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Maassen, Friedrich Bernard Christian - Professor of law (1823-1900)
Mabillon, Jean - Benedictine monk of the Congregation of Saint-Maur (1632-1707)
Mabinogion - A collection of medieval Welsh tales in prose
Macao - Diocese; suffragan of Goa
Macarius, Saint - Bishop of Jerusalem, d. 334. He was an opponent of Arianism
Macarius - Article on two saints named Macarius, both fourth-century Egyptian monks: St. Macarius the Egyptian ('the Elder') and St. Macarius the Alexandrian ('the Younger')
Macarius Magnes - A Christian apologist of the end of the fourth century
Macarius of Antioch - A Patriarch, deposed in 681
McCabe, Edward - Cardinal, born in Dublin, 1816; died at Kingstown, 11 February, 1885; he was the son of poor parents, educated at Father Doyle's school on the Quays and at Maynooth College, and was ordained priest in 1839
Maccabee, Judas - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4)
Maccabees, The - A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the tyranny of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, and after securing Jewish independence ruled the commonwealth till overthrown by Herod the Great
Maccabees, The Books of - The author, date, and contents of 1 and 2 Machabees. A brief look at 3 and 4 Machabees
MacCaghwell, Hugh - Archbishop and theologian, born at Saul, Co. Down, 1571; died 22 September, 1626
MacCarthy, Bartholomew - Irish scholar and chronologist (1843-1904)
MacCarthy, Denis Florence - Well-known Irish poet of the nineteenth century, born in Lower O'Connell Street, Dublin, 26 May, 1817; died at Blackrock, Dublin, 7 April, 1882
McCarthy, Justin - Irish politician and writer (1830-1912)
MacCarthy, Nicholas Tuite - Called the Abbe de Levignac, born in Dublin on 19 May, 1769; died at Annecy, Savoy, 3 May, 1833
McCloskey, William George - Bishop of Louisville, Kentucky (1823-1909)
MacCuilenan, Cormac - Irish bishop and King of Cashel (836-908)
MacDonell, Alexander - First Bishop of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, b. 17 July 1760, at Inchlaggan in Glengarry, Scotland; d. 14 January, 1840, at Dumfries, Scotland
MacDonald, John - Laird of Glenaladale and Glenfinnan, philanthropist, colonizer, soldier, born in Glenaladale, Scotland, about 1742; died at Tracadie, Prince Edward Island, Canada, 1811; he was the son of Alexander and Margaret (MacDonnell of Scotus)
Mace - A short, richly ornamented staff
Macedonians - A fourth- and fifth-century heretical sect that denied the divinity of the Holy Ghost
Macedo, Francisco - Known as a S. Augustino, O.F.M., theologian, born at Coimbra, Portugal, 1596; he entered the Jesuit Order in 1610, which however he left in 1638 in order to join the Discalced Franciscans
Macerata and Tolentino - Located in the Marches, Central Italy
MacFarland, Francis Patrick - Third Bishop of Hartford born at Franklin, Pennsylvania, 16 April, 1819; died at Hartford, Connecticut, 2 October, 1874
McGee, Thomas D'Arcy - An editor, politician, and poet, born at Carlingford, Co. Louth, Ireland, 13 April, 1825; assassinated at Ottawa, Canada, 7 April, 1868
MacGeoghegan, James - Born at Uisneach, Westmeath, Ireland, 1702; died at Paris, 1763. He came of a long family long settled in Westmeath and long holding a high position among the Leinster chiefs, and was related to that MacGeoghegan who defended the Castle of Dunboy against Carew, and also to Connell MacGeoghegan, who translated the Annals of Clonmacnoise
Machabees, The - A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the tyranny of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, and after securing Jewish independence ruled the commonwealth till overthrown by Herod the Great
Machabees, The Books of - The author, date, and contents of 1 and 2 Machabees. A brief look at 3 and 4 Machabees
Machabeus, Judas - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4)
MacHale, John - Born March 6, 1791 at Tubbernavine, Co. Mayo, Ireland; died at Tuam, November 4, 1881
Machiavelli - Including a short biography, a list of his works and a summary of his ideas
Machpelah - The burial-place in the vicinity of ancient Hebron which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hethite for the interment of Sara (Gen., xxiii, 9, 17)
Machutus, Saint - Also called Malo or Maclovius. According to this article, Machutus was baptized by St. Brendan the Navigator, and accompanied him on his famous voyage
Mackenzie - This vicariate which was detached from the Athabaska-Mackenzie Vicariate in 1901 and intrusted to Mgr Gabriel Breynat, Titular Bishop of Adramytus, consecrated 6 April 1902, is bounded on the west by the Rocky Mountains, on the south by 60 degrees latitude, on the east by the water-shed and is unlimited on the north towards the pole
McLoughlin, John - Physician and pioneer, born in the parish of La Riviere du Loup, Canada, 19 October, 1784; died at Oregon City, 3 September, 1857
Maclovius, Saint - Also called Malo or Maclovius. According to this article, Machutus was baptized by St. Brendan the Navigator, and accompanied him on his famous voyage
MacMahon, Heber - Bishop of Clogher, Ireland, and patriotic leader, born at Farney, County Monaghan, 1600; executed at Enniskillen in 1650
MacMahon, Marie-Edmé-Patrice-Maurice de - Duc de Magenta, Marshal of France, President of the French Republic (1808-1893)
McMahon, Martin Thomas - Soldier, jurist; born at Laprairie, Canada, 21 March, 1838; died in New York, 21 April, 1906
McMaster, James Alphonsus - An editor, convert, born at Duanesburg, New York, U. S. A., 1 April, 1820; died in Brooklyn, New York, 29 December, 1886
MacNeven, William James - Irish-American physician and medical educator (1763-1841)
Mâcon, Ancient Diocese of - Located in Burgundy. The city of Macon, formerly the capital of the Maconnais, now of the Department of Saone-et-Loire, became a civitas in the fifth century, when it was separated from the Aeduan territory
McQuaid, Bernard John - The first Bishop of Rochester, U. S. A.; born in New York City, 15 December, 1823; died at Rochester, 18 January, 1909
Macri - A titular see in Mauretania Sitifiensis
Macrina the Elder, Saint - Grandmother of SS. Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Macrina the Younger
Macrina the Younger, Saint - Granddaughter of St. Macrina the Elder, and the sister of St. Gregory of Nyssa. She died in 379
McSherry, James Jr. - Jurist, son of the author James McSherry; born at Frederick, Maryland, 30 December, 1842; died there 23 October, 1907
McSherry, James Sr. - Author; born at Liberty Town, Frederick County, Maryland, 29 July, 1819; died at Frederick City, Maryland, 13 July, 1869, was the son of James McSherry and Anne Ridgely Sappington, and the grandson of Patrick McSherry, who came from Ireland in 1745 to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and removed later to Maryland
McSherry, Richard - Physician; born at Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia), 21 November, 1817; died Baltimore, Md., 7 Ocbober, 1885, son of Dr. Richard McSherry
Mactaris - A titular see of the Byzantine Empire
Madagascar - Island situated to the south-east of Africa
Madaurus - A titular see of Numidia
Maderna, Carlo - Known principally by his extension of St. Peter's, at the command of the pope, from the form of a Greek to that of a Latin cross (1556-1629)
Maderno, Stefano - A sculptor of the Roman School and of the era just preceding Bernini, his contemporary (1576-1636)
Madianites - An Arabian tribe introduced into history in the texts of Gen., xxv, 1-4 and I Chron., i, 32
Madras - Archdiocese in India
Madrid-Alcalá - Province and town in Spain
Madruzzi, Christopher - Born of a noble family of Trent, 5 July, 1512; died at Tivoli, Italy, 5 July, 1578
Madura Mission - The Madura mission owes its origin to Robert de Nobili, who commenced at Madura, in 1606, that peculiar method of propagating the faith which has made his name famous
Maedoc, Saint - First bishop of Ferns, d. 626
Maelruan, Saint - Founder and first abbot of Tallacht, d. around 791. Co-author with St. Aengus of the Rule of the Celidhe De
Maelrubha, Saint - Abbot and martyr, died in 722
Maerlant, Jacob van - Flemish poet of the Middle Ages, b. about 1235; d. after 1291
Maestro di Camera del Papa - The maestro di camera is the real chief chamberlain. His authority extends over all matters concerning the daily personal service of His Holiness
Maffei, Bernardino - Poet, orator, antiquarian (1514-1549)
Maffei, Francesco - Italian painter (d. 1660)
Maffei, Marchese Francesco Scipione - Italian litterateur and archaeologist, b. at Verona, 1 June, 1675; d. there, 11 Feb., 1755
Maffei, Raffaelo - Humanist, historian and theologian (1451-1522)
Magaud, Antoine-Dominique - French painter, b. at Marseilles 1817; d. there, 1899
Magdala - It is perhaps the Migdal-El mentioned in the Old Testament (Joshua 19:38) belonging to the tribe of Nephtali
Magdalens - The members of certain religious communities of penitent women who desired to reform their lives
Magdeburg - Capital of the Prussian Province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe; pop. 241,000; it is noted for its industries, particularly the production of sugar, its trade, and its commerce. From 968 until 1552 it was the seat of an archbishopric
Mageddo - Situated on the torrent Qina, on the east of the Plain of Esdraelon opposite Jezrahel, commanded the central of the three passes that join the plain with the seaboard
Magellan, Ferdinand - Short biographical article on the Portuguese explorer (1480-1521)
Magi - The 'wise men from the East' who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2)
Magin Catalá - Born at Montblanch, Catalonia, Spain, 29 or 30 January, 1761; died at Santa Clara, California, 22 Nov., 1830. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona on 4 April, 1777, and was ordained priest probably in 1785
Maginn, Edward - Irish bishop (1802-1849)
Magisterium and Tradition - The word tradition refers sometimes to the thing (doctrine, account, or custom) transmitted from one generation to another sometimes to the organ or mode of the transmission
Magistris, Simone de - Born in 1728; died 6 October, 1802; a priest of the Oratorio di S. Filippo Neri, at Rome, whom Pius VI created titular Bishop of Cyrene and provost of the Congregation for the correction of the liturgical books of Oriental Rites
Magliabechi, Antonio - Italian scholar and librarian, b. 20 Oct., 1633, at Florence; d. there, 4 July, 1714
Magna Carta - The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with modifications by Henry III in 1216, 1217, and 1225
Magnesia - A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Ephesus
Magnien, Alphonse - An educator of the clergy, born at Bleymard, in the Diocese of Mende, France, 9 June, 1837; died 21 December, 1902
Magnificat - The title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) of Mary
Magnus, Olaus - Swedish historian and geographer, b. at Skeninge, Sweden, 1490; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1558
Magnus, Saint - His 'life' was re-edited twice, so that he is said in it to be a contemporary of St. Gall (early seventh century) but also of the first bishop of Augsburg (mid-eighth century)
Magnus, Valerianus - Born at Milan, 1586, presumably of the noble family of de Magni; died at Salzburg, 29 July, 1661. He received the Capuchin habit at Prague
Magrath, John Macrory - Born in Munster, Ireland, in the fifteenth certury; date and place of death unknown. Like many of his ancestors, he was chief historian to the O'Briens, princes of Thomond and chiefs of the Dalcassian clans
Magydus - A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perga
Mahony, Ven. Charles - Irish Franciscan priest who was executed at Ruthin in Wales in 1679. Short article includes a statement by the martyr
Mai, Angelo - Roman cardinal and celebrated philologist, b. at Schilpario, in the Diocese of Bergamo, 7 March 1782; d. at Albano, 9 September 1854
Maignan, Emmanuel - French physicist and theologian; b. at Toulouse, 17 July, 1601; d. at Toulouse, 29 October, 1676
Mailla, Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyria de - Jesuit missionary; b. 16 Dec., 1669, at Chateau Maillac on the Isere; d. 28 June, 1748, at Peking, China
Maillard, Antoine-Simon - Missionary b. in France (parentage, place and date of birth unknown); d. 12 August, 1762
Maillard, Oliver - Celebrated preacher, b. at Juignac, (?), Brittany, about 1430; d. at Toulouse, 22 July, 1502
Maimbourg, Louis - French church historian, b. at Nancy, 10 January, 1610; d. at Paris, 13 August, 1686
Maimonides, Teaching of Moses - Article by William Turner discusses this Jewish thinker's life and doctrines
Maina Indians - A group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock, the Mainan, ranging along the north bank of the Maranon
Maine - Commonly known as the Pine Tree State, but is sometimes called the Star in the East
Maine de Biran, François-Pierre-Gonthier - A philosopher; born at Grateloup near Bergerac, Dordogne, France, 29 November, 1766; died at Paris, 16 July, 1824
Maintenon, Françoise, Marquise de - Born at Niort, 28 November 1635; died at Saint-Cyr, 15 April 1719. She was the granddaughter of the celebrated Protestant writer, Agrippa d'Aubigne
Mainz - German town and bishopric in Hesse; formerly the seat of an archbishop and elector
Maipure Indians - A former important group of tribes on the Upper Orinoco River, from above the Meta to the entrance of the Cassiquiare, in Venezuela and Columbia, speaking dialects of the Arawakan stock
Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedey de - Founder of Montreal (d. 1676)
Maistre, Joseph-Marie, Comte de - Biographical article, summarizing his chief arguments for authority and against Gallicanism
Maistre, Xavier de - French romance writer, younger brother of Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre, b. at Chambery, Savoy, in 1763; d. at St. Petershurg, 12 June, 1852
Maitland - Located in New South Wales. Maitland, the principal settlement on Hunter River, was chosen as the title for a bishop in 1848
Majano, Benedetto da - A well-known Florentine sculptor and architect of the Renaissance, b. at Majano, Tuscany. 1442; d. at Florence, 24 May, 1498
Majella, St. Gerard - Tailor, Redemptorist, called 'Father of the Poor,' d. 1755
Majorca and Iviza - A suffragan of Valencia, with the episcopal residence at Palma on the Island of Majorca
Majordomo - Chief steward of the household of the pope
Majority - The state of a person or thing greater, or superior, in relation to another person or thing
Majunke, Paul - Catholic journalist, born at Gross-Schmograu in Silesia, 14 July, 1842; died at Hochkirch near Glogau, 21 May, 1899
Malabar - The name of a district of India stretching about 145 miles along the west coast, south of Mangalore, in the general region of present-day Kerala
Malabar Rites - Certain customs or practices of the natives of South India, which the Jesuit missionaries allowed their neophytes to retain after conversion, but which were afterwards prohibited by the Holy See
Malacca - The Diocese of Malacca comprises the southern portions of the Malay Peninsula, otherwise known as the Straits Settlements
Malachias - Examination of the Old Testament prophet and book
Malachy, Saint - Abbot of Bangor, later Archbishop of Armagh, d. 1148. Article includes testimony from St. Bernard of Clairvaux on St. Malachy's character
Malaga - Diocese in Spain, by the Concordat of 1851 made a suffragan of Granada, having previously been dependent on Seville
Malagrida, Gabriel - A Jesuit missionary to Brazil, b. 18 September or 6 December, 1689, at Menaggio, in Italy; d. 21 September, 1761, at Lisbon
Malatesta, House of - The name of an Italian family prominent in the history of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, famous alike in the poetry of Dante and in the annals of the early Renaissance
Malchus - A name common in the Semitic languages and of special interest as being that borne by the Jewish servant whose ear was struck off by St. Peter
Maldonado, Juan - A theologian and exegete, b. in 1533 at Casas de Reina, in the district of Llerena, 66 leagues from Madrid; d. at Rome, 5 Jan., 1583
Malebranche, Nicolas - A philosopher and theologian, priest of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri; b. at Paris, 6 Aug., 1638; d. 13 Oct 1715
Malediction (in Scripture) - Four principal words are rendered maledictio in the Vulgate, 'curse' in Douay Version
Malherbe, François - French poet, b. at Caen, Normandy, in 1555; d. at Paris, 16 October, 1628
Maliseet Indians - A tribe of Algonquian stock, occupying territory upon the lower St. John River, St. Croix River, and Passamaquody Bay, in western New Brunswick and northeastern Maine, and closely connected linguistically and historically with the Abnaki (Penobscot, etc.) of Maine
Mallard, Ernest-François - A French mineralogist, b. 4 February, 1833, at Chateauneuf-sur-Cher; d. 6 July, 1894, in Paris
Mallinckrodt, Herman von - German parliamentarian; born 5 Feb., 1821, at Minden, Westphalia; died 26 May, 1874, at Berlin
Mallinckrodt, Pauline - A sister of the Catholic political leader Hermann Mallinckrodt, and foundress of the Sisters of Christian Charity, b. at Minden, Westphalia, 3 June, 1817; d. at Paderborn, 30 April, 1881
Malling Abbey - Benedictine abbey in England
Mallory, Stephen Russell - An American statesman; born in the Island of Trinidad, W. I., 1813; died at Pensacola, Florida, United States, 9 Nov., 1873
Mallus - A titular see of Cilicia Prima, suffragan of Tarsus
Malmesbury - Town in Wiltshire, England, ninety-five miles west of London, formerly the seat of a mitred parliamentary abbey of Benedictine monks
Malmesbury, The Monk of - Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. IV. 73) which Tanner states to be only a copy of a chronicle written by Alfred of Beverley in the twelfth century, but which, according to Sir Thomas Hardy, is almost entirely based on that of Geoffrey of Monmouth
Malo, Saint - Also called Malo or Maclovius. According to this article, Machutus was baptized by St. Brendan the Navigator, and accompanied him on his famous voyage
Malone, William - Jesuit missioner and writer; born according to the best authorities, in 1585; died at Seville, 1655
Malory, Sir Thomas - Writer of the 'Morte Arthure', the earliest production of English prose
Malpighi, Marcello - Founder of comparative physiology, b. at Crevalcore, 10 March, 1628; d. at Rome, 29 Sept., 1694
Malta - The group of Maltese islands, including Malta, Gozo, Comine and a few inconsiderable islets, lies 58 miles south of Sicily and about 180 miles S.E. by E. of Cape Bon in Tunisia
Malta, Knights of - The most important of all the military orders, both for the extent of its area and for its duration
Maltret, Claude - French Jesuit, b. at Puy, 3 Oct., 1621; d. Toulouse, 3 Jan., 1674
Malvenda, Thomas - An exegete and historical critic, b. at Jativa, Valencia, 1566; d. 7 May, 1628
Malvern - Located in Worcestershire, England, a district covered by a lofty range between the Severn and Wye, known as the Malvern Hills. On its eastern side were formerly two houses of Benedictine monks, the priories of Great and Little Malvern
Mamachi, Thomas Maria - Dominican theologian and historian, born at Chios in the Archipelago, 4 December, 1713; died at Corneto, near Montefiascone, Italy, 7 June, 1792
Mame, Alfred-Henri-Amand - Printer and publisher, b. at Tours, 17 Aug., 1811; d. at Tours, 12 April, 1893
Mameluco - The general term applied in South America to designate the mixed European-Indian race, and more specifically applied in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the organized bands of Portuguese slave-hunters who desolated the vast interior of South America from the Atlantic to the slopes of the Andes, and from the Paraguay to the Orinoco
Mamertine Prison - The so-called 'Mamertine Prison', beneath the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, via di Marforio, Rome, is generally accepted as being identical with 'the prison ... in the middle of the city, overlooking the forum', mentioned by Livy (I, xxxiii)
Mamertus, Claudianus - Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne, d. about 473
Mamertus, Saint - Bishop of Vienne, d. around 476
Mammon - Mamona; the spelling Mammona is contrary to the textual evidence and seems not to occur in printed Bibles till the edition of Elzevir
Man - Includes sections on the nature of man, the origin of man, and the end of man
Manahem - King of Israel
Manahen, Saint - Or Manaen. Mentioned in Scripture, and traditionally believed to have been one of the first Christians in Antioch
Manasses - The name of seven persons of the Bible, a tribe of Israel, and one of the apocryphal writings
Mance, Jeanne - Foundress of the Montreal Hotel-Dieu, and one of the first women settlers in Canada, b. at Nogent-le-Roi, Champagne, 1606; d. at Montreal, 19 June, 1673
Manchester - A suffragan of the Archdiocese of Boston, U.S.A
Manchuria - A north-eastern division of the Chinese Empire and the cradle of the present [1910] imperial dynasty
Mandan Indians - Tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or Grosventre) and Arikara (Ree) the Fort Berthold reservation, on both sides of the Missouri, near its conjunction with the Knife River, North Dakota
Mandeville, Jean de - The author of a book of travels much read in the Middle Ages, died probably in 1372
Manfredonia - The city of Manfredonia is situated in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Central Italy, on the borders of Mount Gargano
Mangalore - Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay
Mangan, James Clarence - Irish poet, b. in Dublin, 1 May, 1803; d. there, 20 June, 1849. He was the son of James Mangan, a grocer, and of Catherine Smith
Manharter - A politico-religious sect which arose in Tyrol in the first half of the nineteenth century
Manichæism - A religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third century
Manifestation of Conscience - A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which subjects manifest the state of their conscience to the superior, in order that the latter may know them intimately, and thus further their spiritual progress
Manila - This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, Cavite, Mindoro, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Tarlac, and Zambales; and the Districts of Infanta and Marinduque in the Province of Tayabas
Manila Observatory - Founded by Father Frederic Faura, S.J., in 1865; constituted officially The Philippine Weather Bureau by decree of the American governor, May, 1901
Maniple - An ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little over a yard long and from somewhat over two to almost four inches wide, which is placed on the left arm in such manner that it falls in equal length on both sides of the arm
Manitoba - History of the Canadian province
Mann, Theodore Augustine - English naturalist and historian, b. in Yorkshire, 22 June, 1735; d. at Prague in Bohemia, 23 Feb., 1809
Manna - The food miraculously sent to the Israelites during their forty years sojourn in the desert (Exodus 16 and Numbers 11:6-9)
Manning, Henry Edward - Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster (1808-1892)
Mannyng, Robert - Poet, from Bourne in Lincolnshire, England
Mansard, François - French architect, born in Paris, probably of Italian stock, in 1598; died there, 1666
Mansard, Jules - French architect, grand-nephew of Francois, was originally Jules Hardouin, but took the name of Mansard; was born in Paris, 1646; died at Marly 1708
Mansi, Gian Domenico - Italian prelate and scholar born at Lucca, of a patrician family, 16 February, 1692; died archbishop of that city, 27 September, 1769
Mantegna, Andrea - Biography of the Italian painter
Mantelletta - An outer vestment reaching to the knees, open in front, with slits instead of sleeves on the sides
Mantua - Diocese of Mantua (Mantuana), in Lombardy
Mantuanus, Baptista - Carmelite, Renaissance poet, d. 1516
Manu, The Laws of - The English designation commonly applied to the 'Manava Dharma-sastra', a metrical Sanskrit compendium of ancient sacred laws and customs held in the highest reverence by the orthodox adherents of Brahminism
Manuel Chysoloras - First teacher of Greek in Italy, born at Constantinople about the middle of the fourteenth century; died at Constance, German, and was buried there, 15 April, 1415
Manuscripts - Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called a manuscript
Manuscripts, Illuminated - A large number of manuscripts covered with painted ornaments
Manuscripts of the Bible - Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof
Manuterge - The name given to the towel used by the priest when engaged liturgically
Manutius, Aldus - Scholar and printer (1450-1515)
Manzoni, Alessandro - Italian poet and novelist, b. at Milan, 7 March, 1785; d. 22 May, 1873
Map, Walter - Archdeacon of Oxford, b. at, or in the vicinity of, Hereford, c. 1140, d. between 1208 and 1210
Maphrian - The Syriac word mafriano signifies one who fructifies, a consecrator. It is used to designate the prelate who holds the second rank after the patriarch among the Jacobite Syrians
Maran, Prudentius - A learned Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. 14 October, 1683, at Sezanne, in the Department of Marne; d. 2 April, 1762, at Paris
Marash - An Armenian Catholic Diocese
Maratta, Carlo - An Italian painter, b. at Camerino, in the March of Ancona, 13 May, 1625, d. in Rome, 15 December, 1713
Marbodius - Bishop of Rennes, ecclesiastical writer and hymnologist, b. about 1035 at Angers, France, d. there 11 September, 1123
Marca, Pierre de - French bishop and scholar, b. at Gan in Bearn, 24 Jan., 1594, of a family distinguished in the magistracy; d. at Paris, 29 June, 1662
Marcellian and Mark, Saints - Blood brothers martyred at Rome in the Diocletian persecution, probably in 286
Marcellina, Saint - Consecrated virgin, blood sister of St. Ambrose, d. about 398
Marcellinus, Flavius - A high official at the court of Emperor Honorius, and possessed the confidence of his imperial master owing to his good sense, and unblemished conduct
Marcellinus, Pope - Elected to the papacy in 296. He died in 304, probably of natural causes, since no early source calls him a martyr
Marcellinus Comes - Latin chronicler of the sixth century
Marcellinus of Civezza, O.F.M. - Modern Franciscan author, born at Civezza in Liguria, Italy, 29 May, 1822; d. at Leghorn, 27 March, 1906
Marcello, Benedetto - Biography focusing on religious works, particularly his Paraphrase of the Psalms
Marcellus I, Saint, Pope - After a vacancy in office following the death of Pope St. Marcellinus, was elected to the papacy in 308. Fairly lengthy biographical article
Marcellus II, Pope - Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany; died 6 May, 1555, at Rome. His father, Ricardo Cervini, was Apostolic treasurer in the March of Ancona
Marcellus of Ancyra - One of the bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea, a strong opponent of Arianism, but in his zeal to combat Arius adopting the opposite extreme of modified Sabellianism and being several times condemned, dying deprived of his see c. A.D. 374
March, Auzias - A Catalan poet, b. perhaps in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, at Valencia; d. there in 1458
Marchand, Jean Baptiste - Second principal in order of succession of the Sulpician College of Montreal and missionary of the Detroit Hurons at Sandwich, Ont.; b. at Vercheres, Que., 25 Feb. 1760, son of Louis Marchand and Marguerite de Niverville; d. at Sandwich, 14 Apr., 1825
Marchant, Peter - A theologian, b. at Couvin, a village in the principality of Liege, in 1585; d. at Ghent, 11 Nov., 1661
Marchesi, Pompeo - A Lombard sculptor of the neoclassic school, born at Saltrio, near Milan, 7 August, 1790; died at Milan, 6 February. 1858
Marchi, Giuseppe - An archaeologist, born at Tolmezzo near Udine, 22 Feb., 1795; died at Rome, 10 Feb., 1860
Marcian - Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. January, 457
Marciane - A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra
Marcianopolis - A titular see in Lower Maesia, on the right bank of the Danube, so called by Trajan after his sister Marciana (Amm. Marcellinus, XXVII, 2) and previously known as Parthenopolis
Marcionites - Said that the creator 'god' of the Old Testament was not the good God and Father of Jesus Christ of the New Testament. Had their own shadow hierarchy and their own Bible, which consisted of parts of Luke and Paul, edited so as to disparage the Old Testament. Only the unmarried were allowed to be baptized. Marcionism may have led to the formation of the Apostle's Creed as rebuttal, and certainly was an incentive in deciding on the canon of the New Testament
Marco Polo - Venetian traveller (1251-1324)
Marcopois - A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Edessa
Marcosians - A sect of Valentinian Gnostics, founded by Marcus
Marcoux, Joseph - A missionary among the Iroquois, b. in Canada, 16 March, 1791; d. there 29 May, 1855
Marcus - The name of three leading Gnostics
Marcus, Pope Saint - Reigned for less than 9 months, d. 336
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus - Second-century Roman emperor and philosopher
Marcus Diadochus - An obscure writer of the fourth century of whom nothing is known but his name at the head of a 'Sermon against the Arians', discovered by Wetsten in a manuscript codex of St. Athanasius at Basle
Marcus Eremita - A theologian and ascetic writer of some importance in the fifth century
Mardin - A residential Armenian archbishopric, a Chaldean bishopric, and a residential Syrian bishopric; moreover it is the headquarters of the Capuchin mission of Mardin and Amida
Maréchal, Ambrose - The third Archbishop of Baltimore; born at Ingres near Orleans, France, 28 August, 1764; died at Baltimore, 29 January, 1828
Marenco - (1), Carlo, Italian dramatist, born at Cassolo (or Cassolnuovo) in Piedmont in 1800; died at Savona in 1846 (2), Leopoldo, Italian dramatic poet, born at Ceva in 1831; died 1899, son of Carlo Marenco
Marenzio, Luca - Composer (1550-1599)
Margaret, Saint - Also known in the Christian East as St. Marina. Virgin and martyr from Pisidian Antioch
Margaret Haughery - 'The mother of the orphans', as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, Ireland, about 1814; d. at New Orleans, Louisiana, 9 February, 1882
Margaret of Hungary, Blessed - Princess who became a Dominican at the age of 4. She died in 1270 or 1271, and was canonized in 1943
Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament - French Carmelite nun (1590-1660)
Margaret Clitherow, Saint - Article on this martyr, d. 1586, who is called the 'Pearl of York.' St. Margaret was crushed to death for the crime of harboring priests
Margaret Colonna, Blessed - A Roman orphan, hermit, founder of a community of Poor Clares, d. 1284
Margaret Mary, Saint - Biographical article on the apostle of the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Margaret of Cortona, Saint - Third Order Franciscan, d. 1297
Margaret of Lorraine, Blessed - Duchess d'Alencon, widow, became a Poor Clare, d. 1521
Margaret of Savoy, Blessed - Widow, Third Order Dominican, d. 1464
Margaret of Scotland, Saint - Biographical entry on the eleventh-century queen
Margaret Pole, Blessed - Biography of the Countess of Salisbury, martyred in 1541
Margaritae - The canonists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries who taught canon law by commenting on the Decretum of Gratian and on the various collections of the Decretals, gave the most varied forms and diverse names to their treatises. The 'Margaritae' are collections specially intended to help the memory
Margil, Antonio - Born at Valencia, Spain, 18 August, 1657; died at Mexico, 6 Aug., 1726. He entered the Franciscan Order in his native city on 22 April, 1673. After his ordination to the priesthood he volunteered for the Indian missions in America, and arrived at Vera Cruz on 6 June, 1683
Margotti, Giacomo - A Catholic publicist, born 11 May, 1823; died 6 May, 1887. He was a native of San Remo, where his father was president of the Chamber of Commerce, and there he studied the classics and philosophy, after which he entered the seminary of Ventimiglia; in 1845, he obtained the doctorate at the University of Genoa and was received into the Royal Academy of Superga, where he remained until 1849
Maria de Agreda - Franciscan mystic (1602-1665)
Maria-Laach - A Benedictine abbey on the southwest bank of Lake Laach, near Andernach in Rhineland, Germany
Mariales, Kantes - A Dominican, born about 1580; died at Venice in April, 1660
Mariana - Situated in the centre of Minas Geraes, the great mining state of Brazil, is bounded on the north, south and west respectively by its suffragan sees, Diamantina, Pouso Alegre, Goyaz, and Uberaba
Mariana, Juan - Author and Jesuit, b. at Talavern, Toledo, Spain, probably in April, 1536; d. at Toledo, 16 February, 1624
Mariana Islands - The Marianas Archipelago (also called the Ladrone Islands) is a chain of fifteen islands in the Northern Pacific, first discovered in 1521 by Magellan
Mariannhill, Congregation of the Missionaries of - Located in Natal, near Pinetown, 15 miles from Durban, and 56 from Pietermaritzburg
Marian Priests - This term is applied to those English priests who being ordained in or before the reign of Queen Mary (1553-1558), survived into the reign of Elizabeth
Marianus of Florence - A Friar Minor and historian, born at Florence about the middle of the fifteenth century, exact date of birth uncertain; died there, 20 July, 1523
Marianus Scotus - Two Irish scholars of this name attained distinction in the eleventh century. Both spent the greater part of their lives in Germany
Maria Theresa - Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died 1780
Marie Antoinette - Biography of the Queen of France
Marie Christine of Savoy, Blessed - The daughter of Victor Emanuel I, married King Ferdinand II of Sicily, d. 1836 at the age of 23
Marie de France - Twelfth-century French poetess
Marie de l'Incarnation, Blessed - A.k.a. Madame Acarie. Founded the French Carmel, d. 1618
Marie de l'Incarnation, Venerable - Baptismal name Marie Guyard. First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec. Biography
Marienberg - A Benedictine abbey of the Congregation of St. Joseph near Mals, Tyrol (in Vintschau)
Marignolli, Giovanni de' - Franciscan missionary to Asia (b. 1290)
Marina, Saint - Also known in the Christian East as St. Marina. Virgin and martyr from Pisidian Antioch
Marina - The name of an ancient and noble family of the Republic of Genoa, distinguished alike in the Island of Chios, one of its dependencies, where it possessed many beautiful and valuable estates
Marini, Luigi Gaetano - A natural philosopher, jurist, historian, archeologist, born at Sant' Orcangelo (pagus Acerbotanus), 18 Dec., 1742; died at Paris, 7 May, 1815
Marinus I, Pope - Reigned 882-884
Marinus II, Pope - Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946
Mariotte, Edme - French physicist, b. at Dijon, France, about 1620; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1684
Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints - Family martyred at Rome in 270. SS. Maris and Martha were husband and wife
Marisco, Adam de - A Franciscan who probably came from the county of Somerset, but the date of his birth is unknown; died at the end of 1257 or the beginning of 1258
Mariscotti, Saint Hyacintha - Third Order Franciscan, founder of the Oblates of Mary (Sacconi), died 1640
Marius Aventicus, Saint - Or Aventicensis, so called because he was bishop of Avenches. Goldsmith, chronicler, d. 594
Marius Maximus, Lucius Perpetuus Aurelianus - Roman historian, lived c. 165-230
Marius Mercator - Ecclesiastical writer, born probably in Northern Africa about 390; died shortly after 451
Mark, Saint - What can be pieced together of St. Mark's life from Scripture. Also reports on tradition surrounding the saint
Mark, Pope Saint - Reigned for less than 9 months, d. 336
Mark, Gospel of - The Second Gospel, like the other two Synoptics, deals chiefly with the Galilean ministry of Christ, and the events of the last week at Jerusalem
Mark and Marcellian, Saints - Blood brothers martyred at Rome in the Diocletian persecution, probably in 286
Mark of Lisbon - Friar minor, historian, and Bishop of Oporto in Portugal, b. at Lisbon (date of birth uncertain); d. in 1591
Maroni, Paul - Missionary, b. 1 Nov., 1695
Maronia - A titular see in the province of Rhodopis, suffragan of Trajanopolis
Maronites - History of the Maronite nation and Church
Marquesas Islands - Located in Polynesia, includes all the Marquesas Islands
Marquette (Michigan) - The Diocese comprises the upper peninsula and the adjacent islands of the State of Michigan, U.S.A
Marquette, Jacques - Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north central France; d. near Ludington, Michigan, 19 May, 1675
Marquette League - A society founded in New York, in May, 1904, by Rev. H.G. Ganss, of Lancaster, Pa
Marquette University - Marquette University of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an outgrowth of Marquette College, which was opened in 1881, although it had been planned by Right Rev. John Martin Henni as far back as 1850
Marriage Banns - In general the ecclesiastical announcement of the names of persons contemplating marriage
Marriage, Civil - The municipal law deals with this status only as a civil institution
Marriage, History of - The Catholic views of marriage
Marriage, Mixed - Those between Catholics and non-Catholics, when the latter have been baptized in some Christian sect. The term is also used to designate unions between Catholics and infidels
Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of - Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights form one principle of generation
Marriage, Mystical - In the Old and the New Testament, the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations with His chosen people (whether of the Synagogue or of the Church), are frequently typified under the form of the relations between bridegroom and bride. In like manner, Christian virginity been considered from the earliest centuries as a special offering made by the soul to its spouse, Christ
Marriage, Putative - A matrimonial alliance which is commonly reputed to be valid, and is sincerely believed by one at least of the contracting parties to be so in the eyes of the Church, because entered into in good faith; but which in reality is null and void, owing to the existence of a diriment impediment
Marriage, Ritual of - The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony is detailed
Marriage, Sacrament of - Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons) is really a sacrament of the New Law in the strict sense of the word is for all Catholics an indubitable truth
Marriage, Validation of - May be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises only from a defective consent in one or both parties
Marryat, Florence - English novelist and actress (1838-1899)
Marseilles - Diocese of Marseilles (Massiliensis), suffragan of Aix, comprises the district of Marseilles in the Department of Bouches-du-Rhone
Marshall, Thomas William - Controversial writer, b. 1818; d. at Surbiton, Surrey, 14 Dec., 1877
Marshall Islands - These islands, a German possession since 1885, lying in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Caroline islands, between 4 and 13 N. lat., and 161 and 171 E. longitude, were discovered in 1529 by Saavedra, Villalobos and other Spanish mariners, and explored by Marshall and Gilbert in 1788
Marsi - Diocese in the province of Aquila, Central Italy, with its seat at Pescina
Marsico Nuovo and Potenza - Suffragan diocese of Salerno
Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, Count de - Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730
Marsilius of Padua - Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342
Martel, Charles - French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741
Martène, Edmond - An historian and liturgist, born 22 December, 1654, at Saint-Jean-de-Losne near Dijon; died 20 June, 1739, at Saint-Germain-des-Pres near Paris
Martha, Saint - Sister of Mary of Bethany and of Lazarus
Martha, Maris, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints - Family martyred at Rome in 270. SS. Maris and Martha were husband and wife
Martial, Saint - Third-century bishop of Limoges
Martiall, John - One of the six companions associated with Dr. Allen in the foundation of the English College at Douai in 1568
Martianay, Jean - Born 30 Dec., 1647, at Saint-Sever-Cap, Diocese of Aire; died 16 June, 1717, at Saint Germain-des-Pres, Paris. He entered the Benedictine Congregation of St. Maur at an early age, and devoted himself to Biblical studies
Martianus Capella - Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century
Martigny, Joseph-Alexander - Canon of Belley, archaeologist; b. at Sauverny, Ain, in 1808; d at Belley, 19 August, 1880
Martin I, Pope Saint - Opposed the Monothelites, who were supported by the emperor. He was taken prisoner to Constantinople, but refused to sign a heretical declaration. He died in exile in 655
Martin II, Pope - Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946
Martin IV, Pope - Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at an unknown date; d. at Perugia 28 March, 1285. As priest he held a benefice at Rouen for a short time, whereupon he became canon and treasurer at the church of St. Martin in Tours
Martin V, Pope - Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431
Martin - Benedictine Abbot of the Schottenkloster of Vienna, b. about 1400; d. 28 July, 1464 (29 July 1470)
Martín, Enrico - Date and place of birth unknown; d. in Mexico in 1632. According to some he was of Spanish descent; Humboldt says that he was either a German or Dutchman, and according to others a Mexican educated in Spain, but in all probability he was a Frenchman
Martin, Felix - Antiquary, historiographer, architect, educationist, b. 4 October, 1804, at Auray, seat of the famous shrine of St. Ann in Brittany, France; d. at Vaugirard, Paris, 25 November, 1886
Martin, Gregory - Translator of the Douai Version of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate; b. in Maxfield, parish of Guestling, near Winchelsea, in Sussex; d. at Reims, 28 October, 1582
Martin, Konrad - Bishop of Paderborn; b. 18 May, 1812, at Geismar, Province of Saxony; d. 16 July, 1879, at Mont St Guibert, near Brussels, Belgium
Martin, Paulin - French Biblical scholar (1840 - 1890)
Martina, Saint - Roman virgin and martyr, d. 226 or (more likely) 228
Martini, Antonio - Archbishop of Florence, Biblical scholar; b. at Prato in Tuscany, 20 April, 1720; d. at Florence, 31 December 1809
Martini, Martino - Austrian Jesuit missionary to the Chinese, in the seventeenth century
Martini, Simone - Sienese painter, born in Siena, 1283; died either in the same place or at Avignon in 1344 or 1349
Martinique - Diocese; Martinique is one of the French Lesser Antilles, 380 sq. miles in area; It was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493, and colonized by the French about 1625; it was in the hands of the English from 1762-1783, and was again occupied by them in 1792, 1802, 1809, 1815 and again became French territory in 1818
Martin of Braga - Missionary, monastic founder, archbishop, ecclesiastical writer, d. 580
Martin of Leon, Saint - Augustinian priest, d. 1203
Martin of Tours, Saint - Fairly lengthy biographical article on this bishop, who died in around 397
Martin of Troppau - A chronicler, date of birth unknown; died 1278
Martin of Valencia, O.F.M. - Born at Villa de Valencia, Spain, about the middle of the fifteenth century; died in the odour of sanctity at Tlalmanalco, Mexico, 31 August, 1534. He entered the Franciscan Order at Mayorga in the Province of Santiago, built the monastery of Santa Maria del Berrogal, and was the thief founder of the Custody of San Gabriel, for which he visited Rome
Martinian and Processus, Saints - Martyrs venerated since the fourth century at the latest
Martinov, John - Jesuit and writer. Born 7 October, 1821; died 26 April, 1894
Martinsberg - A Benedictine abbey in Hungary about fourteen English miles south of Raab, and sixty west of Buda-Pesth
Martinuzzi, George - Monk, bishop, cardinal, b. at Kamicac, Dalmatia, 1482; d. 16 December, 1551. His real name was George Utjesenovic
Martin y Garcia, Luis - Jesuit General (1846-1906)
Martyr - The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge from personal observation. The term martyr came to be exclusively applied to those who had died for the faith
Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter - Historian of Spain and of the discoveries of her representatives, b. at Arona, near Anghiera, on Lake Maggiore in Italy, 2 February, 1457; d. at Granada in October, 1526
Martyrology - By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the order of their feasts, i. e., according to the calendar
Martyropolis - A titular see, suffragan of Amida in the Province of Mesopotamia or Armenia Quarta
Martyrs, Acts of the - Records of the trials of early Christian martyrs made by the notaries of the court
Martyrs, Japanese - The most famous of the Japanese martyrs are the twenty-six who were crucified in Nagasaki in 1597, but thousands of other Japanese died for the faith between 1560 and 1860
Martyrs, The Ten Thousand - On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology
Martyrs in China - With the revival of the missions in China with Matteo Ricci, who died at Peking in 1610, the blood of martyrs was soon shed to fertilize the evangelical field; the change of the Ming dynasty to the Manchu dynasty, giving occasion for new prosecution
Maruthas, Saint - Writer, greatly devoted to the martyrs, Mesopotamian bishop, d. before 420
Mary, Blessed Virgin, The - The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God
Mary, Children of - The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast
Mary, Devotion to the Heart of - Description of this devotion, along with its history
Mary, Devotion to the Virgin - Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints
Mary, Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary - The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. . .
Mary, Little Brothers of - A religious teaching institute, founded in 1817, generally known as the Marists
Mary, Missionaries of the Company of - The Company of Mary was founded by Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort in 1713
Mary, Mother of John Mark - Generally known as Marist School Brothers. This religious teaching institute is modern in its origin, having been founded in 1817, in France, by Benedict Marcellin Champagnat
Mary, Name of - In Scripture and in Catholic use
Mary, Name of - The Hebrew form of her name is Miryam
Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers) - A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion they profess toward the Blessed Virgin
Mary, Society of, of Paris - Founded in 1817 by Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminade at Bordeaux, France
Mary, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin - Explores the question where Mary died and was buried, either Jerusalem or Ephesus
Mary de Cervellione - Popularly called Maria de Socos. First superior of a Third Order branch of the Mercedarians, for women. She died in 1290
Mary of Cleophas - This title occurs only in John 19:25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot of the cross would seem to identify her with Mary, the mother of James the Less and Joseph
Mary of Romans 16:6 - She had 'laboured much among' the Roman Church, hence St. Paul's salutation to her
Mary Anne de Paredes, Blessed - Of Quito, Ecuador, lived as a solitary in her own home and had many extraordinary spiritual gifts. She died in 1645
Mary de Sales Chappuis, Venerable - Belonging to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, born at Soyhieres, a village of the Bernese Jura (then French territory), 16 June, 1793; died at Troyes, 6 October, 1875
Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint - Third Order Franciscan, d. 1791
Maryland - One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States of the American Union
Mary Magdalen, Saint - Article on the Apostle to the Apostles
Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint - Biography of the 17th-century Carmelite mystic
Mary of Egypt, Saint - Biographical article on the penitent and hermit, who died around 421
Mary Queen of Scots - Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was the only legitimate child of James V of Scotland
Mary Tudor - Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the daughter and only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Masaccio - Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold situated between Arezzo and Florence; died, probably at Rome, in 1429
Mascoutens Indians - A Wisconsin tribe of Algonquian stock of considerable missionary importance in the seventeenth century, but long since entirely extinct
Masolino da Panicale - Son of Cristoforo Fini; b. in the subrub of Panicale di Valdese, near Florence, 1383; d, c. 1440
Mason, Richard Angelus a S. Francisco - Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 Dec, 1678
Masonry - An overview of Freemasonry and description of its condemnation by the Catholic Church
Maspha - Name of several places in the Bible
Mass, Chapter and Conventual - A conventual Mass sung or said in all cathedrals and collegiate churches that have a chapter; in this case it is often called the 'chapter' Mass
Mass, Liturgy of the - The complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the service of the Eucharist in the Latin rites
Mass, Music of the - Article covers exclusively the texts of the Mass (not seasonal) which receive a musical treatment
Mass, Nuptial - 'Missa pro sponso et sponsa', the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of lessons and chants suitable to the Sacrament of Matrimony, contains prayers for persons just married and is interwoven with part of the marriage rite, of which in the complete form it is an element
Mass, Parochial - A Mass celebrated for parishioners on all Sundays and holidays of obligation
Mass, Sacrifice of the - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy'
Massa Candida - The fame of the Massa Candida has been perpetuated chiefly through two early references to them: that of St. Augustine, and that of the poet Prudentius
Massa Carrara - Diocese in Central Italy (Lunigiana and Garfagnana)
Massachusetts - One of the thirteen original United States of America. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers part of the territory originally granted to the Plymouth Company of England
Massacre, Saint Bartholomew's Day - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes
Massaia, Guglielmo - A Cardinal, born 9 June, 1809, at Piova in Piedmont, Italy; died at Cremona, 6 August, 1889
Massa Marittima - In the Province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, first mentioned in the eighth century
Massé, Enemond - One of the first Jesuits sent to New France; born at Lyons, 1574; died at Sillery, 12 May, 1646
Masses, Bequests for - Information on court cases about the subject
Masses, Bequests for (Canada) - Information on the laws
Masses, Bequests for (England) - Before the Reformation dispositions of property, whether real or personal, for the purposes of Masses, were valid, unless where, in the case of real property, they might happen to conflict with the Mortmain laws by being made to religious congregations
Masses, Devises and Bequests for (United States) - Laws from various states discussed
Massillon, Jean-Baptiste - A celebrated French preacher and bishop; born 24 June, 1663; died 28 September, 1742
Massorah - The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels and accents
Massoulié, Antoine - Theologian, born at Toulouse, 28 Oct., 1632; died at Rome, 23 Jan., 1706
Massuet, René - Benedictine patrologist, of the Congregation of St. Maur; born 13 August, 1666, at St. Ouen de Mancelles in the diocese of Evreux; died 11 Jan. 1716, at St. Germain des Pres in Paris
Massys, Quentin - A painter, born at Louvain in 1466; died at Antwerp in 1530 (bet. 13 July and 16 September), and not in 1529, as his epitaph states (it dates from the seventeenth century)
Master of Arts - An academic degree higher than that of Bachelor
Master of Liesborn, The - A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery of Liesborn, founded by Charlemagne
Master of the Sacred Palace - This office (which has always been entrusted to a Friar Preacher) may briefly be described as being that of the pope's theologian. St. Dominic, appointed in 1218, was the first Master of the Sacred Palace (Magister Sacri Palatii)
Mastrius, Bartholomew - Franciscan, philosopher, and theologian, born near Forli, at Meldola, ltaly, in 1602; died 3 January, 1673
Mataco Indians - Tribes ranging over a great part of the Chaco region, about the headwaters of the Vermejo and the Picomayo, in the Argentine province of Salta and the Bolivian province of Tarija, and noted for the efforts made by Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries in their behalf in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Mater - A titular bishopric in the province of Byzantium
Materialism - As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the only reality in the world, which undertakes to explain every event in the universe as resulting from the conditions and activity of matter, and which thus denies the existence of God and the soul
Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the - Second Sunday in October. The object of this feast is to commemorate the dignity of the Mary as Mother of God
Mathathias - The name of ten persons of the Bible, variant in both Hebrew and Greek of Old Testament and in Greek of New Testament; uniform in Vulgate
Mathew, Theobald - Apostle of Temperance, born at Thomastown Castle, near Cashel, Tipperary, Ireland, 10 October, 1790; died at Queenstown, Cork, 8 December, 1856
Mathieu, François-Désiré - Bishop and cardinal, born 27 May, 1839; died 26 October, 1908
Mathusala - One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5
Matilda, Saint - Biography of the Queen of Germany, wife of Henry I (the Fowler). She died in 968
Matilda, Saint - Born Matilda von Hackeborn-Wippra, blood sister of the Abbess Gertrude von Hackeborn, monastic herself. Quite plausibly the model for Matelda in Dante's 'Purgatorio.' She died in 1298
Matilda of Canossa - Countess of Tuscany, daughter and heiress of the Marquess Boniface of Tuscany, and Beatrice, daughter of Frederick of Lorraine, b. 1046; d. 24 July, 1114
Matins - Not Morning Prayer, but a nighttime prayer, which has now been replaced by the Office of Readings
Matricula - A term having several meanings in the field of Christian antiquity
Matteo da Siena - Painter (1435-1495)
Matteo di Termini - Counselor to the King of Sicily, joined the Augustinians, renowned for his knowledge of civil and ecclesiastical law, served as the pope's confessor, was General of his Order
Matteo of Aquasparta - Italian Franciscan (1235-1302)
Matter - Taking the term in its widest sense, matter signifies that out of which anything is made or composed
Matteucci, Carlo - Physicist, born at Forli, in the Romagna, 21 June, 1811; died at Ardenza, near Leghorn, 25 July, 1868
Matthew, Saint - The Apostle and Evangelist, in Scripture and tradition
Matthew, Gospel of Saint - Detailed article about the first Gospel
Matthew, Sir Tobie - English priest, born at Salisbury, 3 October, 1577, died at Ghent, 13 October, 1655
Matthew of Bassi - Founder of the Capuchins (1495-1552)
Matthew of Cracow - Renowned scholar and preacher of the fourteenth century, b. at Cracow about 1335, d. at Pisa, 5 March, 1410
Matthias, Saint - The Apostle, in Scripture and legend
Matthias Corvinus - King of Hungary (1440-1490)
Matthias of Neuburg - Chronicler, born towards the close of the thirteenth century, possibly at Neuburg, in Baden; died between 1364 and 1370, probably at Strasburg, in Alsace
Maundy Thursday - The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist and is the oldest of the observances peculiar to Holy Week
Maunoury, Auguste-François - Hellenist and exegete (1811-1898)
Maurice, Saint - Leader of the Theban Legion, killed around 287
Maurice - Roman Emperor, born in 539; died in November, 602
Maurists, The - A congregation of Benedictine monks in France, whose history extends from 1618 to 1818
Maurus, Saint - Deacon, disciple of St. Benedict. Portrayed by St. Gregory the Great as a model of monastic obedience. Died 584
Maurus, Sylvester - Writer on philosophy and theology, b. at Spoleto, 31 Dec., 1619; d. in Rome, 13 Jan., 1687
Maurus Magnentius Rabanus, Blessed - Biographical article on this Benedictine, abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, theologian, who died in 856
Maury, Jean-Siffrein - Cardinal and statesman, born at Valreas, near Avignon, 26 June, 1746; died at Rome on 10 May, 1817
Maxentius, Joannes - Leader of the so-called Scythian monks, appears in history at Constantinople in 519 and 520
Maxentius, Marcus Aurelius - Roman Emperor 306-12, son of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and son-in-law of the chief Emperor Galerius
Maxfield, Venerable Thomas - Real name, Thomas Macclesfield. Short biographical article on the priest, martyred at Tyburn in 1616
Maximianopolis - A titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis
Maximianus - Roman emperor (d. 310)
Maximilian - Brief profiles of three saints of this name
Maximilian I - Duke of Bavaria (1573-1651)
Maximinus, Saint - Bishop of Trier, d. 349 or 352
Maximinus, Caius Valerius Daja - Under his uncle Augustus Galerius, the Caesar of Syria and Egypt, from the year 305; in 307 following the example of Constantine, he assumed the title of Augustus
Maximinus Thrax - Roman emperor 235-238
Maximopolis - Titular see of Arabia
Maximus of Constantinople, Saint - Also known as Maximus the Theologian or Maximus Confessor. Monk, abbot, wrote on ascetic mysticism, and on the Incarnation against the Monothelites. Died in exile, 662
Maximus of Turin, Saint - Bishop and theological writer (380-465)
Maxwell, William - Fifth Earl of Nithsdale (Lord Nithsdale signed as Nithsdaill) and fourteenth Lord Maxwell, b. in 1676; d. at Rome, 2 March, 1744
Maxwell, Winifred - Countess of Nithsdale, d. at Rome, May, 1749
Maya Indians - The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their civilization and in population and resources, formerly occupying a territory of about 60,000 square miles, including the whole of the peninsula of Yucatan, Southern Mexico, together with the adjacent portion of Northern Guatemala
Mayer, Christian - Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 Dec, 1678
Mayhew, Edward - Born in 1569; died 14 September, 1625. He belonged to the old English family of Mayhew or Mayow of Winton, near Salisbury, Wiltshire
Mayne, Blessed Cuthbert - Englishman, Protestant minister, converted to Catholicism, died a martyr in 1577. Biographical article
Maynooth College - The National College of Saint Patrick, at Maynooth in County Kildare, about twelve miles from Dublin, founded in the year 1795
Mayo, School of - Was situated in the present parish of Mayo, County Mayo, almost equidistant from the towns of Claremorris and Castlebar. The founder, St. Colman, who flourished about the middle of the seventh century, was in all probability a native of the West of Ireland, and made his ecclesiastical studies at Iona during the abbacy of the renowned Segenius
Mayo Indians - A tribe that occupied some fifteen towns on Mayo and Fuerte rivers, southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa, Mexico
Mayor, John - A Scotch philosopher and historian, b. at Gleghornie near Haddington, 1496; d. at St. Andrew's, 1550
Mayoruna Indians - A tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the Yavari and the Maranon (Amazon) rivers in north-east Peru and the adjacent portions of Brazil
Mayotte, Nossi-Bé, and Comoro - Mayotte is the farthest south and most important of the group of Comoro Islands: Mayotte (Maote), Anjuan (Inzuani), Mohilla (Moheli), and Great Comoro (Komoro, i.e. where there is fire, or Angazidya)
Mayr, Beda - A Bavarian Benedictine philosopher, apologist, and poet, b. 15 January, 1742 at Daiting near Augsburg; d. 28 April, 1794, in the monastery of Heillgenkreuz in Donauworth
Mayron, Francis - Born about 1280, probably at Mayronnes, Department of Basses-Alpes, he entered the Franciscan order at the neighbouring Digne (or Sisteron)
Mazarin, Jules - Born either at Rome or at Piscina in the Abruzzi, of a very old Sicilian family, 14 July, 1602; died at Vincennes, 9 March, 1661
Mazatec Indians - Mexican tribe of Zapotecan linguistic stock, occupying the mountain region of north-east Oaxaca, chiefly in the districts of Cuicatlan and Teotitlan
Mazenod, Charles Joseph Eugene de - Short biography of the bishop of Marseilles and founder of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate
Mazzara del Vallo - The city is situated in the province of Trepani, Sicily, on the Mediterranean, at the mouth of the Mazzara River
Mazzella, Camillo - Theologian and cardinal, born at Vitulano, 10 Feb., 1833; d. at Rome, 26 March, 1900
Mazzolini, Lodovico - Italian painter, b. in Ferrara in 1480, d., according to one account, in 1528, and to another, in 1530; place of death unknown
Mazzolini, Sylvester - Theologian, b. at Priero, Piedmont, 1460; d. at Rome, 1523, sometimes confounded with Sylvester Ferrariensis (d. 1526)
Mazzuchelli, Pietro Francesco - Milanese painter, b. at Moranzone near Milan, either in 1571 or 1575; d. at Piacenza in 1626
Mbaya Indians - A tribe formerly ranging on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the north and northwestern Paraguay frontier, and in the adjacent portion of the province of Matto Grosso, Brazil
Meagher, Thomas Francis - Soldier, politician, b. at Waterford, Ireland, 3 August, 1823; accidentally drowned in the Missouri River, Montana Territory, U.S.A., 1 July, 1867
Meath - Diocese in Ireland, suffragan of Armagh
Meaux, Diocese of - Comprises the entire department of Seine and Marne, suffragan of Sens until 1622, and subsequently of Paris
Meaux - English Cistercian abbey
Mecca - The birthplace of Mohammed and the seat of the famous Kaaba, it was celebrated even in pre-Islamic times as the chief sanctuary of the Arabs, and visited by numerous pilgrims and devotees
Mechanism - There is no constant meaning in the history of philosophy for the word Mechanism. Originally, the term meant that cosmological theory which ascribes the motion and changes of the world to some external force
Mechitar - The name taken by Peter Manuk, founder of the religious order of Mechitarists, when he became a monk
Mechitarists - Armenian Benedictines, founded by Mechitar in 1712
Mechlin - Archdiocese comprising the two Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Brabant
Mechtel, Johann - Chronicler; b. 1562 at Pfalzel near Trier (Germany); d. after 1631, perhaps as late as 1653 at Trier
Mechtilde, Saint - Born Matilda von Hackeborn-Wippra, blood sister of the Abbess Gertrude von Hackeborn, monastic herself. Quite plausibly the model for Matelda in Dante's 'Purgatorio.' She died in 1298
Mechtild of Magdeburg - A famous medieval mystic (1210-1285)
Mecklenburg - A division of the German Empire, consists of the two Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Medaille, Jean Paul - Jesuit missionary; b. at Carcassonne, the capital of the Department of Aude, France, 29 January, 1618; d. at Auch, the capital of the Department of Gers, France, 15 May, 1689
Medals, Devotional - A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, but struck or cast for a commemorative purpose, and adorned with some appropriate effigy, device, or inscription. In the present article we are concerned only with religious medals
Medal, Miraculous - The devotion owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, known in religion as Sister Catherine, to whom the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared three separate times in the year 1830, at the mother-house of the community at Paris
Medal of Saint Benedict - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict
Medardus, Saint - Bishop of Noyon, d. around 545
Medea - A titular see of Thrace, suffragan of Heraclea
Medellín - Archdiocese in the Republic of Colombia, Metropolitan of Antioquia and Manizales, in the Departments of Medellín, Antioquia, and Manizales
Media and Medes - An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof
Mediator (Christ as Mediator) - A mediator is one who brings estranged parties to an amicable agreement. In New Testament theology the term invariably implies that the estranged beings are God and man, and it is appropriated to Christ, the One Mediator
Medices, Hieronymus - Illustrious as a scholastic of acumen and penetration, b. at Camerino in Umbria, 1569, whence the surname de Medicis a Camerino
Medici, House of - A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a few generations to be first the unofficial rulers of the republic of Florence and afterwards the recognized sovereigns of Tuscany
Medici, Catherine de' - Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France
Medici, Maria de' - Queen of France; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642
Medicine, History of - Presents the history of modern medical science from its Greek foundation
Medicine and Canon Law - In the early centuries the practice of medicine by clerics, whether secular or regular, was not treated with disapproval by the Church, nor was it at all uncommon for them to devote a considerable part of their time to the medical avocation. Abuses, however, arose, and in the twelfth century ecclesiastical canons were framed which became more and more adverse to clerics practising the art of medicine
Medina, Bartholomew - Dominican theologian, b. at Medina, 1527; d. at Salamanca, 1581
Medina, Juan de - Theologian; born 1490; died 1547; he occupied the first rank among the theologians of the sixteenth century
Medina, Miguel de - Theologian, born at Belalcazar, Spain, 1489; died at Toledo, May, 1578
Medrano, Francisco - A Spanish lyric poet, b. in Seville, not to be confounded with Sebastian Francisco de Medrano who was also a poet and lived at about the same time
Medulic, Andras - A Croatian painter and engraver, called by Italian authors Medola, Medula, Schiavone, Schiaon, etc., b. at Sibenik, Dalmatia, 1522; d. at Venice 1582
Meehan, Charles Patrick - Irish historical writer and translator, b. in Dublin, 12 July, 1812; d. there 14 March 1890
Megara - A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia
Megarians - Short article on the history and teachings of this school of philosophy by William Turner
Mège, Antoine-Joseph - A Maurist Benedictine. Writer and translator. He died in 1691
Mehrerau - Formerly a Benedictine, now a Cistercian Abbey, is situated on Lake Constance, west of Bregenz, in the district of Vorarlberg, Austria
Meignan, Guillaume-René - Cardinal Archbishop of Tours, French apologist and Scriptural exegete, b. at Chauvigne, France, 12 April, 1817; d. at Tours, 20 January 1896
Meilleur, Jean-Baptiste - French Canadian physician and educator, b. at St. Laurent, P.Q., 9 May, 1796; d. 7 Dec., 1878
Meinwerk, Blessed - Also called Meginwerk. The energetic tenth bishop of Paderborn, d. 1036
Meissen - A former see of north-east Germany
Meissonier, Ernest - French painter, b. at Lyons 21 February,1815; d. at Paris, 31 January, 1891
Melancthon, Philipp - Extensive article, informative. Thorough examination of his humanism and his contributions to western educational theory and practice
Melania (the Younger), Saint - Granddaughter of St. Melania the Elder, and a friend of St. Jerome
Melbourne - Located in the state of Victoria, Southeastern Australia
Melchers, Paul - Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 6 Jan., 1813, at Muenster, Westphalia; d. 14 December, 1895, at Rome
Melchisedech - King of Salem (Gen. xiv, 18-20)
Melchisedechians - A branch of the Monarchians, founded by Theodotus the banker
Melchites - The people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite
Meléndez Valdés, Juan - Spanish poet and politician, b. at Ribera del Fresno (Badajoz) 11 March, 1754; d. in exile at Montpelier, France, 24 May, 1817
Meletius of Antioch - Lengthy article on the career of the gentle bishop who longed for unity in the Church
Meletius of Lycopolis - Bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt, gave his name to a schism of short duration
Melfi and Rapolla - Diocese in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy
Meli, Giovanni - Sicilian poet, b. at Palermo, 4 March, 1740, d. 20 Dec., 1815
Melia, Pius - Italian theologian, b. at Rome, 12 Jan., 1800; d. in London, June 1883
Melissus of Samos - A Greek philosopher, of the Eleatic School, b. at Samos about 470 B C
Melitene - The residence of an Armenian Catholic see, also a titulary archbishopric
Melito, Saint - Bishop of Sardis, ecclesiastical writer, latter half of the second century
Melk, Abbey and Congregation of - Situated on an isolated rock commanding the Danube, Melk has been a noted place since the days of the Romans
Melkites - The people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite
Melleray - Situated in Brittany, Diocese of Nantes, in the vicinity of Chateaubriand, was founded about the year 1134
Mellifont Abbey - Located three miles from Drogheda, Co. Louth, Diocese of Armagh, it was the first Cistercian monastery established in Ireland
Mellitus, Saint - Archbishop of Canterbury, died in 624. Abbot sent to Canterbury by St. Gregory the Great, and the recipient of a letter from Gregory regarding pagan temples, idols, and festivals
Melo - Located in Uruguay
Melos - A titular see, suffragan of Naxos in the Cyclades
Melozzo da Forlí - An Italian painter of the Umbrian School, b. at Forlí, 1438; d. there 1494
Melrose Abbey - Located in Roxburghshire, founded in 1136 by King David I, was the earliest Cistercian monastery established in Scotland
Melrose, Chronicle of - It opens with the year 735, ends abruptly in 1270, and is founded solely upon the Cottonian Manuscript, Faustina B. ix, in the British Museum, the only ancient copy preserved
Melzi, Francesco - Born at Milan, about 1490; died 1568. He was a friend of Leonardo da Vinci, and Vasari tells that he was a Milanese nobleman, and that he possessed the principal part of the anatomical drawings of Leonardo
Memberton - Principal chief of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia at the time of the establishment of the French colony under de Monts and Poutrincourt in 1605, and noted in mission annals of the first Christian in the tribe
Membre, Zenobius - Born 1645 at Bapaume, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, he was a member of the Franciscan province of St. Antony
Memling, Hans - Flemish painter, d. 1494. Artist's biography with bibliography
Memorial Brasses - Earliest existing dated examples are of the thirteenth century
Memory - Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, and reproduce them later with some degree of fidelity
Memphis - Ancient capital of Egypt; diocese of the province of Arcadia or Heptanomos, suffragan of Oxyrynchus
Mena, Juan de - Spanish poet, born 1411 at Cordova; died 1456 at Torrelaguna
Menaion - The name of the twelve books, one for every month, that contain the offices for immovable feasts in the Byzantine rite
Ménard, Léon - Writer, b. at Tarrascon, 12 Sept., 1706; d. in Paris, 1 Oct., 1767
Ménard, Nicolas-Hugues - French Maurist Benedictine teacher and writer, died 1644
Ménard, René - Missionary, b. at Paris, 1604, d. about 10 August, 1661, in what is now Wisconsin
Menas, Saint - Martyred under Diocletian, c. 295. Most likely Menas of Mareotis, Menas of Cotyaes, and Menas of Constantinople, surnamed Kallikelados, are all the same person honored in different places
Mencius - Chinese philosopher (b. 371 B.C.)
Mendaña de Neyra, Alvaro de - A Spanish navigator and explorer, born in Saragossa, 1541; died in Santa Cruz, Solomon Islands, 18 October, 1596
Mende - This diocese includes the department of Lozere, in France. Suffragan of Bourges under the old regime, it was re-established by the Concordat of 1801 as a suffragan of Lyons and united with the department of Ardeche
Mendel, Mendelism - Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia; d. 6 January 1884, at the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas, Brunn
Mendes de Silva, João - Better known as Amadeus of Portugal, b. 1420, d. at Milan, 1482, began his religious life in the Hieronnymite monastery of Notre-Dame de Guadalupe (Spain), where he spent about ten years
Méndez and Gualaquiza - Vicariate Apostolic in Ecuador
Mendíburu, Manuel de - Nineteenth-century Peruvian-born soldier and diplomat
Mendicant Friars - Members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of poverty renounced all proprietorship not only individually but also (and in this differing from the monks) in common, relying for support on their own work and on the charity of the faithful. Hence the name of begging friars
Mendieta, Jerónimo - A Spanish missionary; born at Vitoria, Spain, 1525; died in the City of Mexico, 9 May, 1604
Mendoza, Diego Hurtade de - A Spanish diplomat and writer, and one of the greatest figures in the history of Spanish politics and letters; born in Granada, of noble parentage, about 1503; died in Madrid, 1575
Mendoza, Francisco Sarmiento de - A Spanish canonist and bishop; b. of a noble family at Burgos; d. 1595, at Jaen
Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de - Cardinal and Primate of Spain, b. at Guadalajara, 3 May, 1428; d. there, 11 January, 1495
Meneses, Osorio Francisco - Spanish painter, b. at Seville, 1630; d. probably in the same place, 1705
Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino - Spanish poet and historian (1856-1912)
Menestrier, Claude-François - French antiquarian (1631-1705)
Menevia - Said to be derived from Menapia, the name of an ancient Roman settlement supposed to have existed in Pembrokeshire, or Hen Meneu (vetus rubus) where St. David was born
Mengarini, Gregario - Pioneer missionary of the Flathead tribe and philologist of their language, b. in Rome, 21 July, 1811; d. at Santa Clara, California, 23 September, 1886
Mengs, Anthon Rafael - A Bohemian painter, usually regarded as belonging to the Italian or Spanish school, b. at Aussig in Bohemia, 12 March, 1728; d. in Rome, 29 June, 1779
Mennas - Patriarch of Constantinople from 536 to 552
Mennonites - A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth century and derived its name from Menno Simons, its leader in Holland
Menochio, Giovanni Stefano - Jesuit biblical scholar, b. at Padua, 1575; d. in Rome, 4 Feb., 1655
Men of Understanding - Name assumed by a heretical sect which in 1410-11 was cited before the Inquisition at Brussels
Menologium - A particular service-book of the Greek Church. From its derivation the term Menologium means 'month-set', in other words, a book arranged according to the months
Menominee Indians - A considerable tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock, formerly ranging over north-eastern Wisconsin to the west of Menominee River and Green Bay
Mensa, Mensal Revenue - The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification 'a table for meals'; it designates by extension the expenses, or better, the necessary resources of sustenance, and generally, all the resources for personal support. He who lives at the expense of another, and at his table, is his 'commensal'. In ecclesiastical language, the mensa is that portion of the property of a church which is appropriated to defraying the expenses either of the prelate or of the community which serves the church, and is administered at the will of the one or the other
Mensing, John - A theologian and celebrated opponent of Luther, born according to some at Zuetphen, Holland, but more probably at Magdeburg, Saxony, date unknown; died about 1541
Mental Reservation - The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and which is its complement
Mentelin, Johannes - Born c. 1410; died 12 Dec., 1478; an eminent German typographer of the fifteenth century, and the first printer and bookseller at Strasburg (Alsace)
Menzini, Benedetto - Priest and poet, b. at Florence, 1646; d. at Rome, 7 Sept., 1704
Mercadé, Eustache - French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century
Mercedarians - A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born 1189, at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, Department of Aude, France
Mercier, Louis-Honoré - French Canadian statesman (1840-1894)
Mercuriali, Geronimo - Italian philologist and physician (1530-1606)
Mercy, Brothers of Our Lady of - Founded at Mechlin in 1839 by Canon J. B. Cornelius Scheppers for the instruction and care of prisoners and of the sick
Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of - Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have compassion for, and, if possible, to alleviate another's misfortune
Mercy, Sisters of - A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, born 29 September, 1787, at Stormanstown House, County Dublin
Mercy, Sisters of, of St. Borromeo - Originally a pious association of ladies formed in 1626 for the care of the sick in the hospital of St. Charles at Nancy, but constituted a religious community in 1652 after being generously endowed by the father of Emmanuel Chauvenel, a young advocate who had given his life in the service of the sick
Meredith, Edward - English Catholic controversialist, b. in 1648, was a son of the rector of Landulph, Cornwall
Merici, Saint Angela - Biography of the founder of the Ursulines, who died in 1540
Mérida - Diocese in Venezuela
Merit - By merit (meritum) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the doer to receive a reward from him in whose service the work is done
Mermillod, Gaspard - Bishop of Lausanne and cardinal, born at Carouge, Switzerland, 22 September, 1824; died in Rome, 23 February, 1892
Merneptah I - The fourth king of the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty and the supposed Pharaoh of the Exodus, was the thirteenth son of Rameses II whom he succeeded in or about 1234 B.C., being then long past middle age
Mérode, Frédéric-François-Xavier Ghislain de - A Belgian prelate and statesman, born at Brussels, 1820; died at Rome, 1874
Mersenne, Marin - Article by C.A. Dubray reviewing the intellectual career of this learned Minim friar
Mesa - A King of Moab in the ninth century B. C.
Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia - Created by Gregory XVI on 17 Dec., 1832. Mgr. Trioche, Archbishop of Babylon or Bagdad, became its first titular; he resided habitually in Bagdad
Mesrob - One of the greatest figures in Armenian history, he was born about 361 at Hassik in the Province of Taron; died at Valarsabad, 441
Messalians - An heretical sect which originated in Mesopotamia about 360 and survived in the East until the ninth century
Messene - A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia
Messias - The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah, 'the anointed'. The word appears only twice of the promised prince (Daniel 9:26; Psalm 2:2); yet, when a name was wanted for the promised one, who was to be at once King and Saviour, it was natural to employ this synonym for the royal title, denoting at the same time the King's royal dignity and His relation to God
Messina, Antonello da - Painter, born at Messina, about 1430; died 1497
Messina - Located in Sicily
Messingham, Thomas - An Irish hagiologist, born in the Diocese of Meath, and studied in the Irish College, Paris, proceeding to the degree of S.T.D
Metalwork in the Service of the Church - From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ceremonies. This practice increased during the Middle Ages
Metaphrastes, Symeon - The principal compiler of the legends of saints in the Menologia of the Byzantine Church
Metaphysics - That portion of philosophy which treats of the most general and fundamental principles underlying all reality and all knowledge
Metastasio, Pietro - Brief biography of the Italian librettist
Metcalfe, Edward - Born in Yorkshire, 1792; died a martyr of charity at Leeds, 7 May, 1847
Metellopolis - A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor
Metempsychosis - The doctrine of the transmigration of souls, teaches that the same soul inhabits in succession the bodies of different beings, both men and animals
Metham, Thomas - A knight, confessor of the Faith, died in York Castle, 1573
Methodism - A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and subsequently gave rise to numerous separate denominations
Methodius I - Patriarch of Constantinople (842-846), defender of images during the second Iconoclast persecution, b. at Syracuse, towards the end of the eighth century; d. at Constantinople, 14 June, 846
Methodius and Cyril, Saints - Also called Constantine and Methodius. Biography of these ninth-century brothers, Apostles of the Slavs
Methodius of Olympus, Saint - Bishop, ecclesiastical writer, martyr, died c. 311
Methuselah - One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5
Methymna - A titular see in the island of Lesbos
Metrophanes of Smyrna - A leader of the faithful Ignatian bishops at the time of the Photian schism (867). Baronius (Ann. Ecci., ad an. 843, I) says that his mother was the woman who was bribed to bring a false accusation of rape against the Patriarch Methodius I (842-846) during the Iconoclast troubles
Metropolis - A titular episcopal see and suffragan of Ephesus
Metropolitan - In ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the principal city, or see, of an ecclesiastical province
Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von - Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859
Metz - A town and bishopric in Lorraine
Meun, Jean Clopinel de - French poet, b. c. 1260 in the little city of Meung-sur-Loire; d. at Paris between 1305 and 1320
Mexico - Situated at the extreme point of the North American continent, bounded on the north by the United States, on the east by the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, British Honduras, and Guatemala, and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean
Mexico, Archdiocese of - Information about the boundaries and bishops
Mezger, Francis, Joseph, and Paul - Three brothers, learned Benedictines of the monastery of St. Peter in Salsburg, and professors at the University of Salzburg
Mezzofanti, Giuseppe - A cardinal, the greatest of polyglots, born 19 September, 1774; died 15 March, 1849
Miami Indians - An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what is now Indiana and western Ohio, including the territories drained by the Wabash, St. Joseph, Maumee, and Miami rivers
Michael the Archangel, Saint - Article about this angel in Scripture and tradition
Michael, Military Orders of Saint - Information on three groups by this name
Michael Cærularius - Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and final schism of the Byzantine Church, date of birth unknown; d. 1058
Michael de Sanctis, Saint - Or Michael de los Santos. Catalonian, member of the Discalced Trinitarians, d. 1625
Michael of Cesena - A Friar Minor, Minister General of the Franciscan Order, and theologian, born at Cesena, a small town in Central Italy, about 1270; died at Munich, 29 Nov., 1342
Michael O'Loghlen - Irish jurist (1789-1846)
Michael Scotus - A thirteenth century mathematician, philosopher, and scholar
Michaud, Joseph-François - Historian, born at Albens, Savoy, 1767; died at Passy, 30 September, 1839
Micheas of Ephraim - The Book of Judges (17-18) contains the history of a certain Michas (Hebrews 17:1 and 4: Mikhayehu; elsewhere Mikhah), a resident of the hill country of Ephraim who founded an idolatrous sanctuary
Micheas, Son of Jemla - A prophet of the Kingdom of Samaria, contemporary with Elias and Eliseus
Micheas, Book of - Micheas (Hebr. Mikhah; Jeremiah 26:18: Mikhayah keth.), the author of the book which holds the sixth place in the collection of the Twelve Minor Prophets, was born at Moresheth (Micheas 1:1; Jeremiah 26:18), a locality not far from the town of Geth (Micheas 1:14)
Michel, Jean - A French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century
Michelangelo Buonarroti - Italian sculptor, painter, and architect (1475-1564)
Michelians - A German Protestant sect which derives its name from 'Michel', the popular designation of its founder Johann Michael Hahn
Michelis, Edward - A theologian, born in St. Mauritz, 6 Feb., 1813; died in Luxemburg, 8 June, 1855
Michelozzo di Bartolommeo - An architect and sculptor, born at Florence circa 1391; died 1472
Michigan - Information on history, geography, statistics, religion, and education of the state
Michoacan - Located in Mexico, the Diocese of Michoacan was established in 1536 by Pope Paul III at the instance of the Emperor Charles V, its boundaries to coincide with those of the ancient Kingdom of Michoacan
Mickiewicz, Adam - Born near Novogrodek, Lithuania, 1798; died at Constantinople, 1855
Micmacs - The easternmost of the Algonquin tribes and probably the first visited by a white man, formerly occupied what is now Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Breton, as well as part of New Brunswick, Quebec, and south-western Newfoundland
Micrologus - Either a 'synopsis' or a 'short explanation', and in the Middle Ages used as an equivalent for 'Manual'
Middendorp, Jakob - Theologian and historian; b. about 1537 at Oldenzaal, or, according to others, at Ootmarsum, Overyssel, Holland; d. at Cologne, 13 Jan., 1611
Middle Ages - A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the Fall of the Roman Empire and about the middle of the fifteenth century
Middlesbrough - In medieval history it was known as Myddilburga or Middilburga, with many other variations of form
Midianites - An Arabian tribe introduced into history in the texts of Gen., xxv, 1-4 and I Chron., i, 32
Midrashim - The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures
Midwives - Come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, baptism and matrimony
Migazzi, Christoph Anton - Cardinal, Prince Archbishop of Vienna, b. 1714, in the Tyrol, d. 14 April, 1803, at Vienna
Mignard, Pierre - A French painter, born at Troyes, 7 November, 1612; died at Paris, 30 May, 1695
Migne, Jacques-Paul - Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, 24 October, 1875
Migration - The movement of populations from place to place
Milan - Located in Lombardy, northern Italy
Milde, Vinzenz Eduard - Prince-Archbishop of Vienna, born at Bruenn, in Moravia, in 1777; died at Vienna in 1853
Miles, George Henry - A dramatist and man of letters, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 July, 1824; died near Emmitsburg, 23 July, 1871
Miles Gerard, Venerable - Priest martyred in 1590
Mileto - Located in Calabria, in the province of Reggio, southern Italy
Miletopolis - A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus
Miletus - A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, in Caria
Miletus, Vitus - A Catholic theologian, born 1549; died at Mainz, 11 Sept., 1615
Milevum - A titular see of Numidia
Milic, Jan - A pre-Hussite reform preacher and religious enthusiast, born at Kremsier in Moravia, died 29 June, 1374, at Avignon
Military Orders, The - A historical review of dozens of military orders
Millennium and Millenarianism - At the end of time Christ will return in all His splendour to gather together the just, to annihilate hostile powers, and to found a glorious kingdom on earth for the enjoyment of the highest spiritual and material blessings; He Himself will reign as its king, and all the just, including the saints recalled to life, will participate in it
Miller, Ferdinand Von - Born 1813; died at Munich, 1887. He laboured for the development of the bronze founders' craft and the uplifting of the artistic profession, far beyond the borders of Bavaria
Millet, Jean-François - French painter; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875
Millet, Pierre - A celebrated early Jesuit missionary in New York State, b. at Bourges, France, 19 November, 1635 (al. 1631); d. at Quebec, 31 December, 1708
Milner, John - Writer and controversialist. Born in London, 14 October, 1752: died at Wolverhampton, 19 April, 1826
Milner, Venerable Ralph - A husband and father, convert to Catholicism, arrested the day of his first Communion, and martyred in 1591
Milo Crispin - Monk, and cantor of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec, wrote the lives of five of its abbots: Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, Gulielmus de Bellomonte, Boso, Theobaldus, and Letardus
Milopotamos - A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Candia
Miltiades, Pope Saint - Died in 314. An African, his name is also sometimes given as Miltiadea or Melchiades
Miltiz, Karl von - Papal chamberlain and nuncio (1480-1529)
Milwaukee - Established as a diocese, 28 Nov., 1843
Mind - Explores the term in relation to consciousness, matter, and mechanism
Minden - Minden on the Weser is first heard of in 798, and in 803 in the Treaty of Salz, made with the Saxons, it is spoken of as a see
Ming, John - A philosopher and writer, born at Gyswyl, Unterwalden, Switzerland, 20 Sept., 1838; died at Brooklyn, Ohio, U. S. A., 17 June, 1910
Minimi - Members of the religious order founded by St. Francis of Paula
Minister - Even before the Reformation the word minister was occasionally used in English to describe those of the clergy actually taking part in a function, or the celebrant as distinguished from the assistants, but it was not then used sine addito to designate an ecclesiastic. This employment of the term dates from Calvin
Minkelers, Jean-Pierre - Inventor of illuminating gas (1748-1824)
Minnesota - One of the North Central States of the American Union, lies about midway between the eastern and western shores of the continent, and about midway between the gulf of Mexico and Hudson's Bay
Mino di Giovanni - Artist (1431-1484)
Minor - That which is less, or inferior in comparison with another, the term being employed as well of things as of persons
Minorca - Suffragan of Valencia, comprises the Island of Minorca, the second in size of the Balearic Islands, which are possessions of Spain
Minor Orders - The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of minor orders, in opposition to the 'major' or 'sacred' orders
Minsk - A suffragan of Mohileff, in Western Russia
Mint, Papal - History of the coins
Minucius Felix - Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known
Mirabilia Urbis Romæ - The title of a medieval Latin description of the city of Rome, dating from about 1150
Miracle - In general, a wonderful thing, the word being so used in classical Latin; in a specific sense, the Latin Vulgate designates by miracula wonders of a peculiar kind, expressed more clearly in the Greek text by the terms terata, dynameis, semeia, i.e., wonders performed by supernatural power as signs of some special mission or gift and explicitly ascribed to God
Miracle Plays and Mysteries - These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages
Miracles, Gift of - The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (xii, 9, 10), among the extraordinary graces of the Holy Ghost
Miraculous Medal - The devotion owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, known in religion as Sister Catherine, to whom the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared three separate times in the year 1830, at the mother-house of the community at Paris
Miraeus, Aubert - Ecclesiastical historian, born at Brussels, 30 Nov., 1573; died at Antwerp, 19 October, 1640
Mirandola, Giovanni Francesco Pico della - Italian philosopher, nephew of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, b. about 1469; d. 1533
Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della - Italian philosopher and scholar (1463-1494)
Miridite, Abbey of - The name of an abbatia nullius in Albania, where there formerly stood a Benedictine abbey, now destroyed, dedicated to St. Alexander, martyr
Miserere - The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1
Misericorde, Congregation of the Sisters of - Founded 16 January, 1848, for the purpose of procuring spiritual and corporal assistance for poor mothers and unfortunate girls
Misocco and Galanca - This prefecture in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, comprises the valley of the Moesa which starts at the pass of San Bernardino and flows into the Ticino, and also the valley of Calanca, through which the Calasanca flows
Missa Pro Populo - A Mass celebrated for parishioners on all Sundays and holidays of obligation
Missal - The book which contains the prayers said by the priest at the altar as well as all that is officially read or sung in connection with the offering of the holy Sacrifice of the Mass throughout the ecclesiastical year
Mission, Congregation of Priests of the - A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul
Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, Congregation of - Founded by John Baptist Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, Italy (d. 1 June, 1905); approved in principle by Leo XIII in a Brief dated 25 November, 1887; constitution definitively approved by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda, 3 October, 1908
Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales of Annecy - Society of missionary priests
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle - A community of priests for giving missions and doing other Apostolic works, especially for making converts to the Catholic faith
Mission Indians (of California) - A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to designate the modern descendants of those tribes of California, of various stocks and languages, evangelized by the Franciscans in the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth centuries, beginning in 1769
Missions, California - Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California
Missions, Catholic - A general survey of the missionary activity of the Catholic Church at the time the article was written (1908)
Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada - History of the missions
Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States - Includes the history of the missions and a list of the missionary martyrs
Missions, Catholic Parochial - This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, made, for the most part, among Catholics, to instruct them more fully in the truths of their religion, to convert sinners, rouse the torpid and indifferent, and lift the good to a still higher plane of spiritual effort
Mississippi - The state takes its name from the Mississippi River that forms its western boundary
Missouri - The State of Missouri was carved out of the Louisiana Territory, and derives its name from the principal river flowing through its center
Missouri Test-Oath - The terms of the oath required the affiant to deny, not only that he had ever been in armed hostility to the United States, or to the lawful authorities thereof, but that he had ever 'by act or word', manifested his adherence to the cause of the enemies of the United States
Mithraism - A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra
Mitre - A kind of folding-cap consisting of two like parts, each stiffened by a lining and rising to a peak; these are sewn together on the sides, but are united above by a piece of material that can fold together
Mittarelli, Nicola Giacomo - A monastic historian, born 2 September, 1707, at Venice; died 4 August, 1777, in the monastery of San Michele di Murano near Venice
Mitylene - A titulary archbishopric on the island of Lesbos
Mivart, St. George Jackson - Corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Member of the Council of Linnean Society, etc., b. in London, 30 November, 1827, d. there 1 April, 1900
Mixe Indians - A mountain tribe in southern Mexico, noted for their extreme conservatism, constituting together with the neighbouring Zoque, a distinct linguistic stock, the Zoquean
Mixed Marriage - Those between Catholics and non-Catholics, when the latter have been baptized in some Christian sect. The term is also used to designate unions between Catholics and infidels
Mixteca Indians - One of the most important civilized tribes of southern Mexico, occupying an extensive territory in western and northern Oaxaca and extending into Guerrero and Puebla
Moab, Moabites - In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter (Genesis 19:37); (2) the people of whom this son of Lot is represented as the ancestor (Exodus 15:15, etc.), and who are also called 'the Moabites' (Genesis 19:37); and possibly (3) the territory occupied by the Moabites (Numbers 21:11)
Mobile - Suffragan of New Orleans, comprises the State of Alabama and western Florida
Mocissus - A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia
Mocoví Indians - A tribe of the Guaycuran stock closely related linguistically to the Toba, Mbaya, and Abipon, their usual allies, settled principally along the middle and upper Vermejo River
Modalism (Monarchianism) - The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism
Modena - Located in central Italy, between the rivers Secchia and Panaro
Modernism - Etymologically, modernism means an exaggerated love of what is modern, an infatuation for modern ideas
Modestus, Vitus, and Crescentia, Saints - According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian
Modigliana - Located in the Province of Florence, in Tuscany
Modra - A titular see of Bithynia Secunda
Mohammedan Confraternities - The countries where Mohammedanism prevails are full of religious associations, more or less wrapped in secrecy, which are also political
Mohammed and Mohammedism - Mohammed, 'the Praised One', the prophet of Islam and the founder of Mohammedanism, was born at Mecca (20 August?) A.D. 570
Mohileff - Latin Catholic archdiocese and ecclesiastical province in Russia
Möhler, Johann Adam - Theologian, b. at Igersheim, 6 April, 1796; d. at Munich, 12 April, 1838
Mohr, Christian - Born at Andernach, 1823; died at Cologne, 1888. He practised his profession of sculptor chiefly at Cologne under the cathedral architect Zwirner
Mohr, Joseph - Born at Siegburg, Rhine Province, 11 Jan., 1834; died at Munich, 7 February, 1892
Moigno, François-Napoléon-Marie - Physicist and author, b. at Guemene (Morbihan), 15 April, 1804; d. at Saint-Denis (Seine), 14 July, 1884
Molai, Jacques de - Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune since 1265, Molai is mentioned as Grand Master of the Templars as early as 1298
Molesme, Notre-Dame de - A celebrated Benedictine monastery in a village of the same name, Canton of Laignes, ancient Burgundy, on the confines of the Diocese of Langres and Troyes
Molfetta, Terlizzi, and Giovinazzo - Molfetta is a city of the province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea; its origin is unknown, but many objects of the neolithic, bronze, and the Mycenaean epoch have been found at a place called Pulo, which shows that the site of Molfetta was inhabited in prehistoric times
Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin - French comic poet; b. at Paris, 15 Jan., 1622; d. there 17 Feb., 1673
Molina, Antonio De - A Spanish Carthusian and celebrated ascetical writer, born about 1560, at Villanueva de los infantes; died at Miraflores, 21 September, 1612 or 1619
Molina, Juan Ignacio - Naturalist and scientist; b. 20 July, 1740, at Guaraculen near Talca (Chile); d. 23 Oct (12 Sept.?), 1829, at Imola or Bologna (Italy)
Molina, Luis de - One of the most learned and renown theologians of the Society of Jesus, b. of noble parentage at Cuenca, New Castle, Spain, in 1535; d. at Madrid, 12 October, 1600
Molinism - The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will
Molinos, Miguel de - Founder of Quietism, born at Muniesa, Spain, 21 December, 1640; died at Rome, 28 December, 1696
Molitor, Wilhelm - A poet, novelist, canonist and publicist, born at Zweibruecken in the Rhine Palatinate, 24 August, 1819; died at Speyer, 11 January, 1880
Molloy, Francis - A theologian, grammarian born in King's County, Ireland, at the beginning of the seventeenth century; died at St. Isidore's, Rome, about 1684
Molloy, Gerald - A theologian and scientist, born at Mount Tallant House, near Dublin, 10 Sept., 1834; died at Aberdeen, 1 Oct., 1906
Molo, Gasparo - Italian goldsmith and planisher, chiefly known as a medalist, born (according to Forrer) in Breglio near Como or (according to older records) in Lugano; date of death unknown
Moloch - A divinity worshipped by the idolatrous Israelites
Molokai - Information about this Hawaiian island and the leper colony there
Molyneux, Sir Caryll - Baronet of Sefton, and third Viscount Molyneux of Maryborough in Ireland, born 1624; died 1699
Mombritius, Bonino - A philologist, humanist, and editor of ancient writings, born 1424; died between 1482 and 1502
Monaco, Principality and Diocese of - Situated on the Mediterranean Sea, surrounded on all sides by the French department of the Maritime Alps, and has an area of 5337 acres
Monad - The word monad is used by the neo-Platonists to signify the One; for instance, in the letters of the Christian Platonist Synesius, God is described as the Monad of Monads
Monarchians - The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism
Monarchia Sicula - A right exercised from the beginning of the sixteenth century by the secular rulers of Sicily, according to which they had final jurisdiction in purely religious matters, independent of the Holy See
Monasteries, Double - Religious houses comprising communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous establishments, united under the rule of one superior, and using one church in common for their liturgical offices
Monasteries in Continental Europe, Suppression of - The suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in the strict sense or houses of the mendicant orders) since the Reformation
Monasteries in England, Suppression of - From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century
Monastery, Canonical Erection of a - Details the conditions for the legitimate erection of a monastery
Monasticism - The act of 'dwelling alone' (Greek monos, monazein, monachos), has come to denote the mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monks, friars, nuns, or in general as religious
Monasticism, Eastern - Includes the origin and history
Monasticism, Pre-Chalcedonian - Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the beginning of the fourth century
Monasticism, Western - The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from about A.D. 340 when St. Athanasius visited Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore, disciples of St. Anthony
Moncada, Francisco De - Count of Osona, Spanish historian, son of the Governor of Sardinia and Catalonia, born at Valencia, 29 December, 1586; died near Goch, Germany, 1635
Mondino dei Lucci - Anatomist, b. probably at Bologna, about 1275; d. there, about 1327
Mondoñedo - It comprises the civil Provinces of Lugo and Corunna, and is bounded on the north by the Bay of Biscay, on the east by the Austurias, on the south by the Diocese of Lugo, and on the west by the Archdiocese of Compostela (or Santiago de Galicia), of which it has been a suffragan since 1114
Mondovi - Located in Piedmont, province of Cuneo, northern Italy
Mone, Franz - A historian and archeologist, born at Mingolsheim near Bruchsal, Baden, 12 May, 1796; died at Karlsruhe, 12 March, 1871
Moneta - A theologian, born at Cremona, Italy, date unknown; died at Bologna, 1240
Mongolia - The name used to designate an immense uneven plateau, part of the Chinese Empire, extending, roughly speaking, from the Tarbagatal to the great K'ingan chains
Mongus, Peter - Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. 490)
Monica, Saint - Widow, d. 387. The mother of St. Augustine of Hippo
Monism - A philosophical term which, in its various meanings, is opposed to Dualism or Pluralism
Monita Secreta - A code of instructions alleged to be addressed by Acquaviva, the fifth general of the Society, to its various superiors, and laying down the methods to be adopted for the increase of its power and influence
Monk - A member of a community of men, leading a more or less contemplative life apart from the world, under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to a rule characteristic of the particular order to which he belongs
Monk of Malmesbury, The - Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. IV. 73) which Tanner states to be only a copy of a chronicle written by Alfred of Beverley in the twelfth century, but which, according to Sir Thomas Hardy, is almost entirely based on that of Geoffrey of Monmouth
Monogram of Christ - By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by combining the first two letters of the Greek form; this monogram was also known as the Chrismon
Monomotapa - Whatever may be the etymological meaning of the word Monomotapa, the origin of which is much disputed, it is certain, at any rate, that the Portuguese of the sixteenth century employed it to denote the paramount chief of the Makaranga, a powerf ul South African tribe dwelling between the Zambesi and Limpopo rivers and extending westward from the Indian Ocean probably as far as the twenty-fifth parallel of east longitude
Monophysites and Monophysitism - Rejected the dual nature of Christ. Rejected by the Council of Chalcedon (451)
Monopoli, Diocese of - A diocese in the Province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy
Monopoly, Moral Aspects of - According to its etymology, monopoly (monopolia) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive privilege of selling. Present usage, however, extends the term to any degree of unified control over a commodity sufficient to enable the person or corporation in control to limit supply and fix price
Monotheism - A word coined in comparatively modern times to designate belief in the one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the world, the eternal Spirit, All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good, the Rewarder of good and the Punisher of evil, the Source of our happiness and perfection
Monothelitism and Monothelites - A modification of Monophysitism proposing that Christ had no human free will. Rejected by the Third Council of Constantinople (680)
Monreale - In the province of Palermo, Sicily, on the skirts of Mount Caputo
Monroe, James - A soldier, convert, born in Albemarle county, Virginia, U.S.A., 10 Sept., 1799; died at Orange, New Jersey, 7 Sept., 1870
Monsabré, Jacques-Marie-Louis - A celebrated pulpit orator, born at Blois, France, 10 Dec., 1827; died at Havre, 21 Feb., 1907
Monseigneur - A French honorific appellation, etymologically corresponding to the English 'my lord,' and the Italian monsignore
Monsell, William, Baron Emly - Politician, born 21 Sept., 1812; died at Tervoe, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 20 April, 1894
Monsignor - As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom to address persons high in rank or power with the title Monseigneur or Monsignore
Monstrance (Ostensorium) - A vessel designed for the exhibition of some object of piety
Monstrelet, Enguerrand de - A French chronicler, born about 1390 or 1395; died in July, 1453
Montagna, Bartolomeo - Italian painter, chief representative of the Vicenza School, b. at Orzinuovi about 1450; d. at Vicenza, 11 October, 1523
Montagnais Indians (Quebec) - The collective designation of a number of bands speaking dialects of a common language of Algonquian stock, and ranging over the sores of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf, from about the St. Maurice River to Cape Whittle, and inland to about the main divide at the heads of the rivers
Montagnais Indians (Chippewayans) - A name given in error to the Chippewayans, owing to a fancied resemblance to the Montagnais Indians of Quebec
Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de - A concise study of the thinker, by Georges Bertrin
Montalcino - Montalcino is a small town about twenty miles from Siena, some 1900 feet above sea-level and overlooking the valley of the Ombrone
Montalembert, Charles-Forbes-René - Born in London, 15 April, 1810; died in Paris 13 March, 1870
Montalto - Located in Ascoli Piceno
Montana - Includes geography, history, statistics, education, and religious information
Montañés, Juan Martínez - A noted Spanish sculptor of the seventeenth century, died 1649, sometimes called 'the Sevillian Phidias.'
Montanists - Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or 'those among the Phrygians' (oi kata Phrygas), then as Montanists, Pepuzians, and (in the West) Cataphrygians
Montanus, Benedictus Arias - Orientalist, exegete, and editor of the 'Antwerp Polyglot', born at Frejenal de la Sierra in Estremadura, Spain, 1527; died at Seville, 1598
Montauban - A suffragan of Toulouse, comprises the entire department of Tarn and Garonne
Montault, Xavier Barbier De - Wrote numerous articles for other reviews as well as several separate works on iconography, ecclesiastical furniture, liturgy, and canon law (1830-1901)
Montboissier, Blessed Peter of - Better known as Peter the Venerable. General of the Cluniac order, prominent at the General Council of Pisa, commissioned the first Latin translation of the Koran. Renowned for his virtue and learning. Died in 1156
Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Louis-Joseph - A French general, born 28 Feb., 1712, at Candiac; died at Quebec 14 Sept., 1759
Monte Cassino, Abbey of - An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine Order
Montefeltro - Located in the province of Urbino, in the Marches, Central Italy
Montefiascone - Located in the province of Rome
Montemayor, Jorge De - A writer, born at Montemor, province of Coimbra, Portugal, about 1520; died at Turin, 26 February, 1561
Montenegro - A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ancient times a portion of the Roman province of Dalmatia
Montepulciano - Diocese in the province of Siena, in Tuscany
Monterey and Los Angeles - Comprises that part of the State of California which lies south of 37 deg. 5 min. N. lat. and covers an area of 80,000 square miles
Montesa, Military Order of - This order was established in the Kingdom of Aragon to take the place of the Order of the Temple, of which it was in a certain sense the continuation
Montesino, Antonio - A Spanish missionary, date of birth unknown; died in the West Indies, 1545
Montesinos, Luis de - Spanish theologian (d. 1621)
Montes Pietatis - Charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of interest, or without interest at all, upon the security of objects left in pawn, with a view to protecting persons in want from usurers
Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de - Detailed study of this writer's intellectual career, by Antoine Degert
Monteverde, Claudio - A distinguished musician, born at Cremona, May, 1567; died at Venice, 29 Nov., 1643
Monte Vergine - History of the abbey near Mercogliano, Italy, established by William of Vercelli
Montevideo - Located in Uruguay, comprises the whole of the republic
Montfaucon, Bernard de - French scholar, b. 1655; d. 1741
Montfort, Simon de - An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218
Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel - Inventor; b. at Vidalon-lez-Annonay, 26 August, 1740; d. at Balaruc-les-Bains, France, 26 June, 1810
Months, Special Devotions for - A list of the more common devotions with the indulgences attached
Montmagny, Charles Huault De - The second French Governor of Canada, born in France towards the end of the sixteenth century, of Charles Huault and Antoinette du Drac; died in the Antilles after 1651
Montmirail, John de - Son of Andrew, Lord of Montmirail and Ferte-Gaucher, and Hildiarde d'Oisy, born in 1165; died 29 Sept., 1217
Montmorency, Anne, First Duke of - Born at Chantilly, 15 March, 1492; died at Paris, 12 November, 1567. He belonged to that family of Montmorency whose members from 1327 held the title of first Barons of France
Montor, Alexis-François Artaud De - A diplomat and historian, born at Paris, 31 July, 1772; died at Paris, 12 Nov., 1849
Montpellier - The Diocese of Montpellier (Montis Pessulani) comprises the department of Herault, and is a suffragan of Avignon
Montreal, Archdiocese of - Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical Province of Montreal. Suffragans: the Dioceses of Saint-Hyacinthe, Sherbrooke, Valleyfield, and Joliette
Montreuil - Charterhouse of Notre-Dame-des-Pres, at Montreuil, in the Diocese of Arras, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, founded by Robert, Count of Boulogne and Auvergne
Montreuil Abbey - A former convent of Cistercian nuns in the Diocese of Laon, now Soissons, France
Mont-St-Michel - A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France
Montyon, Antoine-Jean-Baptiste-Robert Auget, Baron de - French philanthropist; b. at Paris, 23 December, 1733; d. there 29 December, 1820
Moore, Arthur - Count, b. at Liverpool, 1849; d. at Mooresfort, Tipperary, Ireland, 1904
Moore, Michael - Priest, preacher, and professor, b. at Dublin, Ireland, 1640; d. at Paris, 22 Aug., 1726
Moore, Thomas - Poet and biographer, b. 28 May, 1779, at Dublin, Ireland; d. 26 February, 1852, at Devizes, England
Mopsuestia - A titular see of Cilicia Secunda in Asia Minor and suffragan of Anazarbus
Mor, Antonis Van Dashort - Dutch painter, b. at Utrecht in 1519; d. at Antwerp, between 1576 and 1578
Moral Theology - Limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end
Morales, Ambrosio - Spanish historian, b. at Cordova, 1513; d. in 1591
Morales, Christóbal - Spanish composer (1512-1553)
Morales, Juan Bautista - Missionary, b. about 1597 at Ecija in Andalusia, Spain; d. Fu-ning, China, 17 Sept., 1664
Morales, Luis de - Spanish painter, b. at Badajoz in Estremadura about 1509; d. at Badajoz, 1586
Moralities - Moralities are a development or an offshoot of the Miracle Plays and together with these form the greater part of Medieval drama. They were popular in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries and existed side by side with the Miracle Plays of that date
Morality - Morality is antecedent to ethics: it denotes those concrete activities of which ethics is the science. It may be defined as human conduct in so far as it is freely subordinated to the ideal of what is right and fitting
Moran, Francis Patrick - Third Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Leighlinbridge, Ireland, 16 Sept., 1830; d, at Manly, Sydney, 16 Aug., 1911
Moratín, Leandro Fernandez de - Spanish poet and playwright, b. at Madrid, 10 March, 1760; at Paris, 21 June, 1828
Moravia - Austrian crown land east of Bohemia
Moravian Brethren - 'Bohemian Brethren' and 'Moravian Brethren' are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722
Morcelli, Stefano Antonio - Italian Jesuit and epigraphist (1737-1822)
More, Thomas, Saint - Biographical article on the Lord Chancellor of England, and martyr. Beheaded 1535
More, Helen - Nun and descendant of St. Thomas More (1606-1633)
More, Henry - Priest and descendant of St. Thomas More (1586-1661)
Morel, Gall - Poet, scholar, aesthete, and educationist, b. at St. Fiden, Switzerland, on 24 March, 1803; d. at the Abbey of Einsiedeln on 16 December, 1872
Morell, Juliana - Dominican nun, b. at Barcelona, Spain, 16 February, 1594; d. at the convent of the Dominican nuns at Avignon, France, 26 June, 1653
Morelos, José María - Mexican patriot, b. at Valladolid (now called Morelia in his honour), Mexico, on 30 September, 1765; shot at San Cristobal Ecatepec on 22 December, 1815
Moréri, Louis - An encyclopaedist, b. at Bargemont in the Diocese of Frejus, France, 25 March, 1643, d. at Paris, 10 July, 1680
Moreto y Cabaña, Augustine - Spanish dramatist; b. at Madrid, 9 April, 1618, d. at Toledo, 28 Octoher, 1669
Morgagni, Giovanni Battista - Italian physician and investigator in medicine; b. 25 February, 1682; d. Bologna, 6 December, 1771
Morgan, Venerable Edward - Welsh priest, martyr, b. at Bettisfield, Hanmer, Flintshire, executed at Tyburn, London, 26 April, 1642
Morghen, Raffaello - Italian engraver, b. at Portici, 19 June, 1768 (1761?); d. at Florence, 8 April, 1833
Moriarty, David - Bishop and pulpit orator, b. in Ardfert, Co. Kerry, in 1812; d. 1 October, 1877
Morigi, Michaelangelo (Caravaggio) - Milanese painter, b. at Caravaggio in 1569, d. at Porto d' Ercole in 1609
Morimond, Abbey of - Founded in 1115 by Odelric d' Aigremont and his wife, Adeline de Choiseul
Morin, Jean - A French priest of the Oratory, b. at Blois, in 1591, d. at Paris, 28 Feb., 1659
Mormons - Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This religious body had its origin during the early part of the nineteenth century. Joseph Smith, the founder and first president of the sect, was the son of a Vermont farmer, and was born in Sharon township, Windsor County, in that state, on 23 December, 1805
Morocco - The country known as Morocco (from Marrakesh, the name of one of its chief cities) forms the northwest corner of the Continent of Africa
Morone, Giovanni - Cardinal, Bishop of Modena, b. at Milan 25 Jan., 1509; d. at Rome, 1 Dec., 1580
Moroni, Gaetano - The author of 'Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica', b. at Rome, 17 October, 1802; d. there, 3 November, 1883
Moroni, Giovanni Battista - A painter, b. at Bondo, near Albino, in the territory of Bergamo, between 1520 and 1525; d. at Bergamo, in 1578
Morris, John - Canon, afterwards Jesuit, F.S.A., b. in India, 4 July, 1826; d. at Wimbledon, 22 Oct., 1893
Morris, John Brande - Born at Brentford, Middlesex, 4 September, 1812; died at Hammersmith, London, 9 April, 1880; he studied at Baliol College, Oxford, graduating in 1834 (B.A. honours) and 1837 (M. A.), He was at once elected Petrean Fellow of Exeter College, and lectured on Hebrew
Morris, Martin Ferdinand - Lawyer and jurist, b. 3 December, 1834, at Washington, D.C.; d. 12 September, 1909, at Washington, D. C
Morse - The rectangular ornamented piece of material attached to the two front edges of the cope near the breast to prevent the vestment from slipping from the shoulders
Morse, Venerable Henry - English Jesuit who made his novitiate in prison. He was martyred at Tyburn in 1644
Mortification - One of the methods which Christian ascesticism employs in training the soul to virtuous and holy living
Mortmain - History and details of the laws
Morton, John - Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, b. in Dorsetshire about 1420, d. at Knowle, Kent, 15 Sept., 1500
Morton, Robert - Brief biography of the English priest, martyred at London in 1588, along with a layman, Hugh Moor. Article also mentions others martyred on the same day elsewhere in England, including the Bl. William Dean
Mosaic Legislation - The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws, and decisions comprised in the last four books of the Pentateuch, and ascribed by Christian and Hebrew tradition to Moses
Mosaics - Includes information on the history and techniques
Moschus, Johannes - A monk and ascetical writer, b. about 550 probably at Damascus; d. at Rome, 619
Moscow - The ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the government (province) of Moscow, situated in almost the centre of European Russia
Moses - Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part of the twelfth century, B. C
Moses Bar Cephas - A Syriac bishop and writer, b. at Balad about 813; d. 12 Feb., 903
Moses Maimonides, Teaching of - Article by William Turner discusses this Jewish thinker's life and doctrines
Moses of Chorene - Armenian called by his countrymen 'the father of history' and the 'father of scholars', and celebrated as a poet, or hymn writer, and a grammarian
Mossul - The seat of a Chaldean archdiocese, a Syrian diocese, and an Apostolic Mission
Mostar and Markana-Trebinje - History of the dioceses
Most Precious Blood, Feast of the - For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been assigned, the office being in both cases the same. . .
Most Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the - Confraternities which make it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ
Most Pure Heart of Mary, Feast of the - In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the 'Inner Life of Mary', celebrated by the Sulpitians on 19 October
Mosynoupolis - Titular see in Macedonia
Motet - A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the Offertorium, or as a detached number in extra-liturgical functions
Motolinia, Toribio de Benavente - Franciscan missionary to Mexico (d. 1568)
Motu Proprio - The name given to certain papal rescripts on account of the clause motu proprio (of his own accord) used in the document
Mouchy, Antoine de - Theologian and canonist (1494-1574)
Moufang, Franz Christoph Ignaz - Theologian, b. at Mainz, 17 Feb., 1817; d. there, 27 Feb., 1890
Moulins - Suffragan of Sens
Mount Athos - The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring
Mount Calvary, Congregations of - Two groups are detailed
Mount Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of - This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386
Mount Saint Mary's College - The second oldest among the Catholic collegiate institutions in the United States, is located near Emmitsburg, Maryland, within the limits of the Archdiocese of Baltimore
Movers, Franz Karl - Exegete and Orientalist, b. at Koesfeld, Westphalia, 17 July, 1806; d. at Breslau, 28 Sept., 1856
Moxos Indians - According to one authority, they are named from Musu, their Quichua name; according to others, from the Moxos word, muha, erroneously thought by the Spaniards to be the tribal name
Moy De Sons, Karl Ernst, Freiherr Von - A jurist, born 10 August, 1799, at Munich; died 1 August, 1867, at Innsbruck (Tyrol)
Moye, Ven. John Martin - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Divine Providence, and missionary to China. He died in 1793
Moylan, Francis - Bishop of Cork, born at Cork, 1739; died in 1815
Moylan, Stephen - An American patriot and merchant, born in Ireland in 1734; died at Philadelphia, 11 April, 1811
Mozambique - The former official name given to the Portuguese possessions on the eastern coast of Africa opposite the island of Madagascar
Mozarabic Rite - The name 'Mozarabic Rite' is given to the rite used generally in Spain and in what afterwards became Portugal from the earliest times of which we have any information down to the latter part of the eleventh century, and still surviving in the Capilla Muzarabe in Toledo cathedral and in the chapel of San Salvador or Talavera, in the old cathedral of Salamanca
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus - Biography of the composer (1756-1791)
Mozetena Indians - A group of some half dozen tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock upon the headwaters of the Beni river, Department of Beni, in northwestern Bolivia
Mozzetta - A short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open front, which may be fastened by means of a row of small buttons; at the neck it has a very small and purely ornamental hood
Mozzi, Luigi - Controversialist, born at Bergamo, 26 May, 1746; died near Milan, 24 June, 1813
Mrak, Ignatius - The second Bishop of Marquette, U. S. A., born 16 October, 1818, in Hotovle, in the Diocese of Laibach (Carinthia), Austria; died at Marquette, 2 Jan., 1901
Muchar, Albert Anton Von - An historian, born at Linez, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1781; died at Graz, Styria, 6 June, 1849
Mühlbacher, Engelbert - Historian, born at Gresten, Austria, 4 Oct., 1843; died at Vienna, 17 July, 1903
Mulhall, Michael George - Statistician, b. in Dublin, 29 September, 1829; d. there 13 Dec., 1900
Mulholland, St. Clair Augustine - Born at Lisburn, Co. Antrium, Ireland, 1 April 1839; died at Philadelphia, 17 Feb., 1910
Mullanphy, John - Merchant, philanthropist, b. near Enniskillen, Co. Fremanagh, Ireland, 1758; d. at St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A., 29 August, 1833
Müller, Adam Heinrich - Publicist and political economist, convert, b. at Berlin, 30 June, 1779; d. at Vienna, 17 Jan., 1829
Müller, Johann - Physiologist and comparative anatomist, b. at Coblenz, 14 July, 1801; d. at Berlin, 28 April, 1858
Müller, Johann - German astronomer, b. 6 June, 1436; d. in Rome, 6 July, 1476
Müller, Karl - Professor at Duesseldorf, b. at Darmstadt, 29 Oct., 1818; d. at Neuenahr, 15 Aug., 1893, belongs to the more recent members of a school of German religious painters known as the 'Nazarenes.'
Mullock, John T. - Bishop of St. John's, Newfoundland, born in 1807 at Limerick, Ireland; died at St. John's, Newfoundland, 26 March, 1869
Münch-Bellinghausen, Baron Eligius Franz Joseph von - An Austrian dramatist, born at Cracow, 2 April, 1806; died at Vienna, 22 May, 1871
Mundwiler, Fintan - Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of St. Meinrad, Indiana, born at Dietikon in Switzerland, 12 July, 1835; died at St. Meinrad's Abbey, 14 February, 1898
Munich-Freising - An archdiocese in Bavaria
Munkács - Diocese in Hungary, of Greek Catholic Rite, suffragan of Gran
Münster - Diocese in the Prussian Province of Westphalia, suffragan of Cologne
Münster, University of - The town of Muenster in Westphalia obtained its university in 1771 through the initiative of the prince-bishop's vicar general, Freiherr von Fuerstenberg
Müntz, Eugène - French savant and historian; b. 11 June, 1845; d. at Paris, 2 November, 1902
Mura, Saint - Irishman, appointed Abbot of Fahan by St. Columba. Patron saint of the O'Neills. Died in about 645
Muratori, Luigi Antonio - Librarian in Modena, one of the greatest scholars of his time, b. 21 Oct., 1672; d. 23 Jan., 1750
Muratorian Canon - Also called the Muratorian Fragment, after the name of the discoverer and first editor, L. A. Muratori (in the 'Antiquitates italicae', III, Milan, 1740, 851 sq.), the oldest known canon or list of books of the New Testament
Murder - Signifies, in general, the killing of a human being. In practice, however, the word has come to mean the unjust taking away of human life, perpetrated by one distinct from the victim and acting in a private capacity
Muret, Marc-Antoine - Sixteenth-century French humanist. Article by Paul Lejay
Muri - An abbey of monks of the Order of S. Benedict, which flourished for over eight centuries at Muri near Basle in Switzerland, and which is now established under Austrian rule at Gries near Bozen in Tyrol
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban - Spanish painter, d. 1682. Artist's biography with bibliography
Murner, Thomas - German satirist of the sixteenth century, b. at Oberehnheim, Alsace, 24 Dec., 1475; d. there, 1537
Muro-Lucano - Located in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy
Murray, John O'Kane - Irish-American physician and historian (1847-1885)
Murray, Daniel - An Archbishop of Dublin, b. 1768, at Sheepwalk, near Arklow, Ireland; d. at Dublin
Murray, Patrick - Theologian, b. Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland, 18 November, 1811; d. 15 Nov., 1882, in Maynooth College
Museums, Christian - Though applicable to collections composed of Christian objects representative of all epochs, this term is usually reserved to those museums which abound chiefly in Christian objects antedating the Middle Ages, namely, Sarcophagi, inscriptions and products of the minor arts
Mush - An Armenian Catholic see, comprising the sanjaks of Mush and Seert, in the vilayet of Bitlis
Mush, John - An English priest, also known as John Ratcliffe (1551-1612)
Music, Ecclesiastical - By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical authority, is employed in connexion with Divine service to promote the glorification of God and the edification of the faithful
Music of the Mass - Article covers exclusively the texts of the Mass (not seasonal) which receive a musical treatment
Musical Instruments in Church Services - History of their use, starting with the organ
Musso, Cornelius - Franciscan bishop (1511-1574)
Musti - A titular see of Proconsular Africa, suffragan of Carthage
Musuros, Markos - A learned Greek humanist, born 1470 at Retimo, Crete; died 1517 at Rome
Mutis, José Celestino - Eminent naturalist and scientist in South America, b. at Cadiz, Spain, 6 April, 1732; d. at Bogota, Colombia, 2 Sept., 1808
Muzzarelli, Alfonso - A learned Italian Jesuit, b. 22 August, 1749, at Ferrara; d. 25 May, 1813, at Paris
Mylasa - A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, or Stauropolis, in Caria
Myndus - A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis
Myra - A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor
Myrina - A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus
Myriophytum - A titular see of Thracia Prima and suffragan of Heraclea
Mysore - Diocese in India, suffragan to Pondicherry
Mysteries and Miracle Plays - These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages
Mystery - This term signifies in general that which is unknowable, or valuable knowledge that is kept secret
Mystical Body of the Church - The members of the Church are bound together by a supernatural life communicated to them by Christ through the sacraments
Mystical Marriage - In the Old and the New Testament, the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations with His chosen people (whether of the Synagogue or of the Church), are frequently typified under the form of the relations between bridegroom and bride. In like manner, Christian virginity been considered from the earliest centuries as a special offering made by the soul to its spouse, Christ
Mystical Theology - Mysticism and mystical prayer or contemplation considered from a Catholic perspective, along with a bibliography of famous Christian mystics
Mysticism - Mysticism as direct union of the human soul with the Divinity primarily from a Catholic perspective, but does mention other mystical traditions
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