Sarabaites - A class of monks widely spread before the time of St. Benedict
Saragossa - Diocese in Spain
Saragossa, University of - Not definitively established until 1585, its real founder being Don Pedro Cerbunc, Prior of the Cathedral of Saragossa, and later Bishop of Tarrazona
Sarajevo, Archdiocese of - Treatise about the development of the Church in Bosnia
Sarayacú Mission - The chief Franciscan mission of the Ucavali river country, Department of Loreto, north-east Peru, in the eighteenth century
Sarbiewski, Mathias Casimir - The Horace of Poland, b. near Plonsk, in the Duchy of Masovia, 24 February, 1595; d. 2 April, 1649. He entered the novitiate of the Jesuits at Vilna on 25 July, 1612
Sardes - A titular see of Lydia, in Asia Minor probably the ancient Hyde of Homer (Iliad, II, 844; XX, 385), at the foot of Mount Tmolus
Sardica - A titular metropolitan see of Dacia Mediterranea. The true name of the city (now Sophia, the capital of Bulgaria) was Serdica
Sardica, Council of - One of the series of councils called to adjust the doctrinal and other difficulties caused by the Arian heresy, held most probably in 343
Sardinia - The second largest Italian island in the Mediterranean
Sarepta - A titular see in Phoenicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. It is mentioned for the first time in the voyage of an Egyptian in the fourteenth century B.C. Chabas, 'Voyage d'un Egyptien'
Sarkander, Blessed John - This priest was tortured for refusing to break the seal of confession, and died in prison in 1620
Sarnelli, Januarius Maria - One of S. Alphonsus's earliest companions, fourth son of Baron Angelo Sarnelli of Ciorani, b. in Naples 12 Sept., 1702; d. 30 June, 1744
Sarpi, Paolo - A Servite and anti-papal historian and statesman, b. at Venice, 14 August, 1552; d. there 14 or 15 January, 1623
Sarsfield, Patrick - Born at Lucan near Dublin, about 1650; died at Huy in Belgium, 1693. Commanded armies in several European countries
Sarsina - Located in Aemilia, Province of Forli, Italy
Sarto, Andrea del - Artist - Born at Florence in 1486; d. there in 1531
Sarum Rite - The manner of regulating the details of the Roman Liturgy that obtained in pre-Reformation times in the south of England and was thence propagated over the greater part of Scotland and of Ireland
Sasima - A titular see in Cappadocia. Sasima is mentioned only in three non-religious documents
Saskatchewan and Alberta - The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day
Sassari - Archdiocese in Sardinia, Italy, situated on the River Rossello in a fertile region: a centre of the oil, fruit, wine, and tobacco industries
Sassoferrato, Giovanni Battista Salvi da - Seventeenth-century Italian artist
Satala - A titular see in Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sabastia
Satan - The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are also known as demons. With the article (ho) it denotes Lucifer, their chief, as in Matthew 25:41, 'the Devil and his angels'
Satolli, Francesco - Theologian, cardinal, first Apostolic delegate to the United States, b. 21 July, 1839, at Marsciano near Perugia; d. 8 Jan., 1910, at Rome
Saturninus, Saint - First bishop of Toulouse, third-century martyr
Sauatra - Per Tillemont, one of the most illustrious martyrs France has given to the Church
Saul - First king of Israel
Sault St. Louis - Also known as Sault St. Louis. An Iroquois reservation, situated on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, about ten miles above Montreal
Sault Sainte Marie - Ontario, Canada, diocese erected in 1904
Savannah - The Diocese of Savannah comprises the State of Georgia and was created as such by Pius IX, 1850
Savaric - Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury, and cousin of the Emperor Henry VI, date of birth unknown, d. at Rome, 1205. He was archdeacon of Canterbury, 1175, and archdeacon of Northampton, 1180
Savary - A noble French family of the seventeenth century devoted to trade and to the publication of works on commercial matters
Savigny, Abbey of - Situated on the confines of Normandy and Brittany, Diocese of Coutances, France. Founded by Vital de Mortain, Canon of the Collegiate Church of St. Evroul
Savigny, Karl Friedrich - Diplomatist (1814-1875)
Savona and Noli - Province of Genoa, on the Gulf of Genoa
Savonarola, Girolamo - Dominican reformer. Born at Ferrara, 21 September, 1452; died at Florence, 23 May, 1498
Savoy - A district in the south-eastern part of France that extends from the Lake Geneva to south of the River Arc
Saxe, Jean de - For a long time two astronomers of the Middle Ages were confounded under this name (1) Joannes Danko (2) Jean de Counnout
Saxe-Altenburg - One of the Saxon duchies in the east of Thuringia; situated on the west frontier of the Kingdom of Saxony
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - One of the Saxon-Thuringian duchies
Saxe-Meiningen - A Saxon-Thuringian duchy. The duchy came into existence in 1681, as the result of the various succession agreements among the seven sons of Duke Ernest the Pious of Saxe-Gotha
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach - A grand duchy in Thuringia, also known in recent times as the Grand duchy of Saxony
Saxo Grammaticus - Thirteenth-century Danish historian
Saxony - Chronology of the area and the people
Saxony, Albert of - Fourteenth-century philosopher
Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs) - Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition the staircase leading once to the praetorium of Pilate at Jerusalem, hence sanctified by the footsteps of Our Lord during his Passion
Scaliger, Julius Caesar - Article by Paul Lejay on this scholar's life and writings
Scalimoli - Theologian, better known by his religious name, Anrea di Castellana
Scammon, Ellakim Parker - Educator, b. at Whitefield, Maine, U.S.A., 27 Dec., 1816; d. at New York, 7 Dec., 1894
Scandal - A word or action evil in itself, which occasions another's spiritual ruin
Scannabecchi, Filippo - Bolognese painter, born about 1360; died about 1410
Scapular - The most important part, of the habit of the monastic orders
Scaramelli, Giovanni Battista - Ascetical writer, b. at Rome, 24 Nov., 1687; d. at Macerata, 11 Jan., 1752
Scarampi, Pierfrancesco - Oratorian, Papal envoy, b. of a noble and ancient family in the Duchy of Monferrato, Piedmont, 1596; d. at Rome, 14 Oct., 1656
Scarlatti, Alessandro - Special emphasis on his religious works and his influence on later composers
Scarron, Paul - French poet and dramatist, b. in Paris, 4 July, 1610; d. 7 October, 1660
Scepticism - Etymology of the word based on a Greek term meaning 'speculation, doubt'
Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm - Painter, b. at Berlin, 1789; d. at Duesseldorf, 1862. He was the son of the sculptor, Johann Gottfried Schadow of Berlin
Schaepman, Herman - Orator, poet, and statesman, b. at Tubbergen, Holland, 2 March, 1844; d. at Rome, 21 Jan., 1903
Schäftlarn - Formerly a Premonstratensian, now a Benedictine, abbey, situated on the Isar not far from Munich in Upper Bavaria. It was founded in 762 by the priest Waltrich and dedicated to St. Dionysius
Schall von Bell, Johann Adam - An especially prominent figure among the missionaries to China, b. of an important family at Cologne in 1591; d. at Peking, 15 Aug., 1666
Schannat, Johann Friedrich - German historian, b. at Luxemburg, 23 July, 1683; d. at Heidleberg, 6 March, 1739
Schatzgeyer, Caspar - Inquisitor (1463-1527)
Schäufelin, Hans Leonhard - A German wood engraver, pupil of Durer, b. at Nuremburg in 1490; d. there in 1540. Best known as an engraver, but also an artist of repute
Schaumburg-Lippe - A German principality, surrounded by the Prussian province of Westphalia Hanover, and an exclave of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau (the Prussian County of Schaumburg)
Schäzler, Constantine, Baron von - Theologian, b. at Ratisbon, 7 May, 1827; d. at Interlaken, 9 September, 1880
Schedel, Hartmann - German Humanist and historian, b. at Nuremberg, 13 February, 1440; d. there on 28 November, 1514
Scheeben, Matthias Joseph - Theological writer of acknowledged merit, born at Meckenheim near Bonn, 1 March, 1835; died at Cologne, 21 July, 1888
Scheffmacher, John James - Jesuit theologian b. at Kientzheim, Alsace, 27 April, 1668; d. at Strasburg, 18 August, 1733. He was one of the greatest theologians of his time, an orator of power and influence and the author of valuable works on controversy
Scheiner, Christopher - German astronomer, b. at Wald, near Mindelheim, in Swabia, 25 July, 1575; d. at Niesse, in Silesia, 18 July, 1650
Schelble, Johann Nepomuk - Musician, b. 16 May, 1789, at Huffingen in the Black Forest; d. there 6 Aug., 1837
Schelstrate, Emmanuel - Theologian, b. at Antwerp, 1649; d. at Rome, 6 April, 1692. While he was a canon of the cathedral of Antwerp, he was called to Rome by Innocent IX and made an assistant librarian of the Vatican Library
Schenkl, Maurus von - Benedictine theologian and canonist, b. at Auerbach in Bavaria, 4 January 1749; d. at Amberg, 14 June, 1816
Schenute - A Coptic abbot. The years 332-33-34 and 350 are mentioned as the date of his birth, and the years 451-52 and 466 as the date of his death, all authors agreeing that he lived about 118 years
Scherer, Georg - Pulpit orator and controversialist, b. at Schwaz, in the Tyrol, 1540, according to Duhr; d. at Linz, 30 Nov., 1605; entered the Society of Jesus in 1559
Scherer-Boccard, Theodore, Count von - A Swiss Catholic journalist and politician; b. at Dornach in the canton of Solothurn, 12 May, 1816; d. at Solothurn, 6 Feb., 1885
Schinner, Matthæus - Bishop, cardinal, and statesman, b. at Muhlbach in the Canton of Valais, Switzerland, about 1470; d. of the plague at Rome, l October, 1522
Schism - In the language of theology and canon law, the rupture of ecclesiastical union and unity
Schism, Eastern - From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East
Schism, Western - Only a temporary misunderstanding, even though it compelled the Church for forty years to seek its true head; it was fed by politics and passions, and was terminated by the assembling of the councils of Pisa and Constance
Schlegel, Friedrich von - Poet, writer on aesthetics, and literary historian, the 'Messias' of the Romantic School, b. at Hanover, 10 March, 1772; d. at Dresden, 12 January, 1829
Schleswig - Formerly a duchy and diocese of northwestern Germany, now a part of the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein
Schlör, Aloysius - Ascetical writer, b. at Vienna, 17 June, 1805; d. at Graz, 2 Nov., 1852
Schlosser, John Frederick Henry - Jurist - b. at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 30 December, 1780; d. there 22 January, 1851
Schmalzgrueber, Francis Xavier - Canonist, b. at Griesbach, Bavaria, 9 Oct., 1663; d. at Dillingen 7 Nov., 1735
Schmid, Christoph von - Writer of children's stories and educator, b. at Dinkelsbuehl, in Bavaria, 15 Aug., 1768; d. at Augsburg in 1854
Schmidt, Friedrich von - Architect (1825-1891)
Schneeman, Gerard - Born at Wesel, Lower Rhine, 12 Feb., 1829; d. at Kerkrade, Holland, 20 Nov., 1885
Schoenberg, Matthias von - Author, b. at Ehingen, in the Diocese of Constance, 9 Nov., 1732; d. at Munich, 20 Apr., 1792
Schöffer, Peter - Publisher and printer, b. at Gernsheim on the Rine about 1425; d. at Mainz in 1503
Schola Cantorum - A place for the teaching and practice of ecclesiastical chant, or a body of singers banded together for the purpose of rendering the music in church
Scholasticism - A term used to designate both a method and a system. It is applied to theology as well as to philosophy
Scholliner, Herman - Theologian and historian, b. at Freising in Bavaria, 15 January, 1722; d. at Welchenberg, 16 July, 1795
Schols, Charles Mathieu - Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences. Born of Catholic parents at Maastriche, Holland, 28 March, 1849; died at Delft 17 March, 1897
Scholz, John Martin Augustine - German Orientalist and exegete, b. at Kapsdorf, near Breslau, 8 Feb., 1794; d. at Bonn, 20 Oct. 1852. He studied in the Catholic gymnasium and the University of Breslau
Schönborn - The name of a German noble family, many members of which were prelates of the Church
Schongauer, Martin - German painter and engraver, b. at Colmar between 1445 and 1450; d. probably in 1491, it is believed at Breisach
Schöningh - History of this Catholic publishing house at Paderborn
Schools - History and development of education as related to the church
Schools, Apostolic - The object of apostolic schools is to cultivate vocations for the foreign missions. Apostolic schools, as distinct from junior ecclesiastical seminaries, owe their origin to Father Alberic de Foresta
Schools, Clerks Regular of the Pious - Called also Piarists, Scolopli, Escolapios, Poor Clerks of the Mother of God, and the Pauline Congregation, a religious order founded in Rome in 1597 by St. Joseph Calasanctius
Schorlemer-Alst, Burghard Freiherr von - Social reformer, b. at Heringhausen, Westphalia, 21 Oct., 1825; d. at Alst, 17 March, 1895
Schott, Gaspar - German physicist, b. 5 Feb., 1608, at Koenigshofen; d. 12 or 22 May, 1666, at Augsburg
Schottenklöster - A name applied to the monastic foundations of Irish and Scotch missionaries on the European continent, particularly to the Scotch Benedictine monasteries in Germany, which in the beginning of the thirteenth century were combined into one congregation
Schrader, Clement - Jesuit theologian, b. at Itzum, in Hanover, Nov., 1820; d. at Poitiers 23 Feb., 1875
Schram, Dominic - A Benedictine theologian and canonist, b. at Bamberg, 24 October 1722; d. in the monastery of Banz near Bamberg, 21 September, 1797
Schrank, Franz Paula von - Naturalist, b. at Varnbach near Schaerding on the Inn, 21 August, 1747; d. at Munich, 22 December, 1835
Schraudolph, Johann - Historical painter (1808-1879)
Schubert, Franz - Composer (1797-1829)
Schwane, Joseph - A theological writer, b. at Dorsten in Westphalia, 2 Aril, 1824; d. at Muenster, 6 June, 1892
Schwann, Theodor - German physiologist and founder of the theory of the cellular structure of animal organisms; b. at Neuss, 7 December, 1810; d. Cologne, 11 January, 1882
Schwanthaler, Ludwig von - Founder of the modern Romantic school of sculpture, b. at Munich in 180 2; d there, 1848
Schwarz, Berthold - A German friar, reputed the inventor of gunpowder and firearms. There has been much difference of opinion regarding the bearer of this name and his share in the discovery attributed to him
Schwarzburg - Two small principalities of Central Germany
Schwarzenberg, Friedrich, Prince of - Cardinal and Prince-Archbishop of Prague, b. at Vienna, 6 April, 1809; d. there, 27 March, 1885
Schwenckfeldians - The name of a Protestant sect founded by the nobleman Caspar von Schwenckfeld (b. at Ossig in Silesia in 1489 or 1490; d. at Ulm 10 December, 1561)
Schwind, Moritz von - Painter - Born at Vienna, 1804; died at Munich, 1871
Science and the Church - Dicsusses the relationship between the two subjects
Scillium - A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Perhaps the name should be written Scilium: the real name was possibly Scilli, or better, Scili
Scillium, Martyrs of - In the year 180 six Christians were condemned to death by the sword, in the town of Scillium, by Vigellius Saturninus, Proconsul of Africa
Scopia - Archdiocese, ancient residence of the early Servian rulers is the modern Uscub
Scotism and Scotists - Article on the school of philosophy inspired by John Duns Scotus, and its proponents in the fourteenth through nineteenth centuries
Scotland - The northern portion of the Island of Great Britain
Scotland, Established Church of - The religious organization which has for three centuries and a half claimed the adherence of the majority of the inhabitants of Scotland, may be said to date from August 1560
Scoto-Hibernian Monasteries - A convenient term under which to include the monastic institutions which were founded during the sixth century in the country now known as Scotland, though that name was not used in its present sense until four hundred years later
Scots College, The - Clement VIII gave Scotland its college at Rome. The Bull of foundation, dated 5 December, 1600, conferred on the college all the privileges already enjoyed by the Greek, German, and English colleges
Scott, Ven. Montford - Biography of the English priest, martyred in 1591 after an imprisonment of seven years
Scotus, Blessed John Duns - Called 'Doctor Subtilis,' Franciscan, philosopher, d. 1308
Scranton - Diocese in Pennsylvania
Screen, Altar - A cloth, on which images of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, or of saints, are represented, may be suspended above the altar, unless such images are painted on the wall
Scribes - In the New-Testament period the scribes were the professional interpreters of the Law in the Jewish synagogues
Scriptorium - A large room set apart in a monastery for the use of the scribes or copyists of the community
Scripture - Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament
Scruple - An unfounded apprehension and consequently unwarranted fear that something is a sin which, as a matter of fact, is not
Scrutiny - Definitions for the term as variously employed in canon law
Sculpture - In the widest sense of the term, sculpture is the art of representing in bodily form men, animals, and other objects in stone, bronze, ivory, clay and similar materials
Scutari, Archdiocese of - The Archdiocese of Scutari comprises 29 parishes
Scythopolis - A titular metropolitan of Palaestina Secunda. It is the ancient Bethsan so often mentioned in the Bible, as proved by texts in the writings of Josephus
Seal - The use of a seal by men of wealth and position was common before the Christian era. It was natural then that high functionaries of the Church should adopt the habit as soon as they became socially and politically important
Seal of Confession, the Law of the - 'Let the priest who dares to make known the sins of his penitent be deposed....'
Seattle - The Diocese of Seattle (Seattlensis) comprises the entire State of Washington, U.S.A
Sebaste - A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea
Sebastia - The city, which existed perhaps under another name in pre-Roman times, was called Sebastia and enlarged by Augustus; under Diocletian it became the capital of Armenia Prima and after Justinian who rebuilt its walls, the capital of Armenia Secunda
Sebastian, Saint - Article on this Roman martyr of the late third or early fourth century
Sebastian Newdigate, Blessed - Martyred at Tyburn in 1535 for denying the royal supremacy
Sebastopolis - A titular see in Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebastia. The primitive name of this city was Carana, dependent on Zela, which was included in the principality given to Ateporix by Anthony of or Augustus
Sebenico - Suffragan of Zara. Sebenico was the seat of a bishop before the establishment of a see
Secchi, Angelo - Astronomer, b. at Reggio in Emilia, Italy, 18 June, 1818; d. 26 Feb., 1878
Sechelt Indians - A small tribe speaking a distinct language of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly occupying the territory about the entrance of Jervis and Sechelt inlets, Nelson Island, and south Texada Island
Sechnall, Saint - Bishop, nephew of St. Patrick. First Irish Christian to write Latin poetry. Died 457
Seckau - Diocese in Styria, Austria, suffragan of Salzburg. The See of Seckau was founded by Archbishop Eberhard II of Salzburg, with the permission of Honorius III, 22 June, 1218
Secret - The prayer said in a low voice by the celebrant at the end of the Offeratory in the Roman Liturgy
Secret, Discipline of the - A theological term used to express the custom which prevailed in the earliest ages of the Church, by which the knowledge of the more intimate mysteries of the Christian religion was carefully kept from the heathen and even from those who were undergoing instruction in the Faith
Sect and Sects - Etymology and meaning of the word 'sect'
Secularism - A term used for the first time about 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake to denote 'a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life'
Secularization - An authorization given to religious with solemn vows and by extension to those with simple vows to live for a time or permanently in the 'world'
Secular Clergy - The secular cleric makes no profession and follows no religious rule
Sedgwick, Thomas - Regius professor of divinity at Cambridge, 1557, rector of Stanhope, Durham, and vicar of Gainford, Durham, both in 1558; d. in a Yorkshire prison, 1573
Sedia Gestatoria - The Italian name of the portable papal throne used on certain solemn occasions in the pontifical ceremonies
Sedilia - The name given to seats on the south side of the sanctuary, used by the officiating clergy during the liturgy
Seduction - The inducing of a previously virtuous woman to engage in unlawful sexual intercourse
Sedulius - Christian poet of the fifth century
Sedulius Scotus - An Irish teacher, grammarian and Scriptural commentator, who lived in the ninth century
Seekers - An obscure Puritan sect which arose in England in the middles of the seventeenth century. They represented an Antinomian tendency among some of the Independents, and professed to be seeking for the true Church, Scripture, Ministry, and Sacraments
Seelos, Francis X. - Short biographical article on the missionary priest
Seerth - A Chaldean see, appears to have succeeded the See of Arzon in the same province
Séez - Diocese embracing the Department of Orne. Re-established by the Concordat of 1802
Seghers, Charles John - Bishop of Vancouver Island (today Victoria), Apostle of Alaska. b. at Ghent, Belgium, 26 Dec., 1839; d. in Alaska, 28 Nov., 1886
Segneri, Paolo - Italian Jesuit, preacher, missionary, ascetical writer, b. at Nettuno, 21 March (cf. Massei) 1624; d. at Rome, 9 Dec., 1694
Segni - Located in the Province of Rome. The city, situated on a hill in the Monti Lepini overlooks the valley of the river Sacco
Segorbe - Diocese in Spain, bounded on the north by Castellon and Teruel, on the east by Castellon, on the south by Valencia, and on the west by Valencia and Teruel
Segovia - Diocese in Spain; bounded on the north by Valladolid, Burgos, and Soria; on the east by Guadalajara; on the south by Madrid; on the west by Avila and Valladolid
Ségur, Louis Gaston de - Prelate and French apologist, born 15 April, 1820, in Paris; died 9 June, 1881, in the same city
Ségur, Sophie Rostopchine, Comtesse de - French writer (1797-1874)
Sehna, Diocese of - A Chaldean see, erected in 1853, its subjects being partly in Persia and partly in Turkey at Suleimanieh
Seidl, Johann Gabriel - Poet, author of the present Austrian national hymn, b. at Vienna, 21 June 1804; d. there, 17 July, 1875
Seitz, Alexander Maximilian - Painter, b. At Munich, 1811; d. at Rome, 1888
Sejny, Diocese of - A diocese in the northwestern part of Russian Poland
Sekanais - A Dene tribe whose habitat is on both sides of the Rockies
Seleucia Pieria - Titular metropolis of Syria Prima. The city was founded near the mouth of the Orontes, not far from Mount Casius, by Seleucus Nicator about 300 B.C
Seleucia Trachea - Metropolitan see of Isauria in the Patriarchate of Antioch
Seleucians - A Gnostic sect who are said to have flourished in Galatia
Seleucids - The name given to the Macedonian dynasty, which was founded by Seleucus, a general under Alexander the Great
Self-Defense - The right of a private person to employ force against any one who unjustly attacks his life or person, his property or good name
Selgas y Carrasco, José - Poet and novelist, b. at Lorca, Murcia, Spain, 1824; d. at Madrid, 5 Feb., 1882
Selge - A titular see in Pamphylia Prima, suffragan of Side
Selinus - A titular see in Isauria, near the Gulf of Adalia. Selinus
Selvaggio, Giulio Lorenzo - Canonist and archaeologist, b. at Naples, 10 August, 1728; d. there, November, 1772
Selymbria - A titular see in Thracia Prima, suffragan of Heraclea. Selymbria, or Selybria, the city of Selys on the Propontis, was a colony of the Megarians founded before Byzantium
Sem - Son of Noe
Semiarians and Semiarianism - A name frequently given to the conservative majority in the East in the fourth century as opposed to the strict Arians
Seminary, Ecclesiastical - The word seminary (Fr. seminaire, Ger. Seminar) is sometimes used, especially in Germany, to designate a group of university students devoted to a special line of work. The same word is often applied in England and the United States to young ladies' academies, Protestant or Catholic
Semipelagianism - A doctrine of grace advocated by monks of Southern Gaul at and around Marseilles after 428
Semites - The term Semites is applied to a group of peoples closely related in language, whose habitat is Asia and partly Africa
Semitic Epigraphy - Discussion of the science by this name
Semmelweis, Ignaz Philipp - Physician and discoverer of the cause of puerperal fever, b. Ofen (Buda), 1 July, 1818; d. at Vienna, 13 August, 1865
Semmes, Raphael - Naval officer, b. in Charles County, Maryland, U.S.A., 27 September, 1809; d. at Point Clear, Alabama, 26 August, 1877
Seña, Balthasar - Indian missionary and philologist, b. at Barcelona, Spain, about 1590; d. at Guarambare, Paraguay, 19 July, 1614
Senan, Saint - Sixth-century Irish missionary, bishop, and confessor. Was revered even in his earthly life for his sanctity, being visited by Sts. Ciaran and Brendan
Señan, José Francisco de Paula - Missionary - Born at Barcelona, Spain, 3 March, 1760; died at Mission San Buenaventura on 24 Aug., 1823
Sénanque - Cistercian monastery and cradle of the modern Cistereians of the Immaculate Conception
Seneca Indians - The westernmost and largest of the five tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy of central and western New York
Senefelder, Aloys - Inventor of lithography
Senegambia - Vicariate Apostolic, to which is joined the Prefecture Apostolic of Senegal (Senegalensis), both in French West Africa
Sennen and Abdon, Saints - Persian martyrs in the Decian persecution. Died in about 250
Sens - Archdiocese comprising the Department of the Yonne
Sens, Councils of - Chronology of councils held at this location
Sentence - In canon law, the decision of the court upon any issue brought before it
Sept-Fons, Notre-Dame de Saint-Lieu - Located in the Diocese of Moulins in France, it was founded (1132) by Guichard and Guillaume de Bourbon, of the family de Bourbon-Lancy, which gave kings to France, Italy, and Spain
Septimius Severus - Founder of the African dynasty of Roman emperors
Septuagesima - The ninth Sunday before Easter, the third before Lent known among the Greeks as 'Sunday of the Prodigal'
Septuagint Version - The first translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, made into popular Greek before the Christian era
Sepulchre, Holy - The tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death upon the Cross
Sequence or Prose - A liturgical hymn used on certain festivals before the Gospel in the Mass
Serajevo, Archdiocese of - Treatise about the development of the Church in Bosnia
Seraphic Crown - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet
Seraphim - A Hebrew masculine plural form, designates a special class of heavenly attendants of Yahweh's court
Seraphin of Montegranaro, Saint - Late sixteenth-century Italian Capuchin. Had the gift of reading hearts
Seraphina Sforza, Blessed - Forced by her husband to enter the Poor Clares, d. 1478
Serapion, Saint - Bishop and theological author. Died 211
Serena, Diocese of La - Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of Santiago, erected 1 July, 1840
Sergeant, John - Writer, born at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire, in 1623; died in 1710
Sergeant, Ven. Richard - English priest martyred in 1586
Sergiopolis - A titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis
Sergius and Bacchus - Soldiers, martyred in the Diocletian persecution in about 303. Universally venerated in the East
Sergius I, Pope - Reigned 687-701
Sergius II, Pope - Reigned 844-847
Sergius III, Pope - Reigned 904-911
Sergius IV, Pope - Reigned 1009-1012
Seripando, Girolamo - Italian theologian and cardinal, b. at Troja (Apulia), 6 May, 1493; d. at Trent 17 March, 1563
Seroux d'Agincourt, Jean-Baptiste-Louis-George - Born at Beauvais, 5 April, 1730; died at Rome, 24 September, 1814. He was a descendant of the counts of Namur
Serpieri, Alessandro - Scientist known for work in astronomy and seismology, b. at S. Giovanni in Marignano, near Rimini, 31 Oct., 1823; d. at Fiesole, 22 Feb., 1885
Serra, Junípero - Biography of the famed Franciscan priest, missionary to Mexico and California, who died in 1784
Serrae - Titular metropolitan see in Macedonia, more correctly Serrhae, is called Siris by Herodotus
Servants of Mary (Order of Servites) - Order founded on the feast of the Assumption, 1233 when the Blessed Virgin appeared to seven noble Florentines
Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament - An order of nuns, founded by the Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard
Servia - A European kingdom in the northwestern part of the Balkan peninsula
Servites, Order of - The fifth mendicant order, the objects of which are the sanctification of its members, preaching the Gospel, and the propagation of devotion to the Mother of God, with special reference to her sorrows
Servus servorum Dei - 'Servant of the servants of God', a title given by the popes to themselves in documents of note
Sessa-Aurunca - Diocese in Campania, Province of Caserta (Southern Italy)
Sestini, Benedict - Astronomer, mathematician, b. at Florence, Italy, 20 March, 1816; d. at Frederick, Maryland, 17 Jan., 1890
Setebo Indians - Tribe of Panoan linguistic stock formerly centering about the confluence of the Manoa with the Ucayali River, Loreto province, north-eastern Peru
Seton, Saint Elizabeth Ann - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States
Seton, William - Author, b. in New York, 28 Jan., 1835; d. there, 15 Mar., 1905
Settignano, Desiderio da - Artist, born at Settignano, Tuscany, 1428; died at Florence, 1463
Settlement, Act of (Irish) - 1662 act passed by the Irish Parliament to bring in Protestant settlers in Munster, Leinster, and Ulster
Seven-Branch Candlestick - One of the three chief furnishings of the Holy of the Tabernacle and the Temple. In reality it was an elaborate lampstand, set on the south side of the Holy Place
Seven Deacons - The seven men elected by the whole company of the original Christian community at Jerusalem and ordained by the Apostles, their office being chiefly to look after the poor and the common agape
Seven Robbers - Martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their names are Saturninus, Insischolus, Faustianus, Januarius, Marsalius, Euphrasius, and Mammius
Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, The - One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed
Severian - Bishop of Gabala in Syria, in the fourth and fifth centuries. Regarded by his contemporaries as a good preacher, known as the author of Biblical commentaries and sermons
Severinus, Pope - Reigned May-August 640,
Severus, Alexander - An article by Thomas J. Shahan on the emperor who was born at Acco in Palestine in 208, and murdered by his mutinous soldiers at Sicula on the Rhine
Severus Sanctus Endelechus - Christian rhetorician and poet of the fourth century
Sévigné, Madame de - Writer, b. at Paris, 6 Feb., 1626; d. at Grignan, 18 April, 1696. She was the granddaughter of St. Jane Frances de Chantal
Seville - Archdiocese in Spain
Seville, University of - Initially started in the thirteenth century by the Dominicans in order to prepare missionaries for work among the Moors and Jews
Sexagesima - The eighth Sunday before Easter and the second before Lent
Sexburga, Saint - Biography of the seventh-century English widow and abbess
Sext - Article on the midday office
Sexton - One who guards the church edifice, its treasures, vestments, etc., and as an inferior minister attends to burials, bell-ringings and similar offices about a church
Sfondrati, Celestino - Prince-abbot of St. Gall and cardinal, b. at Milan, 10 January, 1644, d. at Rome, 4 September, 1696
Sforza, Blessed Seraphina - Forced by her husband to enter the Poor Clares, d. 1478
Shakespeare, Religion of - Thesis regarding the faith of the bard
Shamanism - A vague term used by explorers of Siberia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to designate not a specific religion but a form of savage magic or science, by which physical nature was believed to be brought under the control of man
Shammai - Jewish scribe who together with Hillel made up the last of 'the pairs', or as they are sometimes erroneously named, 'presidents and vice-presidents' of the Sanhedrin
Shan-si, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern - Highlights of the history of Catholicism in this Chinese province
Shan-si, Vicariate Apostolic of Southern - Erected in 1890; the mission is entrusted to the Franciscan Fathers
Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern - This mission was separated in 1894 from Northern Shan-Tung and erected into a vicariate Apostolic
Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern - Erected by Gregory XVI in 1839
Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Southern - On 2 Jan., 1882, the then vicar Apostolic of Shan-tung, Rt. Rev. Mgr. D. Cosi, elected as pro-vicar Apostolic for the southern part of his vicariate Father John Baptist Anzer, a member of the Steyl Seminary
Sharpe, James - English priest (1577-1630)
Shea, John Dawson Gilmary - American historian (1824-1892)
Shea, Sir Ambrose - Born in Newfoundland, 17 Sept., 1815; d. in London, 30 July, 1905
Sheil, Richard Lalor - Dramatist, prose writer, and politician, b. at Drumdowny, County Kilkenny, Ireland, 17 August, 1791; d. at, Florence, Italy, 25 May, 1851
Sheldon, Edward - Translator (1599-1687)
Shelley, Richard - English confessor; d. in Marshalsea prison, London, probably in February or March, 1585-6
Shem - Son of Noe
Shen-si, Northern - In 1640 the Christian religion was preached for the first time in the Province of Shen-si. It was, by turns, looked upon with favor and disfavor by the emperors of China
Shen-si, Southern - The southern part of Shen-si was entrusted in 1885 to the Seminary of Sts. Peter and Paul, established at Rome by Pius IX, 1874
Shepherd, John - English musical composer (1512-1563)
Sherborne Abbey - Located in Dorsetshire, England; founded in 998. Sherborne (scir-burne, clear brook) was originally the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Western Wessex, having been established as such by St. Aldhelm (705)
Sherbrooke - Diocese in the Province of Quebec, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Montreal, erected by Pius IX, 28 Aug., 1874
Sheridan, Philip Henry - General, U.S. Army. Born at Albany, N.Y., U.S.A., 6 March, 1831; died at Nonquitt, Mass, 5 August, 1888
Sherson, Martin - English priest and confessor. One of the Dilati, b. 1563; d. 1588
Shert, Blessed John - Very brief biographical profile of the English priest, martyred in 1581
Sherwin, Blessed Ralph - An English priest who was imprisoned and tortured. He died a martyr in 1581
Sherwood, Blessed Thomas - Was imprisoned, tortured, and finally martyred (in 1578) for denying the royal supremacy
Sherwood, William - Bishop of Meath, d. at Dublin, 3 Dec. 1482. He was an English ecclesiastic who obtained the see by papal provision in April, 1460
Shewbreads - Heb. 'bread of the faces', i.e. 'bread of the presence (of Yahweh)' (Ex., xxxv, 13; xxxix, 35, etc.), also called 'holy bread'
Shields, James - Military officer, b. in Dungannon County Tyrone, Ireland, 12 Dec., 1810; d. at Ottumwa, Iowa, 1 June, 1879
Shi-koku - One of the four great islands of Japan, has all area of 7009 square miles, not counting the smaller islands which depend upon it
Shire - Vicariate apostolic in Nyassaland Protectorate, Africa
Shirley, James - English poet and dramatist (1596-1666)
Shrewsbury - One of the thirteen English dioceses created by Apostolic Letter of Pius IX on 27 Sept., 1850. It then comprised the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire, and the Welsh counties of Carnarvon, Flint, Denbigh, Merioneth, Montgomery, and Anglesey
Shrines of Our Lady and the Saints in Great Britain and Ireland - Location and origins of shrines
Shroud of Turin - A relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that it is the actual 'clean linen cloth' in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ
Shrovetide - Some history behind Carnival
Shuswap Indians - A tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, the most important of that group in British Columbia, formerly holding a large territory on middle and upper Thompson River, including Shuswap, Adams, and Quesnel Lakes
Siam - Siam, 'the land of the White Elephant' or the country of the Muang Thai (the Free)
Sibbel, Joseph - Sculptor, b. at Dulmen, 7 June, 1850; d. in New York, 10 July, 1907
Siberia - A Russian possession in Asia forming the northern third of that continent
Sibour, Marie-Dominique-Auguste - Born at Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux (Drome, France), 4 August, 1792; died in Paris, 3 January, 1857
Sibylline Oracles - The name given to certain collections of supposed prophecies, emanating from the sibyls or divinely inspired seeresses, which were widely circulated in antiquity
Sicard - Bishop of Cremona (Italy) in the twelfth century, a member of one of the principal families of that city, d. 1215
Sicca Veneria - A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage
Sichem - An Israelite city in the tribe of Ephraim, the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel
Sicilian Vespers - The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 March, 1282, against the domination of Charles of Anjou
Sicily - The largest island in the Mediterranean
Sick, Anointing of the - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill
Side, Altar - That part of the altar which faces the congregation
Sidon - City in Syria. Mentioned in the Bible. Is home to both a Melkite Rite and a Maronite diocese
Sidon - Titular metropolis of Pamphylia Prima
Sidonius Apollinaris - Christian author and Bishop of Clermont, b. at Lyons, 5 November, about 430; d. at Clermont, about August, 480
Sidyma - A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra; mentioned by Ptolemy
Siena - Archdiocese in Tuscany (Central Italy)
Siena, University of - The earliest notices of an advanced school (of grammar and medicine) at Siena go back to 1241
Sieni, Cyril - Missionary bishop, b. in Catalonia, date of birth unknown; d. after 1799, place and exact date equally uncertain
Sierra Leone - Comprises the English colony of that name and the surrounding territory from French Guinea on the north and east to Liberia on the south
Sigebert of Gembloux - Benedictine historian, b. near Gembloux which is now in the Province of Namur, Belgium, about 1035; d. at the same place, 5 November, 1112
Siger of Brabant - Indisputably the leader of Latin Averroism during the sixth and seventh decades of the thirteenth century
Sigismund - King of Germany and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, b. 15 February, 1361, at Nuremberg; d. at Znaim, Bohemia, 9 December, 1437
Sign of the Cross - A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at least in common: that by the gesture of tracing two lines intersecting at right angles they indicate symbolically the figure of Christ's cross
Signorelli, Luca - Italian painter, b. at Cortona about 1441; d. there in 1523
Sigüenza - Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Toledo
Sikhism - The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the holy City of Amritsar, where their sacred books are preserved and worshipped
Silandus - A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. It is not mentioned by any ancient geographer or historian
Silence - All writers on the spiritual life uniformly recommend, nay, command under penalty of total failure, the practice of silence
Silesia - The largest province of Prussia
Siletz Indians - The collective designation for the rapidly dwindling remnant of some thirty small tribes, representing five linguistic stocks - Salishan, Yakonan, Kusan, Takelman, and Athapascan
Siloe - A pool in the Tyropoean Valley, just outside the south wall of Jerusalem, where Jesus Christ gave sight to a man born blind
Silveira, Ven. Goncalo da - Pioneer missionary of South Africa, b. 23 Feb, 1526, at Almeirim, about forty miles from Lisbon; martyred 6 March, 1561
Silverius, Pope Saint - Son of Pope St. Hormisdas. Named pope while yet a subdeacon, to thwart the Monophysites. Exiled through a forgery of his political and religious enemies, died of starvation in prison, probably in 537
Silvester, Francis - Theologian, b. at Ferrara about 1474; d. at Rennes, 19 Sept., 1526
Silvia, Saint - The mother of St. Gregory the Great. She died in about 592
Simeon - The second son of Jacob by Lia and patronymic ancestor of the Jewish tribe bearing that name
Simeon, Holy - The 'just and devout' man of Jerusalem who according to the narrative of St. Luke, greeted the infant Saviour on the occasion of His presentation in the Temple
Simeon, Canticle of - The Canticle of Simeon found in Luke 2:29-32
Simeon of Durham - Chronicler, d. 14 Oct., between 1130 and 1138
Simeon Stylites the Elder, Saint - First and most famous of the hermits whose asceticism involved living atop a pillar. Died in 459
Simeon Stylites the Younger, Saint - From Antioch. 521-597, lived on a pillar for 68 years. Also a brief mention of St. Simeon Stylites III
Simla - Archdiocese in India, a new creation of Pius X by a Decree dated 13 September, 1910
Simon the Apostle, Saint - Also known as Simon the Zealot
Simonians - A Gnostic, Antinomian sect of the second century which regarded Simon Magus as its founder and which traced its doctrines back to him
Simon Magus - According to the testimony of St. Justin, Simon came from Gitta in the country of the Samaritans
Simon of Cascia - Italian preacher and writer (d. 1348)
Simon of Cramaud - French bishop (1360-1422)
Simon of Cremona - Augustinian writer and preacher (d. 1390)
Simon of Sudbury - Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1381)
Simon of Tournai - Professor in the University of Paris at the beginning of the thirteenth century, dates of birth and death unknown
Simon Peter - Long article on his life
Simon Stock, Saint - Biography of the English Carmelite, sixth general of the Order. Associated with the brown scapular. Died 1265
Simone da Orsenigo - A Lombard architect and builder of the fourteenth century whose memory is chiefly connected with the cathedral of Milan in the course of its erection
Simony - Usually defined 'a deliberate intention of buying or selling for a temporal price such things as are spiritual of annexed unto spirituals'
Simplicius, Pope Saint - Reigned 468-483; date of birth unknown; died 10 March, 483
Simplicius, Faustinus and Beatrice - Two brothers and their sister, all martyrs in the Diocletian persecution
Simpson, Richard - Born 1820; died near Rome, 5 April, 1876
Sin - A moral evil
Sinai - The mountain on which the Mosaic Law was given
Sinaiticus, Codex - A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf
Sinaloa - Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Durango
Singing, Congregational - In his Instruction on sacred music, commonly referred to as the Motu Proprio (22 Nov., 1903), Pius X says (no. 3): 'Special efforts are to be made to restore the use of Gregorian chant by the people, so that the faithful may again take a more active part in ecclesiastical offices, as was the case in ancient times'
Sinigaglia - Diocese in Ancona in central Italy
Sinis - A titular See in Armenia Secunda, suffragan of Melitene
Sinope - Titular see in Asia Minor, suffragan of Amasea in Helenopontus.
Sion - Titular see in Asia Minor suffragan of Ephesus
Sion - Diocese in Switzerland
Sioux City - Comprises twenty-four counties in northwestern Iowa
Sioux Falls - Suffragan of St. Paul, comprises all that part of the State of South Dakota east of the Missouri River
Sioux Indians - Provides information about their history, language, population, culture and religion
Sipibo Indians - A numerous tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, formerly centering about the Pisqui and Aguaitia tributaries of the upper Ucayali River, Province of Loreto, north-eastern Peru, and now found as boatmen or labourers along the whole course of that stream
Sirach, Book of - The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament
Siricius, Pope Saint - Siricius condemned Jovinian, but this did not spare the pope from criticism by St. Jerome
Sirleto, Gugliemo - Cardinal and scholar, born at Guardavalle near Stilo in Calabria, 1514; died at Rome, 6 October, 1585
Sirmium - Situated near the modern town of Mitrovitz in Slavonia; its church is said to have been founded by St. Peter
Sirmond, Jacques - Scholar of the seventeenth century, born at Riom in the Department of Puy-de-Dome, France, October, 1559; died in Paris, 7 October 1651
Sisinnius, Pope - Successor of John VII, he was consecrated probably 15 January, 708, and died after a brief pontificate of about three weeks; he was buried in St. Peter's
Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio - On 27 October, 1829, at the request of Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati, several sisters from Mother Seton's community at Emmitsburg, Maryland, opened an orphanage, parochial school, and academy on Sycamore Street opposite the old cathedral, then occupying the present site of St. Xavier's Church and college
Sisters of the Little Company of Mary - A congregation founded in 1877 in England to honour in a particular manner the maternal Heart of the Blessed Virgin, especially in the mystery of Calvary
Sistine Choir - With the building by Sixtus IV (1471-84) of the church for the celebration of all papal functions since known as the Sistine Chapel, the original schola cantorum and subsequent capella pontificia or capella papale, which still retains more or less of the guild character, becomes the capella sistina, or Sistine Choir
Sitifis - Titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis
Sitjar, Buenaventura - Missionary, born at Porrera, Island of Majorca, 9 December, 1739; died at San Antonio, Cal., 3 Sept., 1808
Siunia - A titular see, suffragan of Sebastia in Armenia Prima
Six Days of Creation - Signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of creation, as contained in the first chapter of Genesis
Sixtus I, Pope Saint - Martyr, reigned for ten years in the very early part of the second century
Sixtus II, Pope Saint - This is the St. Sixtus who is commemorated in the Eucharistic Prayer. Pope who was one of the first martyrs of the Valerian persecution, in 258
Sixtus III, Pope Saint - Reigned 432-440
Sixtus IV, Pope - Born near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; died 12 Aug., 1484
Sixtus V, Pope - Born at Grottamare near Montalto, 13 December, 1521; elected 24 April, 1585; crowned 1 May, 1585; died in the Quirinal, 27 August, 1590
Skara, Ancient See of - Located in Sweden
Skarga, Peter - Theologian and missionary, b. at Grojec, 1536; d. at Cracow, 27 Sept., 1612
Skoda, Josef - Celebrated clinical lecturer and diagnostician and, with Rokitansky, founder of the modern medical school of Vienna, b. at Pilsen in Bohemia, 10 December, 1805; d. at Vienna, 13 June, 1881
Slander - The attributing to another of a fault of which one knows him to be innocent
Slavery and Christianity - Discusses the history
Slavery, Ethical Aspect of - In Greek and Roman civilization slavery on an extensive scale formed an essential element of the social structure; and consequently the ethical speculators, no less than the practical statesmen, regarded it as a just and indispensable institution
Slaves - A tribe of the great Dene family of American Indians, so called apparently from the fact that the Crees drove it back to its original northern haunts
Slavonic Language and Liturgy - Although the Latin holds the chief place among the liturgical languages in which the Mass is celebrated and the praise of God recited in the Divine Offices, yet the Slavonic language comes next to it among the languages widely used throughout the world in the liturgy of the Church
Slavs, The - Customary name for all the Slavonic races
Slavs in America - History of ethnic Slavs migrating to the U.S
Slomsek, Anton Martin - Bishop of Lavant, in Maribor, Styria, Austria, noted Slovenian educator, born 1800; died 24 Sept., 1862
Slotanus, John - Polemical writer; born at Geffen, Brabant; died at Cologne, 9 July, 1560
Sloth - One of the seven capital sins. In general it means disinclination to labour or exertion
Slythurst, Thomas - Slythrust, Thomas, English confessor, born in Berkshire; died in the Tower of London, 1560
Smalkaldic League - A politico-religious alliance formally concluded on 27 Feb., 1531, at Smalkalden in Hesse-Nassau, among German Protestant princes and cities for their mutual defence
Smaragdus, Ardo - Hagiographer, died at the Benedictine monastery of Aniane, Herault, in Southern France, March, 843
Smith, James - Journalist, b. at Skolland, in the Shetland Isles, about 1790; d. Jan., 1866
Smith, Richard - Bishop of Chalcedon, second Vicar Apostolic of England; b. at Hanworth, Lincolnshire, Nov., 1568
Smith, Richard - Born in Worcestershire, 1500; died at Douai, 9 July, 1563
Smith, Thomas Kilby - U.S. General and journalist. Born at Boston, Mass., 23 Sept., 1820; died at New York, 14 Dec., 1887
Smits, William - Orientalist and exegete (1704-1770)
Smyrna - The capital of the vilayet of Aïdin and the starting-point of several railways
Snorri Sturluson - Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241
Snow, Venerable Peter - Short biographical profile of the English martyr, who died in 1598
Sobaipura Indians - Once an important tribe of the Piman branch of the great Shoshonean linguistic stock, occupying the territory of the Santa Cruz and San Pedro Rivers, in southeastern Arizona
Sobieski, John - Born at Olesko in 1629; died at Wilanow, 1696; son of James, Castellan of Cracow and descended by his mother from the heroic Zolkiewski, who died in battle at Cecora
Social Contract, The - Includes contents and critique
Socialism - A system of social and economic organization that would substitute state monopoly for private ownership of the sources of production and means of distribution
Socialistic Communities - Societies which maintain common ownership of the means of production and distribution, e.g., land, factories, and stores, and also those which further extend the practice of common ownership to consumable goods, e.g., houses and food
Societies, Catholic - Numerous throughout the world; some are international in scope, some are national; some diocesan and others parochial
Societies, Catholic, American Federation of - An organization of the Catholic laity, parishes, and societies under the guidance of the hierarchy, to protect and advance their religious, civil, and social interests
Societies, Secret - A designation of which the exact meaning has varied at different times
Society - Implies fellowship, company, and has always been conceived as signifying a human relation
Society, The Catholic Church Extension - The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society for the Catholic Church in North America was begun in 1904 by an article of the present writer, published in the 'American Ecclesiastical Review' (Philadelphia)
Society of Foreign Missions of Paris - Established in 1658-63, its chief founders being Mgr Pallu, Bishop of Heliopolis, Vicar Apostolic of Tongking, and Mgr Lambert de la Motte, Bishop of Bertyus, Vicar Apostolic of Conchin-China
Society of Jesus, The - Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order
Society of the Blessed Sacrament, The - A congregation of priests founded 1856 by Pierre-Julien Eymard in Paris
Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, The - An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education
Sociology - The claims of sociology to a place in the hierarchy of sciences are subjected to varied controversy. It has been held that there is no distinct problem for a science of sociology, no feature of human society not already provided for in the accepted social sciences
Socinianism - The body of doctrine held by one of the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the Reformation gave birth
Socorro - Diocese in Colombia
Socrates - Fourth-century Church historian
Socrates - Greek philosopher (469-399 B.C.)
Sodality - It would not be possible to give a definition making a clear distinction between the sodalities and other confraternities; consequently the development and history of the sodalities are the same as those of the religious confraternities
Sodality (Confraternity) - A voluntary association of the faithful, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of special works of Christian charity or piety
Sodoma - Piedmontese and Florentine painter (1477-1549)
Sodom and Gomorrha - They were situated in 'the country about the Jordan' (Gen., xiii, 10); their exact location is unknown
Sodor and Man - Ancient diocese
Soissons - Includes, with the exception of two hamlets, the entire Department of Aisne
Solanus, Saint Francis - Spanish Franciscan missionary to South America, d. 1610. Short biographical article
Solari - A family of Milanese artists, closely connected with the cathedral and with the Certosa near Pavia
Solemnity - The word solemnity is here used to denote the amount of intrinsic or extrinsic pomp with which a feast is celebrated
Solesmes - A Benedictine monastery in Department of Sarthe, near Sable, France
Soli - A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis
Solicitation - Technically in canon law the crime of making use of the Sacrament of Penance, directly or indirectly, for the purpose of drawing others into sins of lust
Solimôes Superiore - A prefecture Apostolic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, erected by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Consistory, 23 May, 1910
Solomon - The second son of David by his wife Bathsheba, and the acknowledged favourite of his father
Solomon, Psalms of - Eighteen apocryphal psalms, extant in Greek, probably translated from a Hebrew, or an Aramaic original, commonly assigned to the first century B.C
Solomon Islands, Northern - Established on 23 May, 1898, by separation from the Vicariate Apostolic of New Pomerania
Solomon Islands, Southern - The Spanish navigator Alvaro Mendana de Neyra discovered the Islands of Ysabel, Guadalcanar, and San Christoval in 1567
Solsona - Diocese in Lerida, Spain, suffragan of Tarragona
Somaliland - A triangular-shaped territory in the north-eastern extremity of Africa, projecting into the ocean towards the island of Socotra; its apex is at Cape Guarafui
Somaschi - Name of a charitable religious congregation of regular clerics, founded in the sixteenth century by St. Jerome Emiliani with the mother-house at Somasca (Venice), whence the name
Somerset, Thomas - Confessor, born about 1530; died in the Tower of London, 27 May, 1587; second son of Henry, second Earl of Worcester
Song, Religious - The general designation given to the numerous poetical and musical creations which have come into existence in the course of time and are used in connection with public Divine worship, but which are not included in the official liturgy on account of their more free and subjective character
Songish Indians - A tribe of some importance formerly holding the south coast of Vancouver Island, B.C
Sonnius, Franciscus - Theologian, b. at Zon in Brabant, 12 August, 1506; d. at Antwerp, 30 June, 1576
Son of God - Includes uses from the Old and New Testaments
Son of Man - Several instances of its use are detailed
Sonora - Republic of Mexico; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Durango
Sophene - A titular see, suffragan of Melitene in Armenia Secunda
Sophists - A group of Greek teachers who flourished at the end of the fifth century B.C
Sophonias - The ninth of the twelve Minor Prophets of the Canon of the Old Testament; preached and wrote in the second half of the seventh century B.C
Sophronius - Bishop of Constantina or Tella in Osrhoene, was a relative of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, and apparently of the same theological tendency, i. e. strongly anti-Monophysite and liable to be suspected of Nestorianism
Sora - A titular see in Paphlagonia, suffragan of Gangra
Sorbait, Paul de - Physician, b. in Hainault, 1624; d. at Vienna, 19 April, 1691
Sorbonne - This name is frequently used in ordinary parlance as synonymous with the faculty of theology of Paris
Sorin, Edward - The founder of Notre Dame, Indiana; b. 6 Feb., 1814, at Ahuille, near Laval, France; d. 31 Oct., 1893, at Notre Dame, U.S.A
Sorrento - Archdiocese in the Province of Naples, with one suffragan, Castellamare
Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the Seven - The object of these feats is the spiritual martyrdom of the Mother of God and her compassion with the sufferings of her Divine Son
Soter and Caius, Saints - Popes, having their feast together on 22 April
Soto, Dominic - Dominican, renowned theologian, b. at Segovia, 1494; d. at Salamanca, 15 Nov., 1560
Soul - The question of the reality of the soul and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life
Soul, Faculties of the - Article covers the meaning and classification
South American College in Rome, The - The Rev. Ignatius Victor Eyzaguirre went to Rome, in 1857, and proposed to the Pope the erection of a college for students from Latin American countries
South Carolina - One of the thirteen original colonies of the United States
South Dakota - The thirty-ninth state, admitted to the Union on 2 November, 1889
Southerne, Venerable William - Brief profile of the English martyr, who was arrested while saying Mass, and executed in 1618
Southwark - Suffragan of Westminster, England
Southwell, Venerable Robert - Biography of the English poet, Jesuit, and martyr. He was hanged in 1595
Southworth, Saint John - English priest, missionary to his native land, imprisoned several times, once deported, finally martyred for the crime of being a priest. He was executed at Tyburn, 28 June, 1654
Sovana and Pitigliano - The two towns, Sovana and Pitigliano, are situated in the Province of Grosseto, Central Italy
Sozomen, Salaminius Hermias - One of the famous historians of the early Church, born at Bethelia, a small town near Gaza in Palestine
Sozopolis - Titular see in the Balkans, suffragan of Adrianopolis
Sozusa - A titular see of Palestina Prima, suffragan of Caesarea
Space - The idea of space is one of the most important in the philosophy of the material world; for centuries it has preoccupied and puzzled philosophers and psychologists
Spagni, Andrea - Educator and author, born at Florence, 8 Aug., 1716; died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1788
Spain - This name properly signifies the whole peninsula which forms the south-western extremity of Europe. Since the political separation of Portugal, however, the name has gradually come to be restricted to the largest of the four political divisions of the Peninsula: (1) Spain; (2) Portugal; (3) the Republic of Andorra; (4) the British possession of Gibraltar, at the southern extremity
Spalato-Macarsca (Salona) - Suffragan of Zara
Spalding, Martin John - Seventh Archbishop of Baltimore (1810-1872)
Spallanzani - A distinguished eighteenth-century scientist, b. at Scadiano in Modena, Italy, 10 January, 1729; d. at Pavia, 12 February, 1799
Spanish-American Literature - The literature produced by the Spanish-speaking peoples of Mexico, Central America, Cuba and adjacent islands, and of South America with the notable exceptions of Brazil (whose speech is Portuguese) and the Guianas
Spanish-American Universities - The University of St. Mark's at Lima enjoys the reputation of being the oldest in America; it has the distinction of having first begun its course by royal decree
Spanish Armada, The - A fleet intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English aggressions against the colonies and possessions of the Spanish Crown
Spanish Language and Literature - As a medium of literary expression Spanish asserted itself first in the twelfth century: it had been six or seven centuries in the process of evolution out of Latin
Sparta - A celebrated town of the Peloponnesus, mentioned several times under this name or under that of Lacedaemon in the Bible
Species - In scholastic terminology, species is the necessary determinant of every cognitive process
Speckbacher, Josef - A Tyrolean patriot of 1809, born at Gnadenwald, near Hall, in the Tyrol, 13 July, 1767; died at Hall, 28 March, 1820
Speculation - A term used with reference to business transactions to signify the investing of money at a risk of loss on the chance of unusual gain
Spedalleri, Nicola - A priest, theologian, and philosopher, born at Bronte in the Province of Catania, Sicily, 6 December, 1740; died at Rome, 26 November, 1795
Spee, Friedrich Von - A poet, opponent of trials for witchcraft, born at Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, 25 February, 1591; died at Trier 7 August, 1635
Speed, Blessed John - Alias John Spence. Englishman, martyred for aiding St. John Boste. Bl. John was executed at Durham in 1593 or 1594
Spencer, The Hon. George - Passionist, b. at the Admiralty, London, 21 Dec., 1799; d. at Carstairs, Scotland, 1 Oct., 1864
Spenser, John - Converted while a student at Cambridge and entered the Society of Jesus in 1627
Spenser, Venerable William - Short biography of the English priest and martyr, who was executed in 1589
Speyer - Diocese in Bavaria
Speyer, Johann and Wendelin von - German printers in Venice from 1468 to 1477
Spillmann, Joseph - Author, b. at Zug, Switzerland, 22 April, 1842; d. at Luxembourg, 20 February, 1905
Spina, Alphonso de - Spanish Franciscan, date of birth unknown; died about 1491
Spina, Bartolommeo - Scholastic theologian, born at Pisa about 1475; died at Rome, 1546
Spinola, Christopher Royas de - Bishop of Wiener-Neustadt, born of a noble Spanish family, near Roermond in Gelderland in 1626; died at Wiener-Neustadt, 12 March, 1695
Spinoza, Benedict - Belonged to a family of Jewish merchants of moderate means, and was originally called Baruch. Born at Amsterdam, 24 Nov., 1632; died at The Hague, 21 Feb., 1677
Spire - A tapering construction in plan conical, pyramidal, octagonal, or hexagonal crowning a steeple or tower
Spirit - Used in several different but allied senses: (1) as signifying a living, intelligent, incorporeal being, such as the soul; (2) as the fiery essence or breath (the Stoic pneuma) which was supposed to be the universal vital force; (3) as signifying some refined form of bodily substance, a fluid believed to act as a medium between mind and the grosser matter of the body
Spirit, Holy - The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity
Spiritism - History and methods of Spiritism (here distinguished from Spiritualism) and the dangers inherent in its practice and beliefs
Spirito Santo - Suffragan of Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro, established in 1896
Spiritual Direction - Personal guidance according to individual needs. Criticizes excesses at both ends of the spectrum: heavyhanded directors, and people who think that since they have the Holy Spirit they have no need of human help
Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius - A short work composed by St. Ignatius of Loyola and written originally in Spanish
Spiritualism - The term has been frequently used to denote the belief in the possibility of communication with disembodied spirits, and the various devices employed to realize this belief in practice
Spirituals - A general term denoting several groups of Friars Minor, existing in the second half of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth centuries, who, in opposition to the main body of the order, pretended to observe the Rule of St. Francis in its primitive severity
Spokan Indians - An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, closely cognate with the Colville, Coeur d'Alene, Kalispel, and Flathead, and formerly holding the country upon Spokane River in Eastern Washington and the adjacent portion of Idaho
Spoleto - Archdiocese in Umbria, Italy
Spondanus, Henri - A convert from Calvinism, Bishop of Pamiers, and one of the continuators of Baronius, born at Mauleon, 6 January, 1568; died at Toulouse, 18 May, 1643
Spontini, Gasparo Luigi Pacifico - Composer, born at Magolati, near Jesi, Ancona, 14 Nov., 1774; died there, 14 Jan., 1851
Spoons, Apostle - A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of Our Lord (the Master spoon) and the twelve Apostles
Sporer, Patritius - Moral theologian, born at Passau, Bavaria; died there, 29 May, 1683
Sportelli, Cæsar - Lawyer and priest, born at Nola in Bari, Italy, 29 March, 1702; died at Pagani, 19 April, 1750
Springfield - Diocese of Springfield (Campifontis) in Massachusetts, erected in June, 1870
Sprott, Venerable Thomas - Also called Thomas Spratt. English priest and martyr. Article also has information on his companion in martyrdom the Bl. Thomas Hunt. The two died in 1600
Squamish Indians - A considerable tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, speaking a distinct language, holding the territory about Squamish River and Howe Sound, above Fraser River in South-western British Columbia
Squiers, Herbert Goldsmith - Army officer and diplomatist; b. at Madoc, Canada, 20 April, 1859; d. at London, 19 Oct., 1911
Squillace - Suffragan diocese of Reggio, in Calabria, Southern Italy
Sri Lanka - An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge
Stabat Mater - The opening words of two companion hymns, one of which (Stabat Mater Dolorosa) is in liturgical use, while the other (Stabat Mater Speciosa) is not
Stadler, John Evangelist - Bavarian hagiographer, b. at Parkstetten, in the Diocese of Ratisbon, 24 Dec., 1804; d. at Augsburg, 30 Dec., 1868
Staff, Pastoral - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions
Stained Glass - The popular name for the glass used in the making of coloured windows
Stalls - Seats in a choir, wholly or partly enclosed on the back and sides
Stanbrook Abbey - An abbey of Benedictine nuns, midway between Malvern and Worcester, England
Stanfield, William Clarkson - English painter, b. at Sunderland, 1793; d. at Hampstead, near London, 1867
Stanislas Kostka, Saint - Polish Jesuit, died in 1568 at the age of 17, less than a year after entering the Society
Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint - Bishop and martyr, d. 1079. The patron saint of Poland
Stanislawow - Diocese of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite, in Galicia, Austria, suffragan of Lemberg
Stanley Falls - Vicariate Apostolic in the Belgian Congo
Stansel, Valentin - Astronomer, b. at Olmuetz, Moravia, 1621; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 Dec., 1705
Stanyhurst, Richard - Catholic controversialist, historian, and devotional writer, born at Dublin, 1547; died at Brussels, 1618
Stanza - An Italian word signifying room, chamber, apartment. In English the term is chiefly used for Raphael's celebrated Stanze in the Vatican Palace, four in number, the walls of which were frescoed by Raphael and his pupils
Stapf, Joseph Ambrose - Theologian, born at Fliess in the valley of the Upper Inn in the Tyrol, Austria, 15 August, 1785; died at Brixen, 10 January, 1844
Staphylus, Friedrich - Theologian, born at Osnabrueck, 27 Aug., 1512; died at Ingolstadt, 5 March, 1564
Stapleton, Theobald - Nothing is known of his career, except that he was a priest living in Flanders, and that in 1639 he published at Brussels a book called 'Catechismus seu doctrina christiana latino-hibernica', which was the first book in which Irish was printed in Roman type
Stapleton, Thomas - Controversialist, born at Henfield, Sussex, July, 1535; died at Louvain, 12 Oct., 1598
Starowolski, Simon - Born at Stara Wola, near Cracow, 1585; died at Cracow, 1656; studied at Louvain, but took his degrees in the University of Cracow, after which he travelled in various countries of Western Europe
Starr, Eliza Allen - Writer and artist, born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, 29 August, 1824; died at Durand, Illinois, 8 September, 1901
State, Allegiance to the - The duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen
State and Church - The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all the necessary and sufficient means thereto
State or Way - Stages in the spiritual life
States of the Church - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler
States, Papal - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler
Station Days - Days on which in the early Church fast was observed until the Hour of None (between twelve and three o'clock), later of Sext (nine to twelve), as distinct from the strict observance of the fast day proper until Vespers (three to six)
Stations of the Cross - Historical background on this devotion
Statistics, Ecclesiastical - Includes a history of their keeping
Statistics of Religions - Includes the definition and historical development, along with the status of religious bodies
Stattler, Benedict - Jesuit theologian, born at Koetzting, Bavaria (Diocese of Ratisbon), 30 Jan., 1728; died at Munich, 21 Aug., 1797
Staudenmaier, Franz Anton - A theologian, born at Donzdorf, Wuertemberg, 11 Sept., 1800; died at Freiburg im Breisgau, 19 Jan., 1856
Staupitz, Johann Von - Abbot, born at Motterwitz near Leisnig (or Moderwitz near Meustadt an der Orla) about 1460; died at Salzburg, 28 Dec., 1524
Stauropolis - A titular metropolitan see of the Province of Caria
Stavanger, Ancient See of - Located in Norway
Stedingers - A tribe of Frisian peasants in Northern Germany who revolted against their lord, the Archbishop of Bremen, and had to be subdued by arms
Stefaneschi, Giacomo Gaetani - A cardinal deacon, born at Rome, about 1270; died at Avignon, 23 June, 1343
Steffani, Agostino - A titular Bishop of Spiga, diplomatist and musician, born at Castelfranco in the Province of Treviso, in 1655; died at Frankfort in 1728 or 1730
Steinamanger - Located in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, founded in 1777 under Queen Maria Theresa
Steinle, Eduard Von - An historical painter, born at Vienna, 2 July, 1810; died at Frankfort, 19 Sept., 1886
Steinmeyer, Ferdinand - Jesuit missionary, born in Swabia, Germany, 13 Oct., 1720; died at Philadelphia, 17 Aug., 1786
Steno, Nicolaus - Or Niels Steensen. Danish anatomist and geologist who converted to Catholicism. Was made a bishop. He died in 1686
Stephen, Saint - On the deacon, and first Christian martyr.
Stephen, Saint - First King of Hungary. Baptized at the age of 10 by St. Adalbert, and died in 1038
Stephen I, Pope Saint - Reigned 254-257
Stephen II, Pope - Reigned 752
Stephen (II) III, Pope - Unanimously elected in St. Mary Major's and consecrated on 26 March (or 3 April), 752; d. 26 April, 757
Stephen (III) IV, Pope - Born about 720; died 1 or 3 August, 772
Stephen (IV) V, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 24 Jan., 817
Stephen (V) VI, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died in Sept., 891
Stephen (VI) VII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died about August, 897
Stephen (VII) VIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died in February or March, 931
Stephen (VIII) IX, Pope - Date of birth unknown; he became pope about 14 July, 939, and died about the end of Oct., 942
Stephen (IX) X, Pope - Born probably about the beginning of the eleventh century; died at Florence, 29 March, 1058
Stephen Harding, Saint - English Cistercian, confessor, the third abbot of Citeaux, d. 1134
Stephen of Autun - Bishop, liturgical writer, b. at Bange (hence surnamed Blagiacus or de Balgiaco) in Anjou; d. at the abbey of Cluny, 1139 or early in 1140
Stephen of Bourbon - Illustrious writer and preacher, especially noted as a historian of medieval heresies, b. towards the end of the twelfth century; d. in 1261
Stephen of Muret, Saint - Founder of the Order of Grandmont. Died 1124
Stephen of Tournai - Canonist, born at Orleans, 1128; died at Tournai, September, 1203
Stephens, Henry Robert - Belgian theologian, born of English parentage at Liege, 5 August, 1665; died there, 15 June, 1723
Stephens, Thomas - Known as the first Englishman in India. Born about 1549 at Bulstan, Wiltshire; died in 1619 at Goa, India
Steps, Altar - The number of steps leading up to the high altar is for symbolical reasons uneven; usually three, five, or seven, including the upper platform
Steuco, Agostino - Exegete, born at Gubbio, Umbria, 1496; died at Venice, 1549
Stevenson, Joseph - Archivist, born at Berwick-on-Tweed, 27 Nov., 1806; died in London, 8 Feb., 1895
Stevin, Simon - Born at Bruges in 1548; died at Leyden in 1620
Stifter, Adalbert - Poet and pedagogue, b. at Oberplan in Bohemia, 23 October, 1805; d. at Linz, 28 October, 1868
Stigmata, Mystical - Their existence is so well established historically that, as a general thing, they are no longer disputed by unbelievers, who now seek only to explain them naturally
Stipend - A fixed pay, salary; retribution for work done; the income of an ecclesiastical living
Stockholm - The capital of the Kingdom of Sweden, situated on Lake Maelar at the spot where it opens into the Saltsjoe
Stöckl, Albert - A neo-Scholastic philosopher and theologian, born in Bavaria, 1823, and died 1895
Stoddard, Charles Warren - An American author, born 7 August, 1843, at Rochester, N. Y.; died 23 April, 1909, at Monterey, California
Stoics and Stoic Philosophy - The Stoic School was founded in 322 B.C. by Zeno of Cittium and existed until the closing of the Athenian schools (A.D. 429)
Stolberg - Friedrich Leopold, Count zu Stolberg. Born at Brammstedt in Holstein (then a part of Denmark), 7 November, 1750; d. at Sondermuehlen near Osnabrueck, 5 December, 1819
Stole - A liturgical vestment composed of a strip of material from two to four inches wide and about eighty inches long
Stole, Altar - An altar ornament from the Middle Ages
Stolz, Alban Isidor - Catholic theologian and popular author, b. at Buehl, Baden, 3 Feb., 1808; d. at Freiberg, 16 Oct., 1883
Stone, Altar - A solid piece of natural stone, consecrated by a bishop, large enough to hold the Sacred Host and chalice
Stone, Corner - Rite regarding the blessing and laying of the Foundation Stone for the building of a church
Stone, John, Blessed - English Augustinian friar, martyred probably in 1539
Stone, Mary Jean - Writer and scholar, born at Brighton, Sussex, in 1853; died at Battle, Sussex, 3 May, 1908
Stone, Marmaduke - Jesuit, b. at Draycot, 28 Nov., 1748; d. at St. Helens, 22 Aug., 1834
Stones, Precious, in the Bible - Stones remarkable for their colour, brilliancy, or rarity
Stoning in Scripture - At first an expression of popular fury analogous to 'lynching', later came to be a natural and legally recognized method of execution
Stonnes, James - English priest, b. 1513; d. after 1585
Stonyhurst College - History of the school, which dates back to a period considerably prior to its foundation on English soil in 1794
Story, Blessed John - Or Storey. Member of Parliament, was arrested but escaped and became a Spanish subject. Kidnapped in Flanders, he was carried to the Tower, where he was tortured repeatedly. Died a martyr in 1571
Stoss, Veit - Sculptor, b. at Nuremberg in 1438; d there in 1533
Stoup - Vessels intended for the use of holy water
Stradivari, Antonio - Cremonese violin-maker, b. in 1649 or 1650; d. at Cremona, 18 or 19 Dec., 1737
Stradivari Family, The - Family name that goes back to the Middle Ages. Spelled various ways, Stradivare, Stradiverto, Stradivertus. Known among other things as makers of stringed instruments
Strahov, Abbey of - A Premonstratensian abbey at Prague, Bohemia, founded in 1149
Strain, John - Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, born at Edinburgh, 8 December, 1810; died there, 2 July, 1883
Stransham, Venerable Edward - English priest and martyr, d. 1586. Biography
Strasburg - German diocese immediately dependent on the Papal See
Stratonicea - A titular see in Caria (Asia Minor) suffragan of Stauropolis
Streber, Franz Ignaz Von - Numismatist and theologian, born at Reisbach, Lower Bavaria, 11 Feb., 1758; died at Munich, 26 April, 1841
Streber, Franz Seraph - Numismatist and nephew of Franz Ignaz von Streber, born at Deutenkofen, Lower Bavaria, 26 Feb., 1805; died at Munich, 21 Nov. 1864
Streber, Hermann - Son of Franz Seraph Streber, b. at Munich, 27 Sept., 1839; d. at Toelz, 9 Aug., 1896
Strengnäs, Ancient See of - Located in Sweden
Striking of the Breast - A liturgical act prescribed in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Stripping of an Altar - Removal of the altar-cloths, vases of flowers, antipendium, and other ornaments, so that nothing remains but the cross and the candlesticks with the candles extinguished
Strossmayer, Joseph Georg - Josip Juraj, Bishop of Diakovar, born at Essegg in Croatia-Slavonia, 4 February, 1815; died 8 April, 1905
Stuart, Henry Benedict Maria Clement - Cardinal, Duke of York, known by the Jacobites as 'Henry IX, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland'; born at Rome, 11 March, 1725; died at Frascati, 13 July, 1807
Studion - Latin Studium, the most important monastery at Constantinople, situated not far from the Propontis in the section of the city called Psamathia
Stuhlweissenburg - Diocese in Hungary, and Suffragen of Gran. It was formed in 1777 from the dioceses of Gyor and Veszprem
Sturluson, Snorri - Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241
Stylites - Solitaries who, taking up their abode upon the tops of a pillar (stylos), chose to spend their days amid the restraints thus entailed and in the exercise of other forms of asceticism. This practice may be regarded as the climax of a tendency which became very pronounced in Eastern lands in the latter part of the fourth century
Styria - A duchy and Austrian crownland, divided by the River Mur into Upper and Lower Styria
Suárez, Francisco - Article on his life, teachings and works, by A. Perez Goyena
Subdeacon - The subdiaconate is the lowest of the sacred or major orders in the Latin Church. It is defined as the power by which one ordained as a subdeacon may carry the chalice with wine to the altar, prepare the necessaries for the Eucharist, and read the Epistles before the people
Subiaco - A city in the Province of Rome, twenty-five miles from Tivoli, received its name from the artificial lakes of the villa of Nero and is renowned for its sacred grotto (Sagro Speco), the Abbey of St. Scholastica, and the archiepiscopal residence and Church of St. Andrew, which crowns the hill
Subreption - In canon law the concealment or suppression of statements or facts that according to law or usage should be expressed in an application or petition for a rescript
Subsidies, Episcopal - Since the faithful are obliged to contribute to the support of religion, especially in their own diocese, a bishop may ask contributions for diocesan needs from his own subjects, and particularly from the clergy
Substance - A genus supremum, cannot strictly be defined by an analysis into genus and specific difference; yet a survey of the universe at large will enable us to form without difficulty an accurate idea of substance
Suburbicarian Dioceses - A name applied to the dioceses nearest Rome, viz. Albano, Frascati (Tusculum), Palestrina, Sabina, Ostia and Velletri, Porto and S. Rufina, the bishops of which form the order of cardinal bishops
Sudan - The Vicariate Apostolic of Sudan or Central-Africa
Sufetula - A titular see of North Africa. Sufetula seems to be Suthul where Jugurtha had deposited his treasures
Sugar, Venerable John - Also called John Suker. English priest, was martyred on the same day as a layman, the Bl. Robert Grissold, in 1604 after spending a year in prison
Suger - Abbot of St-Denis, statesman and historian, b. probably at or near St-Denis, about 1081; d. there, 13 Jan., 1151
Suicide - The act of one who causes his own death, either by positively destroying his own life, as by inflicting on himself a mortal wound or injury, or by omitting to do what is necessary to escape death, as by refusing to leave a burning house
Suidas - Author of, perhaps, the most important Greek lexicon or encyclopedia
Suitbert, Saint - Born in England, studied in Ireland, accompanied St. Willibrord on his missionary journeys. Died in 713
Sullivan, Alexander Martin - Irish politician, lawyer and journalist, b. at Bantry in 1830; d. at Dartry Lodge, Rathmines, Dublin, 17 Oct., 1884
Sullivan, Peter John - Soldier, lawyer, born at Cork, Ireland, 15 March, 1821; died at Cincinnati, Ohio, 2 March 1883
Sully, Maurice de - Bishop of Paris, born of humble parents at Sully-sur-Loire (Soliacum), near Orleans, at the beginning of the twelfth century; died at Paris, 11 Sept., 1196
Sulpicians in the United States - Came to the United States at the very rise of the American Hierarchy
Sulpicius Severus - An ecclesiastical writer, born of noble parents in Aquitaine c. 360; died about 420-25
Sulpitius - Two bishops of Bourges bore this name
Sumatra - Erected by a Decree of 30 June, 1911, and entrusted to the Dutch Capuchins
Summæ - Compendiums of theology, philosophy, and canon law which were used both as textbooks in the schools and as books of reference during the Middle Ages
Summer Schools, Catholic - An assembly of Catholic clergy and laity held during the summer months to foster intellectual culture in harmony with Christian faith by means of lectures and special courses along university extension lines
Sunday - Sunday (Day of the Sun), as the name of the first day of the week, is derived from Egyptian astrology
Superior - Situated in the northern part of Wisconsin
Supernatural Adoption - The adoption of man by God in virtue of which we become His sons and heirs
Supernatural Gift - Something conferred on nature that is above all the powers (vires) of created nature
Supernatural Order - The ensemble of effects exceeding the powers of the created universe and gratuitously produced by God for the purpose of raising the rational creature above its native sphere to a God-like life and destiny
Superstition - From supersisto, 'to stand in terror of the deity'
Supper, The Last - The Evangelists and critics generally agree that the Last Supper was on a Thursday, that Christ suffered and died on Friday, and that He arose from the dead on Sunday
Suppression of Monasteries in Continental Europe - The suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in the strict sense or houses of the mendicant orders) since the Reformation
Suppression of Monasteries in England - From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century
Supremi disciplinæ - Motu Proprio of Pius X, promulgated 2 July, 1911, relating to Holy Days of obligation. On Holy Days of precept a twofold duty is incumbent on the faithful, of hearing Mass and of abstaining from servile work
Sura - Titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis
Surin, Jean-Joseph - Born 1600; died at Bordeaux, 1665. He belonged to the Society of Jesus, and enjoyed celebrity for his virtues, his trials, and his talents as a spiritual director
Surius, Laurentius - Hagiologist, born at the Hanseatic city of Luebeck, 1522; died at Cologne, 23 May, 1578
Surplice - A large-sleeved tunic of half-length, made of fine linen or cotton, and worn by all the clergy
Susa - Capital of the Kingdom of Elam
Susa - Diocese in the Province of Turin, Piedmont, Northern Italy
Susanna and Tiburtius, Saints - Roman martyrs, feast 11 August
Suso, Blessed Henry - Biography of this German Dominican mystic, d. 1366
Suspension (in Canon Law) - Usually defined as a censure by which a cleric is deprived, entirely or partially of the use of the power of orders, office, or benefice
Sutton, Ven. Robert - Priest, martyr, b. at Burton-on-Trent; quartered at Stafford, 27 July, 1587
Sutton, Sir Richard - Co-founder of Brasenose College, Oxford, date of birth unknown; d. September or October, 1524
Swan, Order of the - A pious confraternity, indulgenced by the pope, which arose in 1440 in the Electorate of Brandenburg, originally comprising, with the Elector Frederick at their head, thirty gentleman and seven ladies united to pay special honour to the Blessed Virgin
Sweden - The largest of the three Scandinavian countries and the eastern half of the Scandinavian peninsula
Swedenborgians - The believers in the religious doctrines taught by Emanuel Swedenborg. As an organized body they do not call themselves Swedenborgians, which seems to assert the human origin of their religion, but wish to be known as the 'Church of the New Jerusalem', or 'New Church', claiming for it Divine Authorship and promulgation through human instrumentality
Sweinheim, Konrad - Fifteenth-century printers who brought the printing press to Italy
Swetchine, Sophie-Jeanne Soymonof - Writer, b. at Moscow, 22 Nov., 1782; d. in Paris, 10 Sept., 1857
Sweynheim, Konrad - Printer, b. at Schwanheim, Frankfort, Germany; d. in Rome, 1477
Swinomish Indians - A tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, closely connected with the Skagit. They formerly held the territory about the mouth of the river Skagit together with the adjacent portion of Whidbey Island
Swithin, Saint - Bishop of Winchester (d. 862). One of the two trusted counsellors of Egbert, King of the West Saxons
Switzerland - A confederation in the central part of Western Europe, made up of twenty-two cantons, three of which are divided into half-cantons
Syene - A titular see in Thebian Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais. Syene (Egyptian, Souanou, Coptic, Souan) was originally the marketplace of the island of Elephantine (in Egyptian, Abou)
Sykes, Edmund - Born at Leeds; martyred at York Tyburn 23 March, 1586-7
Syllabus - The name given to two series of propositions containing modern religious errors condemned respectively by Pius IX (1864) and Pius X (1907)
Sylvester I, Pope Saint - In office for 21 years, while Constantine was emperor. St. Sylvester died in 335
Sylvester II - Pope (999-1003)
Sylvester, Bernard, of Chartres - A twelfth-century philosopher of Neo-Platonic tendencies
Sylvester Gozzolini, Saint - Founder of the Sylvestrines. Canon, hermit. Died 1267
Sylvester, Order of Saint - The Order is neither monastic nor military but a purely honorary title created by Gregory XVI, 31 Oct., 1841
Sylvestrines - A minor monastic order or, strictly speaking, congregation following in general the Rule of St. Benedict but distinct from the Black monks and not forming a part of the confederation of Benedictine congregations
Sylvia, Saint - The mother of St. Gregory the Great. She died in about 592
Sylvius, Francis - Theologian, born at Braine-le-Comte, Hainault, Belgium, 1581; died at Douai, 22 February, 1649
Sydney - The vast territories formerly known as New Holland and Van Dieman's Island and since 1900 as The Commonwealth of Australia were erected to the Vicariate Apostolic of New Holland in 1834
Symbolism - The investing of outward things or actions with an inner meaning, more especially for the expression of religious ideas
Symmachus, Pope Saint - Lengthy article on this pope, who died in 514
Symmachus the Ebionite - Author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament included by Origen in his Hexapla and Tetrapla. Some fragments of this version survive in what remains of the Hexapla
Symphorian and Timotheus, Saints - Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August
Symphorosa, Saint - Martyr, d. circa 138. According to legend, her seven sons were martyred with her, and her acts were extant in the fifth century, but today we have no reliable testimonies about her life and martyrdom
Synagogue - The place of assemblage of the Jews. This article will treat of the name, origin, history, organization, liturgy and building of the synagogue
Synaus - A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea
Synaxarion - The name of a liturgical book of the Byzantine Church. The exact meaning of the name has changed at various times
Synaxis - Means gathering, assembly, reunion. It is exactly equivalent to the Latin collecta (from colligere), and corresponds to synagogue (synagoge), the place of reunion
Syncelli - A name which in the early Church was given to those monks or clerics who lived in the same room with their bishops, and whose duty it was to be witnesses to the purity of their lives or to perform the daily spiritual exercises in common with them
Syncretism - An explanation is given by Plutarch in a small work on brotherly love ('Opera Moralia', ed. Reiske, VII, 910). He there tells how the Cretans were often engaged in quarrels among themselves, but became immediately reconciled when an external enemy approached
Synderesis - Synderesis, or more correctly synteresis, is a term used by the Scholastic theologians to signify the habitual knowledge of the universal practical principles of moral action
Syndic, Apostolic - A layman, who in the name, and by the authority, of the Holy See assumes the care and civil administration of the temporalities and in particular the pecuniary alms destined for the support and benefit of Franciscan convents, and thence provides for the requirements of the brethren
Syndicalism - Derived from the French syndicats, associations of workingmen uniting members of the same trade or industry for the furtherance of common economic interests
Synesius of Cyrene - Bishop of Ptolomais, neo-Platonist, date of birth uncertain; d. about 414
Synnada - Titular metropolis in Phrygia Salutaris. Synnada is said to have been founded by Acamas who went to Phrygia after the Trojan war and took some Macedonian colonists
Synod - A general term for ecclesiastical gatherings under hierarchical authority, for the discussion and decision of matters relating to faith, morals, or discipline. It corresponds to the Latin word concilium
Synods, National - According to the recent canon law, national councils are the deliberating assemblies at which all the bishops of a nation are convoked by the patriarch or primate (Cf. Bened. XIV, 'De Synodo', I, i), but, in order to include the ancient national synods, it would be more correct to say a legitimate assemblage of the episcopate of a nation, the decisions of which are valid for an entire national Church
Synoptics - The name given since Griesbach's time (about 1790) to the first three canonical Gospels
Syntagma Canonum - A canonical collection made in 1335 by Blastares, a Greek monk about whose life nothing certain is known
Syon Monastery - Middlesex, England, founded in 1415 by King Henry V at his manor of Isleworth
Syra - A Latin diocese, suffragan of Naxos, comprising the Island of Syra of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea
Syracuse - Archdiocese of Syracuse (Syracusana) in Sicily
Syracuse - The Diocese of Syracuse, in the State of New York
Syria - A country in Western Asia, which in modern times comprises all that region bounded on the north by the highlands of the Taurus, on the south by Egypt, on the east by Mesopotamia and the Arabia Desert, and on the west by the Mediterranean
Syriac Hymnody - To the general consideration set forth in the article hymnody and hymnology must be added some bearing particularly on the structure and liturgical use of hymns (madrashe), exclusive of poetical homilies or discourses (mimre), which belong to the narrative and epic class, while the hymns are lyrical
Syriac Language and Literature - Syriac is the important branch of the group of Semitic languages known as Aramaic
Syrian Rite, East - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Syrian Rite, West - The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language
Syro-Chaldaic Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Syro-Jacobite Liturgy - The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language
Syro-Malabar Church - An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent from the Apostle St. Thomas
Syro-Malabar Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Szántó, Stephan - Born in the Diocese of Raab, Hungary, 1541; died at Olmuetz in 1612
Szatmár - Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, from which it was formed, by King Francis I, at the same time as the See of Kassa
Sze-Ch'wan (Eastern) - The mission of Eastern Sze-ch'wan was separated from North-western Sze-ch'wan and erected in a Vicariate Apostolic in 1856
Sze-Ch'wan (North-western) - Vicariate Apostolic of North-western Sze-Ch'wan
Sze-Ch'wan (Southern) - Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Sze-Ch'wan
Szentiványi, Martin - Born at Szentivan, 20 October, 1633; died at Nagy-Szombat (Tyrnau), 5 March, 1708. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1653, and was professor of Scripture for five years at Vienna and Nagy-Szombat, professor of mathematics and philosophy for nine years, and professor of canon law and theology for seven years
Szepes - Diocese in Hungary
Szujski, Joseph - Born at Tarnow, 1835; d. at Cracow, 1883
Szymonowicz, Simon - Known also by the Latin name of Somonides, b. at Lemberg, 1558; d. 1629
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