New Advent
 Home   Encyclopedia   Summa   Fathers   Bible   Library 
 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 
New Advent
Home > Catholic Encyclopedia > A


Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99...

Aachen - In French, Aix-la-Chapelle, the name by which the city is generally known; in Latin Aquae Grani, later Aquisgranum
Aarhus, Ancient See of - Located in Denmark
Aaron - Brother of Moses, and High Priest of the Old Law
Abachum, Audifax, Martha, and Maris, Saints - Family martyred at Rome in 270. SS. Maris and Martha were husband and wife
Abaddon - A Hebrew word signifying: ruin, destruction (Job 31:12); place of destruction; the Abyss, realm of the dead (Job 26:6; Proverbs 15:11)
Abandonment - A term used by writers of ascetical and mystical books to signify the first stage of the union of the soul with God by conforming to His Will
Abarca, Pedro - Theologian (1619-1693)
Abarim - A mountain range across Jordan
Abba - Aramaic word for father
Abbadie, Antoine d' - Astronomer, geodetist, genographer, physician, numismatist, philologian (1810-1897)
Abban of Magheranoidhe, Saint - Irish monastic founder, d. 620
Abban of New Ross, Saint - Contemporary of St. Abban of Magheranoidhe, and often confused with St. Evin of Rosglass
Abban the Hermit, Saint - An Irishman who lived at Abingdon, England, before St. Patrick's lifetime
Abbé - A French word meaning primarily and strictly an abbot or superior of a monastery of men
Abbeloos, Jean Baptiste - Orientalist (1836-1906)
Abbess - The female superior in spirituals and temporals of a community of twelve or more nuns
Abbey - A monastery canonically erected and autonomous, with a community of not fewer than twelve religious; monks under the government of an abbot; nuns under that of an abbess
Abbo Cernuus - French Benedictine monk of St-Germain-des-Pres in Paris, sometimes called Abbo Parisiensis
Abbon, Saint - Biographical article on this Benedictine monk, who died in 1004
Abbot - A title given to the superior of a community of twelve or more monks
Abbot, Commendatory - An ecclesiastic, or sometimes a layman, who holds an abbey in commendam
Abbot, Henry - A layman and convert to Catholicism, martyred at York in 1597. Explains the circumstances which led to his martyrdom
Abbot, Lay - A name used to designate a layman on whom a king or someone in authority bestowed an abbey as a reward for services rendered
Abbreviation, Methods of - Discusses forms used to get the most use from scarce and costly materials
Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical - Latin abbreviations commonly seen in documents of the Catholic Church, the full Latin words or phrases, and their English meaning
Abbreviators - Those who make an abridgment or abstract of a long writing or discourse
Abdera - A titular see in the province of Rhodope on the southern coast of Thrace, now called Bouloustra
Abdias - A minor prophet
Abdias of Babylon - Apocryphal writer
Abdication - Ecclesiastically considered, is the resignation of a benefice or clerical dignity
Abdon and Sennen, Saints - Persian martyrs in the Decian persecution. Died in about 250
Abduction - May be considered as a public crime and a matrimonial diriment impediment
Abecedaria - Complete or partial lists of letters of the alphabet, chiefly Greek and Latin, inscribed on ancient monuments, Pagan and Christian
Abecedarians - A sect of Anabaptists who disdained human knowledge, contending that God would enlighten His elect interiorly and give them knowledge of necessary truths by visions and ecstasies
Abel - Commentary on the first murder victim
Abel - Biblical place-name
Abel, Blessed Thomas - Biography of the priest and martyr, chaplain to Catherine of Aragon
Abelard, Peter - Dialectician, philosopher, and theologian (1079-1142)
Abelly, Louis - Associate of St. Vincent de Paul (1603-1691)
Abenakis - A confederation of Algonquin tribes, comprising the Penobscots, Passamaquoddies, Norridgewocks, and others, formerly occupying what is now Maine, and southern New Brunswick
Aben-Ezra, Abraham-ben-Méir - Spanish rabbi (1092-1167)
Abercius, Inscription of - A Greek hagiographical text
Abercromby, John - Named as having lost his life from Catholic clergy violence
Abercromby, Robert - Jesuit missionary in Scotland (1532-1613)
Aberdeen, The Diocese of - A see founded in 1063 at Mortlach by Bl. Beyn
Aberdeen, The University of - Founder William Elphinstone, Bishop of Aberdeen from 1483 to 1514
Aberle, Moritz von - Catholic theologian (1819-1875)
Abgar, The Legend of - Concerns a correspondence that took place between God and the local potentate at Edessa
Abhan, Saint - Contemporary of St. Abban of Magheranoidhe, and often confused with St. Evin of Rosglass
Abiathar - Hebrew ebhyathar, Father of plenty, or, the great one is father
Abila - A titular see of Phoenicia
Abingdon, The Abbey of - Located in the County of Berkshire, England, founded A.D. 675
Abington, Thomas - English antiquarian (1560-1647)
Abiogenesis and Biogenesis - According to their Greek derivation these two terms refer to the origin of life
Abipones - Indian tribe, linguistically of Guaycuru stock
Abisai - Nephew of King David
Abjuration - A denial, disavowal, or renunciation under oath
Abner - A son of Ner, a cousin of Saul, and commander-in-chief of Saul's army
Abomination of Desolation, The - Spoken of in St. Matthew, xxiv, 15, and St. Mark, xiii, 14
Abortion - Briefly defined as 'the loss of a fetal life.'
Abortion, Physical Effects of - Covers definition, causes, and physical effects
Abra de Raconis, Charles François d' - French bishop, born at the Chateau de Raconis in 1580 of a Calvinistic family; died 1646
Abrabanel, Don Isaac - Jewish statesman, apologist and exegete (1437-1508)
Abraham - Outline of his life, with New and Old Testament views
Abraham (in Liturgy) - Of all the names used, a special prominence accrues to those of Abel, Melchisedech, and Abraham
Abraham, The Bosom of - Found only in two verses of St. Luke's Gospel (xvi, 22, 23)
Abraham a Sancta Clara - A Discalced Augustinian friar, preacher, and author of popular books of devotion (1644-1709)
Abraham Ecchelensis - A learned Maronite, born in Hekel, or Ecchel (hence his surname), a village on Mount Lebanon, in 1600; died 1664 in Rome
Abrahamites - Syrian heretics of the ninth century
Abram, Nicholas - Jesuit theologian (1589-1655)
Abrasax - A class of ancient stone articles, of small dimensions, inscribed with outlandish figures and formulas
Absalom - Article covers Absalom, son of David; Absalom, father of Mathathias; and Absalom, father of Jonathan
Absalon of Lund - A Danish prelate, also known as Axel (1128-1201)
Absinthe - Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness
Absolute, The - Philosophical term referring to God
Absolution - The remission of sin, or of the punishment due to sin, granted by the Church
Abstemii - One who cannot take wine without risk of vomiting
Abstinence - Includes information about old and new testament fasting as well as church laws
Abstinence, Physical Effects of - Article deals with effects due to partial or periodic abstinence, such as practiced by the Catholic Church
Abstraction - A process (or a faculty) by which the mind selects for consideration some one of the attributes of a thing to the exclusion of the rest
Abthain - An English or Lowland Scotch form of the middle-Latin word abthania (Gaelic, abdhaine), meaning abbacy
Abucara, Theodore - A bishop of Caria in Syria; d., probably, in 770
Abundius - An Italian bishop, b. at Thessalonica early in the fifth century; d. 469
Abydus - A titular see of Troas in Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontic province
Abyss - Primarily and classically an adjective, very deep
Abyssinia - Provides details on the geography, ethnology, political revolutions, as well as church information
Acacia - The Biblical Acacia belongs to the genus Mimosa
Acacians, The - Fourth-century Arian sect
Acacius - Bishop of Beroea (322-432)
Acacius - Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, disciple and biographer of Eusebius, the historian, whose successor in the See of Caesarea he became in 340
Acacius - Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 489)
Acacius, Saint - Bishop of Melitene in the third century
Academies, Roman - Historical and bibliographical notes concerning the more important of these associations of learned men
Academy, The French - Founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635
Acadia - Usually regarded as the small district on the south shore of the Bay of Fundy from Annapolis to the Basin of Minas
Acanthus - A titular see of Macedonia, on the Strymonic Gulf, now known as Erisso
Acanthus - An ornamental plant indigenous to middle Europe
Acathistus - The title of a certain hymn or, an Office in the Greek Liturgy in honour of the Mother of God
Acca, Saint - Bishop of Hexham, companion of St. Wilfrid. Acca died in about 742
Accaron - The most northern of the five principal Philistine cities
Accentus Ecclesiasticus - Parts of the liturgy the priest, or the deacon, or subdeacon, or the acolyte sang alone
Acceptance - In canon law, the act by which one receives a thing with approbation or satisfaction
Acceptants - Those Jansenists who accepted the Bull Unigenitus, issued in 1713 against the Jansenist doctrines
Accession - Method of acquiring ownership of a thing arising from the fact that it is in some way added to, or is the fruit of something already belonging to oneself
Accessus - A term applied to the voting in conclave for the election of a pope, by which a cardinal changes his vote and accedes to some other candidate
Acciajuoli - Three cardinals belonging to an illustrious Florentine family, Angelo, Niccolo, and Filippo
Accident - The obvious division of things into the stable and the unstable
Acclamation - Used in the classical Latin of Republican Rome as a general term for any manifestation of popular feeling expressed by a shout
Acclamation (in Papal Elections) - One of the forms of papal election. Consists of all the cardinals present unanimously proclaiming one of the candidates Supreme Pontiff, without the formality of casting votes
Accommodation, Biblical - Covers what is meant by biblical accommodation, its use in Sacred Scripture, and the rules which ought to regulate its use
Accomplice - A term generally employed to designate a partner in some form of evildoing
Accursius, Francesco - Covers an Italian jurisconsult of the Middle Ages, (1182-1260) and his son, also a lawyer, (1225-1293)
Acephali - A term applied to the Eutychians who withdrew from Peter Mongus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, in 482
Acerenza - Italian archdiocese
Achab - Son of Amri and King of Israel
Achaia - The name, before the Roman conquest in 146 B.C., of a strip of land between the gulf of Corinth and Elis and Arcadia, embracing twelve cities leagued together
Achaicus - A Christian mentioned in St. Paul's epistles
Achaz - King of Judah
Achéry, Lucas d' - French Benedictine (1609-1685)
Achiacharus - Nephew of Tobias
Achilleus and Nereus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May
Achimaas - Son of Sadoc, the priest
Achimelech - Four people with this name are detailed
Achitopel - Counsellor of David, who joined the rebellion of Absalom
Achonry - Diocese in Ireland, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Tuam
Achor Valley - The scene of the death of the 'troubler' Achan
Achrida - A titular see in Upper Albania
Achterfeldt, Johann Heinrich - Theologian (1788-1877)
Achtermann, Theodore William - German sculptor (1799-1889)
Acidalius, Valens - Philologist, Latin poet, and convert to the Catholic Church (1567-1595)
Aci-Reale, The Diocese of - Located in Sicily; includes fourteen communes in the civil province of Catania, immediately subject to Rome
Ackermann, Leopold - Catholic professor of exegesis (1771-1831)
Acmonia - A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor, now known as Ahat-Keui
Acoemetae - Either, an appellation common to all Eastern ascetics known by the rigour of their vigils; or, a special order of Greek or Basilian monks devoting themselves to prayer and praise without intermission
Acolouthia - In ecclesiastical terminology signifies the order or arrangement of the divine office and also, in a wide sense, the office itself
Acquaviva - Name of several Italian cardinals
Acquaviva, Claudius - Fifth General of the Society of Jesus (1543-1615)
Acolyte - A cleric promoted to the fourth and highest minor order in the Latin Church, ranking next to a subdeacon
Acosta, Joaquín - Served in the Colombian army and in 1834 attempted a scientific survey of the country between Socorro and the Magdalena River
Acosta, José de - Founded a number of colleges, among them those of Arequipa, Potose, Chuquisaca, Panama, and La Paz
Acquapendente - A diocese in Italy under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See, comprising seven towns of the Province of Rome
Acquaviva - Name of several Italian cardinals
Acqui - A diocese suffragan of Turin, Italy
Acre - Syrian seaport on the Mediterranean
Acre - Also called Saint-Jean d'Acre
Acrostic - A poem the initial or final letters of whose verses form certain words or sentences
Act of Settlement (Irish) - 1662 act passed by the Irish Parliament to bring in Protestant settlers in Munster, Leinster, and Ulster
Acta Pilati - The Gospel of Nicodemus
Acta Sanctæ Sedis - A publication containing the principal public documents issued by the Pope, directly or through the Roman Congregations
Acta Sanctorum Hiberniæ - Abbreviated title of a celebrated work on the Irish saints by the Franciscan, John Colgan
Acta Triadis Thaumaturgæ - The lives of St. Patrick, St. Brigid, and St. Columba; published at Louvain, in 1647, by John Colgan
Acton, Charles Januarius - English cardinal (1803-1847)
Acton, John - English canonist, born 1350
Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Baron Acton - Biography of the historian best-known for his view of the corruption power causes
Acton, John Francis Edward - Sixth Baronet of the name (1736-1811)
Acts, Canonical - Derive their name from connection with ecclesiastical procedure
Acts, Human - St. Thomas and the scholastics in general regard only the free and deliberate acts of the will as human
Acts, Indifferent - An act that is neither good nor bad
Acts of the Apostles - The fifth book of the New Testament
Acts of the Martyrs - Records of the trials of early Christian martyrs made by the notaries of the court
Acts of Roman Congregations - A term used to designate the documents issued by the Roman Congregations
Actual Grace - A grace that is given for the performance of salutary acts and is present and disappears with the action itself
Actus et Potentia - A technical expression in scholastic phraseology used to translate Aristotle's energeia or entelecheia, and dynamis
Actus primus - A technical expression used in scholastic philosophy
Actus Purus - A term employed in scholastic philosophy to express the absolute perfection of God
Acuas - One of the first to spread Manicheism in the Christian Orient
Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem - Apostolic letter issued against Emperor Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV
Ad Limina Apostolorum - A pilgrimage to the sepulchres of St. Peter and St. Paul at Rome
Ad Sanctam Beati Petri Sedem - Summarizes this intervention in the Jansenist controversy by Pope Alexander VII
Ad Universalis Ecclesiae - A papal constitution dealing with admission to religious orders
Ad Limina Visit - The obligation incumbent on certain members of the hierarchy of visiting, the 'thresholds of the Apostles', Sts. Peter and Paul, and of presenting themselves before the pope to give an account of the state of their dioceses
Adalard, Saint - Grandson of Charles Martel. Adalard was abbot of Corbie, and Pepin's prime minister. He died in 827
Adalbert - Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen; born about 1000; died 1072
Adalbert I - Archbishop of Mainz (Mayence) 1111 to 1137
Adalbert, Saint - Apostle of the Slavs. Monk, missionary to Russia, abbot, and bishop of Magdeburg, d. 981
Adalbert, Saint - Apostle of Prussia. Bishop of Prague, forced to flee his see. Missionary to the Hungarians and Poles. He was murdered in 997
Adam - First man and father of the human race
Adam in Early Christian Liturgy and Literature - Discusses his importance to the Fathers and to the authors of the many apocryphal writings of the first five centuries of the Christian Era
Adam, The Books of - A romance made up of Oriental fables
Adam of Bremen - A German historian and geographer of the eleventh century
Adam of Fulda - A monk of Franconia and one of the most learned musicians of his age
Adam of Murimuth - An English chronicler of about the middle of the fourteenth century
Adam of Perseigne - French Cistercian, Abbot of the monastery of Perseigne in the Diocese of Mans, born about the middle of the twelfth century
Adam of St. Victor - A prolific writer of Latin Hymns, born in the latter part of the twelfth century
Adam of Usk - An English priest, canonist, and chronicler
Adam, John - Preacher and opponent of Calvinists and Jansenists
Adam, Nicholas - French linguist and writer (1716-1792)
Adam Scotus - A theologian and Church historian of the latter part of the twelfth century
Adami da Bolsena, Andrea - Italian musician (1663-1742)
Adamites - An obscure sect, dating perhaps from the second century, which professed to have regained Adam's primeval innocence
Adamnan, Saint - Irish-born abbot of Iona, and St. Columba's biographer
Adams, James - Jesuit professor of humanities (1737-1802)
Adams, Ven. John - A convert to Catholicism, he was martyred at Tyburn in 1586
Adana - A diocese of Armenian rite in Asia Minor
Adar - Four meanings detailed
Adauctus and Felix, Saints - Martyrs at Rome in 303. 'Adauctus' is not the second martyr's proper name--it means 'added.'
Adda, Ferdinando d' - Cardinal and Papal Legate (1649-1719)
Addai, Doctrine of - Syriac document which relates the conversion of Edessa
Addas - One of the three original disciples of Manes
Addeus and Maris, Liturgy of - Oriental liturgy, sometimes assigned to the Syrian group; sometimes to the Persian group
Addresses, Ecclesiastical - Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence
Adelaide, Archdiocese of - Centered in Adelaide, capital of South Australia
Adelaide, Saint - Abbess, renowned for having the gift of miracles, d. 1015
Adelaide, Saint - Or Adelheid. The widow of Otho, she died in 999
Adelard of Bath - Twelfth-century scholastic philosopher
Adelham, John Placid - Convert from Protestantism (d. 1681)
Adelmann - Eleventh-century Bishop of Brescia
Adelophagi - Fourth-century sect mentioned by the anonymous author known as Praedestinatus
Aden - It comprises all Arabia, and is known as the Vicariate Apostolic of Arabia and Aden
Adeodatus I, Pope Saint - Also known as Pope Adeodatus I, d. 618
Adeodatus - Son of St. Augustine (372-388)
Adeodatus (II), Pope Saint - Brief article on this Roman monk, opponent of Monothelitism, d. 676. Called Adeodatus II to distinguish him from his predecessor St. Deusdedit, who is also called Adeodatus
Adeste Fidelis - A hymn used at Benediction at Christmastide in France and England since the close of the eighteenth century
Adjuration - An urgent demand made upon another to do something, or to desist from doing something, which is rendered more solemn by coupling with it the name of God
Administrator - Includes details on administrators of dioceses, parishes, and ecclesiastical institutions
Administrator (of Ecclesiastical Property) - One charged with the care of church property
Admonitions, Canonical - A preliminary means used by the Church towards a suspected person, as a preventive of harm or a remedy of evil
Admont - A Benedictine abbey in Styria, Austro-Hungary
Ado of Vienne, Saint - Benedictine monk, pilgrim, scholar, pastor, Archbishop of Vienne, d. 875
Adonai - Hebrew meaning 'lord, ruler', a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament
Adonias - Fourth son of King David, and Adonias the Levite are discussed
Adoption - Adoption, as defined in canon law, is foreign to the Bible
Adoption, Canonical - The Church made its own the Roman law of adoption, with its legal consequences
Adoption, Supernatural - The adoption of man by God in virtue of which we become His sons and heirs
Adoptionism - The theory that the man Jesus at some point in time became the Son of God only by adoption. Strictly speaking, refers to an eighth-century Spanish heresy, but the term is also used to cover similar beliefs
Adoration - In the strict sense, an act of religion offered to God in acknowledgment of His supreme perfection and dominion, and of the creature's dependence upon Him
Adoration, Perpetual - A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
Adorno, Francis - Italian preacher (1531-1586)
Adoro Te Devote - A hymn sometimes styled Rhythmus, or Oratio, S. Thomae (sc. Aquinatis) written c. 1260
Adria - An Italian bishopric, suffragan to Venice
Adrian I, Pope - Reigned 772-95
Adrian II, Pope - Reigned 867-872
Adrian III, Pope Saint - Short article on this pope, a Roman, who died in 885
Adrian IV, Pope - Reigned 1154-1159
Adrian V, Pope - A Genoese, and nephew of Innocent IV. He was elected at Viterbo 12 July 1276, but died 18 August
Adrian VI, Pope - Reigned 1522-1523
Adrian of Canterbury, Saint - African-born Benedictine abbot, d. 710
Adrian of Castello - Italian prelate distinguished as a statesman and reviver of learning; born about 1460, died about 1521
Adrianople - According to legend, Orestes, son of Agamemnon, built this city at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza)
Adrichem, Christian Kruik van - Catholic priest and theological writer (1533-1585)
Adso - Abbot of the Cluniac monastery of Moutier-en-Der, d. 992, on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem
Aduarte, Diego Francisco - Missionary and historian (1566-1635)
Adullam - Details on two places with this name
Adulteration of Food - This act is defined as the addition of any non-condimental substance to a food
Adultery - The article considers adultery with reference only to morality
Advent - According to 1907 usage, a period beginning with the Sunday nearest to the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle and embracing four Sundays
Adventists - A group of six American Protestant sects which hold in common a belief in the near return of Christ in person
Advertisements, Book of - A series of enactments concerning ecclesiastical matters, drawn up by Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (1559-75)
Advocates of Roman Congregations - Persons, ecclesiastical or lay, versed in canon and civil law, who plead causes before the ecclesiastical tribunals in Rome
Advocates of St. Peter - A body of jurists constituting a society whose statutes were confirmed by a brief of Leo XIII, 5 July, 1878
Advocatus Diaboli - A title given to an officer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, established in 1587, by Sixtus V, to deal juridically with processes of beatification and canonization
Advocatus Ecclesiæ - A name applied, in the Middle Ages, to certain lay persons, generally of noble birth, whose duty it was, under given conditions, to represent a particular church or monastery, and to defend its rights against force
Advowson - In English law the right of patronage of a church or ecclesiastical benefice, a right exercised by nomination of a clergyman to such church or other benefice
Adytum - A secret chamber or place of retirement in the ancient temples, and esteemed the most sacred spot; the innermost sanctuary or shrine
Aedan of Ferns, Saint - Bishop and patron of Ferns, Ireland (550-632)
Aedh of Kildare - Sixth-century King of Leinster, Ireland
Aegidius of Assisi, Blessed - Better known in English as Brother Giles. One of the first followers of St. Francis of Assisi, he died in 1262
Aegidius of Viterbo - Cardinal, theologian, orator, humanist, and poet, born at Viterbo, Italy; died at Rome, 1532
Aelfred the Great - King of the West Saxons (849-899)
Aelfric, Abbot of Eynsham - The author of the homilies in Anglo-Saxon, a translator of Holy Scripture, and a writer upon many miscellaneous subjects
Aelnoth - Monk and biographer, of whom nothing is known except his Life of St. Canute the Martyr, written in 1109
Aelred, Saint - Cistercian abbot, homilist, spiritual writer, d. 1166 or 1167
Æneas of Gaza - A Neo-Platonic philosopher, a convert to Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the fifth century
Aengus, Saint (the Culdee) - Irish hermit, hagiographer, poet, late eighth century
Aenon - Mentioned in John 3:23, as the locality where the forerunner of Christ baptized
Aeons - The term appropriated by Gnostic heresiarchs to designate the series of spiritual powers evolved by progressive emanation from the eternal Being
Aër - The largest and outer-most covering of the chalice and paten in the Greek church, corresponding to the veil in the Latin rite
Aërius of Pontus - A friend and fellow ascetic of Eustathius, who became Bishop of Sebaste (355), and who ordained Aërius and placed him over the hospital or asylum in that city
Æsthetics - May be defined as a systematic training to right thinking and right feeling in matters of art, and is made a part of philosophy by A.G. Baumgarten
Æterni Patris - The Apostolic Letter of Pius IX, by which he summoned the Vatican Council. It is dated Rome, 29 June, 1868
Æterni Patris - An encyclical letter of Pope Leo XIII (issued 4 August, 1879); not to be confused with the apostolic letter of the same name written by Pope Pius IX
Aëtius - A Roman general, patrician, and consul, b. towards the end of the fourth century; d. 454
Affinity (in the Bible) - Scripture recognizes affinity as an impediment to wedlock
Affinity (in Canon Law) - A relationship arising from the carnal intercourse of a man and a woman, sufficient for the generation of children, whereby the man becomes related to the woman's blood-relatives and the woman to the man's
Affirmation - A solemn declaration accepted in legal procedure in lieu of the requisite oath
Afflighem - Benedictine abbey in Belgium
Affre, Denis Auguste - Archbishop of Paris (1793-1848)
Afonzo de Albuquerque - Second son of Gonzallo de Albuquerque, lord of Villaverde
Afra, Saint - Martyred at Augsburg in the Diocletian persecution (c. 304) for refusing to participate in pagan rites
Africa - This name, which is of Phoenician origin, was at first given by the Romans to the territory about the city of Carthage
African Church, Early - The name given to the Christian communities inhabiting the region known politically as Roman Africa
African Liturgy - In use not only in the old Roman province of Africa of which Carthage was the capital, but also in Numidia and Mauretania
African Synods - Commonly called African or Carthaginian Synods
Agabus - Mentioned in Acts 11:28, and 21:10, as a prophet of the New Testament
Agape - Under certain circumstances the agape and the Eucharist appear to form parts of a single liturgical function
Agapetæ - Virgins who consecrated themselves to God with a vow of chastity and associated with laymen
Agapetus - Fifth-century deacon of the church of Sancta Sophia at Constantinople, reputed tutor of Justinian
Agapetus I, Pope Saint - Anti-Arian, instrumental in deposing a Monophysite bishop who had moreover abandoned his see, d. 536
Agapetus II, Pope - Reigned 946-955
Agar, William Seth - English Canon (1815-1872)
Agatha, Saint - Virgin and martyr, died at Catania in Sicily, probably in the Decian persecution (250-253)
Agathangelus - A supposed secretary of Tiridates II, King of Armenia, under whose name there has come down a life of the first apostle of Armenia, Gregory the Illuminator, who died about 332
Agathias - A Byzantine historian and man of letters, born at Myrina in Asia Minor about 536
Agatho, Pope Saint - Short article on St. Agatho the Wonderworker, a Sicilian believed to have been over 100 years old at the time of his election. He died in 681
Agaunum - In the diocese of Sion, Switzerland, owes its fame to an event related by St. Eucherius, Bishop of Lyons, the martyrdom of a Roman legion, known as the 'Theban Legion', at the beginning of the fourth century
Agazzari, Agostini - A musical composer, born 2 December 1578, of a noble family of Sienna; died probably 10 April, 1640
Agde, Council of - Held in 506 at Agatha or Agde in Languedoc, under the presidency of St. Caesarius of Arles
Age, Canonical - Fixed by the canons, or law of the Church, at which her subjects become capable of incurring certain obligations, enjoying special privileges, embracing special states of life, holding office or dignity, or receiving the sacraments
Age of Reason - The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally responsible
Agen, Diocese of - Comprises the Department of Lot and Garonne
Agents of Roman Congregations - Persons whose business it is to look after the affairs of their patrons at the Roman Curia
Aggeus - The tenth among the minor prophets of the Old Testament
Aggressor, Unjust - According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, of property of some importance, and of chastity, to repel violence with violence, even to the extent of killing an unjust assailant
Agiles, Raymond d' - A chronicler and canon of Puy-en-Velay, France, toward the close of the eleventh century
Agilulfus, Saint - Biography of the abbot of Stavelot, bishop of Cologne, martyred in 750
Agios O Theos - The opening words in Greek of an invocation, or doxology, or hymn for it may properly receive any of these titles which in the Roman Liturgy is sung during the Improperia, or 'Reproaches' at the ceremony of the Adoration of the Cross, on Good Friday
Agnelli, Giuseppe - Chiefly known for his catechetical and devotional works (1621-1706)
Agnelli, Fra. Guglielmo - Sculptor and architect (1238-1313)
Agnellus of Pisa, Blessed - Deacon, founder of the English Franciscan Province, d. 1236
Agnellus, Andreas, of Ravenna - Historian of that church, b. 805; the date of his death is unknown, but was probably about 846
Agnes of Assisi, Saint - Brief biography of the younger sister of St. Clare, and prioress of the Poor Clares at Monticelli
Agnes of Bohemia, Blessed - Also called Agnes of Prague. Poor Clare, prioress
Agnes of Montepulciano, Saint - Entered the convent at the age of 9, commissioned by the pope to found a monastery at the age of 13 (and 2 years later she was made its superior), also founded a Dominican convent, d. 1317
Agnes of Prague, Blessed - Also called Agnes of Prague. Poor Clare, prioress
Agnes of Rome, Saint and Martyr - Virgin, martyred at the age of 12 or 13, revered since at least the mid-fourth century
Agnesi, Maria Gaetana - An Italian woman of remarkable intellectual gifts and attainments. Member of the Blue Nuns in Milan (1718-1799)
Agnetz - The Slavonic word for the square portion of bread cut from the first loaf in the preparation for Mass according to the Greek rite
Agnoetae - The name given to those who denied the omniscience either of God or of Christ
Agnosticism - A philosophical theory of the limitations of knowledge, professing doubt of or disbelief in some or all of the powers of knowing possessed by the human mind
Agnus Dei - The name given to certain discs of wax impressed with the figure of a lamb and blessed at stated seasons by the Pope
Agnus Dei (in Liturgy) - A name given to the formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass in the Roman rite
Agony, Archconfraternity of Holy - An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony in the Garden of Gethsemani
Agonistici - One of the names given by the Donatists to those of their followers who went through cities and villages to disseminate the doctrine of Donatus
Agony of Christ - The word is used only once in Sacred Scripture (Luke 22:43) to designate the anguish of Our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemani
Agostini, Paolo - Italian composer (1593-1629)
Agostino Novello, Blessed - Counselor to the King of Sicily, joined the Augustinians, renowned for his knowledge of civil and ecclesiastical law, served as the pope's confessor, was General of his Order
Agoult, Charles Consstance César Joseph Matthieu d' - A French prelate, born at Grenoble, 1747; died at Paris, 1824
Agra - Archdiocese situated in British India
Agram - Archiepiscopal see of the ancient kingdom of Croatia, in Austria, founded towards the end of the eleventh century as a suffragan of Kalocsa in Hungary, and made an archdiocese in 1852
Agrapha - Term for alleged sayings of Jesus, found in ancient Christian writings, not included in the canonical Gospels
Agrarianism - Theories and movements intended to benefit the poorer classes of society by dealing in some way with the ownership of land or the legal obligations of the cultivators
Agreda, Maria de - Franciscan mystic (1602-1665)
Agria - An archiepiscopal see of Hungary, founded in 1009, and made an archdiocese in 1304, by Pius VII
Agricius, Saint - Fourth-century bishop of Trier
Agricola, Alexander - Biography of the composer, mentioning the possibility of unpublished manuscripts still in Spanish libraries
Agricola, George - Physician, mineralogist, historian, and controversialist (1494-1555)
Agricola, Rudolph - Humanist of the earlier period, and a promoter of the study of the classics in Germany, born in 1442, or 1443, at Bafflo, near Groningen, Holland; died at Heidelberg, 28 October, 1485
Agrippa of Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius - Described as a 'knight, doctor, and by common reputation, a magician'
Agrippinus - Bishop of Carthage at the close of the second and beginning of the third century
Aguas Calientes - A Mexican see dependent on Guadalaxara; erected by Leo XIII
Aguirre, Joseph Saenz de - Cardinal, and learned Spanish Benedictine; born at Logro o, in Old Castile, 24 March, 1630; died 19 August, 1699
Ahicam - A high court official under Josias and his two sons, who protected Jeremias from the fury of the populace
Ahriman and Ormuzd - The modern Persian forms of Anro-Mainyus and Ahura Mazda, the Evil Spirit and the Good Spirit
Aiblinger, Johann Caspar - Composer (1779-1867)
Aichinger, Gregor - Organist and composer of sacred music, born probably at Ratisbon in 1565; died at Augsburg, 21 January, 1628
Aidan of Lindisfarne, Saint - Irish monk, first bishop of Lindisfarne, d. 651
Aiguillon, Duchess of - Marie de Vignerot de Pontcourlay, Marquise of Combalet and Duchesse d'Aiguillon; niece of Cardinal Richelieu. Born 1604; died at Paris, 1675
Aikenhead, Mary - Foundress of the Irish Sisters of Charity (1787-1858)
Ailbe, Saint - A disciple of St. Patrick and bishop of Emly, died in the first half of the sixth century
Ailleboust, Family of d' - Details for three family members
Ailly, Pierre d' - French theologian and philosopher, bishop and cardinal, born 1350 at Compiegne; died probably 1420 at Avignon
Aileran, Saint - Irishman, rector of the School of Clonard, distinguished scholar and author, d. 664
Aimerich, Mateo - Spanish Jesuit philologist (1715-1799)
Aire - Diocese in France
Airoli, Giacomo Maria - Jesuit Orientalist and Scriptural commentator (1660-1721)
Aisle - In architecture, one of the lateral or longitudinal divisions of a church, separated from the nave by rows of piers, pillars, or columns
Aistulph - King of the Lombards (d. 756)
Aix, Archdiocese of - Includes the districts of Aix and Arles (Department of the Bouches-du-Rhone)
Aix-en-Provence, Councils of - Councils were held at Aix in 1112, 1374, 1409, 1585, 1612, 1838, and 1850
Ajaccio, Diocese of - Comprises the island of Corsica
Akathistos - The title of a certain hymn or, an Office in the Greek Liturgy in honour of the Mother of God
Akhmin - A city of Upper Egypt, situated on the banks of the Nile
Akominatos, Michael & Nicetas - Two famous Greeks of the later Byzantine period
Alabama - The twenty-second state admitted into the union
Alabanda - A titular see of Caria in Asia Minor, supposed to be the present Arab-Hissar
Alabaster - The substance commonly known as alabaster is a fine-grained variety of gypsum. Oriental alabaster, the alabastrites of the classical writers, is a translucent marble obtained from stalagmitic deposits
Alagoas - A South American diocese, in eastern Brazil, dependent on Bahia
Alagona, Pietro - Theologian (1549-1624)
Alain de l'Isle - Monk, poet, preacher, theologian, and eclectic philosopher (1128-1203)
Alalis - Titular see of Phoenicia from 325 to 451
Alaman, Lucas - Mexican statesman and historian (1792-1853)
Alamanni, Niccolò - Roman antiquary (1583-1626)
Alan of Tewkesbury - Benedictine abbot and writer (d. 1202)
Alan of Walsingham - Architect (d. 1364)
Alanus de Rupe - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475)
Alarcón, Pedro Antonio de - Spanish novelist and poet (1833-1891)
Alaska - The first knowledge of Alaska was acquired in 1741 through the expedition under Vitus Bering, a Dane in the Russian service, who sailed from Okhoysk
Alatri - An Italian bishopric under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See, comprising seven towns in the Province of Rome
Alb - A white linen vestment with close fitting sleeves, reaching nearly to the ground and secured round the waist by a girdle
Alba Pompeia, Diocese of - Comprises eighty towns in the province of Cuneo and two in the province of Alexandria, in Italy
Alban, Saint - First martyr of Britain, d. about 304. Biographical article
Albanenses - Manichaean heretics who lived in Albania, probably about the eighth century
Albani - Italian family said to be descended from Albanian refugees of the fifteenth century. Includes information on six family members
Albania - The ancient Epirus and Illyria, is the most western land occupied by the Turks in Europe
Albano - A suburban see, comprising seven towns in the Province of Rome
Albany - Diocese comprising the entire counties of Albany, Columbia, Delaware, Fulton, Greene, Montgomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Warren, Washington, and that part of Herkimer and Hamilton counties south of the northern line of the townships of Ohio and Russia, Benson and Hope, in the State of New York
Albenga - Diocese comprising seventy-nine towns in the province of Port Maurice and forth-five in the province of Genoa, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Genoa, Italy
Albergati, Niccolo - Cardinal and Bishop of Bologna (1357-1443)
Alberic of Monte Cassino - Benedictine, died 1088
Alberic of Ostia - Benedictine monk and Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia (1080-1147)
Albero de Montreuil - Archbishop, of Trier born about 1080; died 1152
Alberoni, Giulio - Cardinal and statesman (1664-1752)
Albert, Bishop of Riga - Bishop of Riga, Apostle of Livonia, d. 17 January, 1229
Albert II, Archbishop of Magdeburg in Saxony - Eighteenth Archbishop of Magdeburg in Saxony, date of birth unknown; d. 1232
Albert, Blessed (Patriarch of Jerusalem) - Canon regular, papal legate, and Patriarch of Jerusalem. He was assassinated in 1215
Albert, Saint - Cardinal, bishop of Liege, martyred in 1192 or 1193
Albert Berdini of Sarteano, Blessed - Short biography of the Franciscan famed as a preacher
Albert of Aachen - A chronicler of the First Crusade
Albert of Brandenburg - Cardinal and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire (1490-1545)
Albert of Castile - Historian, born about 1460; died 1522
Albert of Saxony - Fourteenth-century philosopher
Albert of Stade - Thirteenth-century chronicler
Albert the Great, Saint - Called 'the Universal Doctor.' Dominican scientist, philosopher, theologian, instructor of St. Thomas Aquinas
Alberta and Saskatchewan - The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day
Alberti, Leandro - Historian, born at Bologna in 1479; died same place, probably in 1552
Alberti, Leone Battista - Florentine ecclesiastic and artist of the fifteenth century
Albertini, Nicolò - Medieval statesman, died 1321
Albertrandi, John Baptist - A Polish Jesuit, of Italian extraction, born at Warsaw, 7 December, 1731; died August, 1808
Albertus Magnus, Saint - Called 'the Universal Doctor.' Dominican scientist, philosopher, theologian, instructor of St. Thomas Aquinas
Albi (Albia), Archdiocese of - Comprises the Department of the Tarn
Albi, Council of - Held in 1254 by St. Louis on his return from a Crusade
Albi, Juan de - A Spanish Carthusian of the Convent Val-Christ, near Segovia, date of birth uncertain; died 27 December, 1591
Albicus, Sigismund - Archbishop of Prague (1347-1427)
Albigenses - A neo-Manichaean sect that flourished in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries
Albinus - A scholarly English monk, pupil of Archbishop Theodore, and of Abbot Adrian of St. Peter's, Canterbury, contemporary of Saint Bede (673-735)
Albrechtsberger, Johann G. - Master of musical theory, and teacher of Hummel and Beethoven (1736-1809)
Albright Brethren, The - A body of American Christians chiefly of German descent, founded, in 1800, by the Rev. Jacob Albright, a native of Pennsylvania (1759-1808)
Alcalá, University of - Had its inception in the thirteenth century, when Sancho IV, conceived the idea of founding a Studium Generale in Alcala de Henares
Alcántara, Military Order of - First committed to the care of the Castilian Knights of Calatrava
Alcedo, Antonio de - Soldier, born at Quito, Ecuador, 1755
Alchemy - The art of transmuting baser metals into gold and silver
Alcmund, Saint - Bishop of Hexham, died 781
Alciati, Andrea - Italian jurist (1492-1550)
Alcimus - High-priest, the leader of the hellenizing party in the time of Judas Machabeus
Alcock, John - Bishop of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely (1430-1500)
Alcoholism - The term is understood to include all the changes that may occur in the human organism after the ingestion of any form of alcohol
Alcuin - Lengthy article on the educator, scholar, theologian, liturgist, who died in 804
Aldegundis, Saint - Daughter of SS. Walbert and Bertilia. Flemish nun, founder of monastery at Maubeuge, d. about 684
Aldersbach - A former Cistercian Abbey in the valley of the Vils in Lower Bavaria
Aldfrith - A Northumbrian king, son of King Oswin; d. 14 December, 705
Aldhelm, Saint - Abbot of Malmesbury, bishop of Sherborne, poet, d. about 709
Aldric, Saint - Bishop of Le Mans, d. 856
Aldrovandi, Ulissi - Italian naturalist (1522-1607)
Alea, Leonard - A French polemical writer of the early years of the nineteenth century, b. in Paris, date unknown; d. 1812
Alegambe, Philippe - A Jesuit historiographer (1592-1652)
Alegre, Francisco Xavier - Historian, born at Vera Cruz, in Mexico, or New Spain, 12 November, 1729; died at Bologna, 16 August, 1788
Alemany, Joseph Sadoc - First Archbishop of San Francisco (1814-1888)
Alenio, Guilio - Chinese missionary and scholar, born at Brescia, in Italy, in 1582; died at Fou-Tcheou, China, in August, 1644
Aleppo - Armenian Rite Archdiocese in Syria
Ales and Terralba - Diocese made up of 42 communes in the province of Cagliari, Archbishopric of Oristano, Italy
Alessandria della Paglia - Diocese in Piedmont, Italy, a suffragen of Vercelli
Alessi, Galeazzo - Italian architect, b. 1500; d. 1572
Alessio - Diocese in European Turkey, since 1886 suffragan of Scutari
Alexander (Name of Seven Men) - Seven men with this name are described
Alexander (Name of Several Early Bishops) - Profiles of six bishops of this name in the early Church
Alexander I, Pope Saint - Article on this pope, who died in 115 or 116. According to a tradition dating to the fifth century, Alexander was martyred, but it is possible that he has been confused with another St. Alexander who was indeed a martyr
Alexander II, Pope - Reigned 1061-1073
Alexander III, Pope - Reigned from 1159-81
Alexander IV, Pope - Reigned 1254-61
Alexander V - Pietro Philarghi, born c. 1339, on the island of Crete (Candia), whence his appellation, Peter of Candia; elected 26 June, 1409; died at Bologna, 3 May, 1410
Alexander VI, Pope - Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503
Alexander VII, Pope - Biographical article on this seventeenth-century pontiff
Alexander VIII, Pope - Pietro Ottoboni, born at Venice, April, 1610; elected 5 October, 1689; died at Rome, 1 February, 1691
Alexander, Saint (Of Cappadocia and Jerusalem) - Alexander, Bishop of Cappadocia, imprisoned for his faith, served as coadjutor to the Bishop of Jerusalem. Exiled and again imprisoned, Alexander was tortured and died in prison in 251
Alexander, Saint (Bishop of Comana) - Called 'The Charcoal Burner.' Made bishop of Comana at the recommendation of St. Gregory Thaumaturgus. St. Alexander was martyred in the Decian persecution
Alexander, Saint (Patriarch of Alexandria) - Patriarch of Alexandria. Elected instead of the heresiarch Arius, who had been scheming to be made bishop. A man of great holiness, St. Alexander died in 326
Alexander Briant, Blessed - English Jesuit priest and martyr. He was scarcely over 25 when martyred in 1581
Alexander Natalis - A French historian and theologian, of the Order of St. Dominic (1639-1724)
Alexander of Abonoteichos - The most notorious imposter of the second century of the Christian era
Alexander of Hales - Biographical article on the first of the scholastic theologians to use Aristotelean principles in systematic theology
Alexander of Lycopolis - Fourth-century writer
Alexander Sauli, Blessed - Apostle of Corsica, Barnabite, bishop of Aleria, d. 1592
Alexandre, Dom Jacques - Benedictine monk (1653-1734)
Alexandria - Seaport of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile
Alexandria, Councils of - Details several councils held here
Alexandria, The Church of - Founded by St. Mark the Evangelist, the center from which Christianity spread throughout all Egypt, the nucleus of the powerful Patriarchate of Alexandria
Alexandria, The Diocese of - Suffragan of Kingston, Ontario
Alexandrian Library, The - The Great Library of Alexandria, so called to distinguish it from the smaller or 'daughter' library in the Serapeum, was a foundation of the first Ptolemies for the purpose of aiding the maintenance of Greek civilization in the midst of the conservative Egyptians
Alexandrine Liturgy, The - The parent rite of all others in Egypt
Alexandrinus, Codex - Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see
Alexian Nuns - Fifteenth century nuns who adopted the Rule of St. Augustine and devoted themselves to the same corporal works of mercy as those of the Brothers of St. Alexius, or Cellites
Alexians - A religious institute which had its origin at Mechlin, in Brabant, in the fifteenth century, during the ravages of the 'black death.'
Alexis Falconieri, Saint - Visionary, co-founder of the Servites, uncle of St. Juliana Falconieri. St. Alexis died in 1310, at the age of 110 years
Alexius, Saint - Tries to untangle the story of the Man of God. According to tradition, a fifth-century Roman who became a beggar in Edessa. He is honored as a confessor of the Faith
Alfield, Venerable Thomas - Priest, twice imprisoned, twice converted, died a martyr in 1585
Alfieri, Count Vittorio - Tragic poet of Italy (1749-1803)
Alfieri, Pietro - A priest and at one time a Camaldolese monk (1801-1863)
Alfonso de Zamora - A converted Spanish Rabbi, baptized 1506; died 1531
Alfonso of Burgos - Royal confessor of Ferdinand and Isabella. Died 1489
Alford, Michael - A Jesuit missionary in England during the persecution (1587-1652)
Alfred the Great - King of the West Saxons (849-899)
Alfrida, Saint - Daughter of King Offa of Mercia. Hermit at Crowland, fl. 795
Alfwold, Saint - Monk of Winchester, became the last bishop of Sherborne, d. 1058
Alger of Liége - French priest (1055-1132)
Alghero - An Italian diocese comprising twenty-two communes in the province of Sassari, and four in that of Cagliari, Archdiocese of Sassari
Algiers - Archdiocese comprising the province of Algeria in French Africa. Its suffragans are the Sees of Oran and Constantine
Algonquins - The Micmacs, Abenakis, Montagnais, Penobscots, Chippewas, Mascoutens, Nipissings, Sacs, Pottowatomies, and Illinois, the Pequods of Massachusetts, the Mohegans of New York, the Lenapes of Pennsylvania and Delaware, with many other minor tribes, may be classed among them
Alife - A diocese made up of twelve communes in the province of Caserta, Archbishopric of Benevento, Italy
Alighieri, Dante - An annotated (in linked hypertext) biography of the poet
Alimentation - In a broad sense, whatever is necessary to sustain human life: not merely food and drink, but lodging, clothing, care during sickness and burial
Alimony - In the common legal sense of the word, the allowance by order of the court a husband pays to his wife for her maintenance while she is living separately from him, or paid by her former husband to a divorced woman
Aliturgical Days - Those days on which the 'liturgy', i.e. the Holy Sacrifice of the Eucharist, is not allowed to be celebrated
All Hallows College - An institution devoted to the preparation of priests for the missions in English-speaking countries
All Saints' Day - Celebrated on the first of November. Instituted to honour all the saints, known and unknown, and, according to Urban IV, to supply any deficiencies in the faithful's celebration of saints' feasts during the year
All Souls' Day - The commemoration of all the faithful departed is celebrated by the Church on 2 November, or, if this be a Sunday or a solemnity, on 3 November
Allah - The name of God in Arabic
Allahabad - Diocese; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Agra, India
Allard, Paul - Archaeologist and historian (b. 1841)
Allatius, Leo - A learned Greek of the seventeenth century (1586-1669)
Allegranza, Joseph - A Milanese Dominican who won distinction as a historian, archaeologist, and antiquary (1715-1785)
Allegri, Antonio - Artist known as Correggio, the place of his birth (1494-1534)
Allegri, Gregorio - Composer from the same family which produced the painter Correggio
Alleluia - A liturgical mystic expression
Allemand, Jean - A French priest and Orientalist (1799-1833)
Allen, Edward Patrick - Fifth Bishop of Mobile, Alabama, U.S.; born at Lowell, Massachusetts, 17 March, 1853
Allen, Frances - The first woman of New England birth to become a nun (1784-1819)
Allen, George - Educator, born at Milton, Vermont, 17 December, 1808; died in Worcester, Massachusetts, 28 May, 1876
Allen, John - Archbishop of Dublin, canonist, and Chancellor of Ireland (1476-1534)
Allen, John - Priest and martyr. He was executed at Tyburn in the beginning of the year 1538
Allen, William - Cardinal (1522-1594)
Allerstein, August - Jesuit missionary in China, born in Germany, died in China, probably about 1777
Alliance, Holy - The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I of Russia, signed a treaty on 26 September, 1815, by which they united in a 'Holy Alliance.'
Allies, Thomas William - English writer (1813-1903)
Allioli, Joseph Franz - Studied theology at Landshut, was ordained at Ratisbon, 1816, studied Oriental languages (1818-20), became professor in the University at Landshut in 1824, and was transferred with the university to Munich in 1826, but owing to a weak throat he had to accept a canonry at Ratisbon. Became Dean of the chapter at Augsburg, in 1838
Allison, William - One of the English priests who were victims of the plots of 1679-80
Allocution - A solemn form of address or speech from the throne employed by the Pope on certain occasions
Allori - Information on three people with this name
Allot, William - English priest, died about 1590
Allouez, Claude - Jesuit missionary and explorer (1620-1689)
Alma - A Hebrew word signifying a 'young woman', unmarried as well as married
Alma Redemptoris Mater - The opening words of one of the four Antiphons sung at Compline and Lauds, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, at various seasons of the year
Almagro, Diego de - Generally considered a foundling; came to Panama in 1514 with Pedro Arias de Avila (D'Avila), and soon distinguished himself in military expeditions
Almedha, Saint - British princess, virgin, and martyr, fl. c. 490. Venerated especially in Wales
Almeida, John - Jesuit missionary (1571-1653)
Almeria - A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Granada in Spain
Almici, Camillo - Italian Oratorian priest (1714-1779)
Almond, John - English Cistercian and Confessor the Faith (d. 1585)
Almond, John, Venerable - Biographical sketch of the martyr
Almond, Oliver - Sixteenth-century English priest and writer
Alms and Almsgiving - Any material favour done to assist the needy, and prompted by charity
Alnoth, Saint - English hermit and martyr, d. about 700
Alogi - A party of heretics who arose after the Cataphrygians, Quartodecimans, and others, and who received neither the Gospel of St. John nor his Apocalypse
Aloysius Gonzaga, Saint - Short biography of this Jesuit student, who died in 1591 at the age of 23
Alpha and Omega (in Scripture) - Employed from the fourth century as a symbol expressing the confidence of orthodox Christians in the scriptural proofs of Our Lord's divinity
Alpha and Omega - Includes Jewish and Christian meanings
Alphabet, Christian Use of the - The Hebrew, Greek and Latin alphabets have been variously made use of in Christian liturgy
Alphege, Saint - Also called Alphege or Godwine. Hermit, abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, martyred in 1012. Biographical article
Alphonsus Liguori, Saint - Long biographical article on the founder of the Redemptorists and devotional writer
Alphonsus Rodriguez, Saint - Spanish-born widower, Jesuit lay brother, served as porter at Majorca for 46 years, d. 1617. Also known as Alonso
Alpini, Prospero - Physician and botanist (1553-1617)
Alsace-Lorraine - The German Imperial Territory so known, and divided for State purposes into three civil districts
Altamirano, Diego Francisco - Jesuit (1625-1715)
Altamura and Acquaviva - An exempt archipresbyterate in the province of Bari, in southern Italy
Altar Bell - A small bell placed on the credence or in some other convenient place on the epistle side of the altar
Altar Breadboxes - Made of wood, tin, britannia, silver, or other metal. A round flat weight, covered if necessary with silk or linen, and having a knob on top, so as to be easily taken hold of, is placed on the breads
Altar Breads - Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist
Altar Candles - For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other liturgical functions be made of beeswax
Altar Candlesticks - Consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drippings of wax, and the pricket, i.e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed
Altar Canopy - The 'Caeremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, 13), treating of the ornaments of the altar, says that a canopy (baldachinum) should be suspended over the altar
Altar Cards - To assist the memory of the celebrant at Mass in those prayers which he should know by heart, cards on which these prayers are printed are placed on the altar in the middle, and at each end
Altar Carpets - The sanctuary and altar-steps of the high altar are ordinarily to be covered with carpets
Altar Cavity - A small square or oblong chamber in the body of the altar, in which are placed the relics of two canonized martyrs
Altar Cloths - The custom of using three altar-cloths began probably in the ninth century, but at present it is of strict obligation for the licit celebration of Mass
Altar Crucifix - The principal ornament of the altar
Altar Curtain - Drawn around the altar at certain parts of Mass
Altar, Double - An altar having a double front constructed in such a manner that Mass may be celebrated on both sides of it at the same time
Altar Frontal - An appendage which covers the entire front of the altar, from the lower part of the table to the predella, and from the gospel corner to that of the epistle side
Altar, High - The chief altar in a church, raised on an elevated plane in the sanctuary, where it may be seen simultaneously by all the faithful in the body of the church
Altar Horns - On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns of the altar. These projections are not found on the Christian altar, but the word cornu ('horn') is still maintained to designate the sides or corners of the altar
Altar Lamp - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil
Altar Lanterns - Used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any reason, such as a draught, cannot be kept lit
Altar Ledge - A step behind the altar, raised slightly above it, for candlesticks, flowers, reliquaries, and other ornaments
Altar Linens - The corporal, pall, purificator, and finger towels
Altar (in Liturgy) - In the New Law the altar is the table on which the Eucharistic Sacrifice is offered
Altar of Our Lady - In general it signifies any altar of which the Blessed Virgin is the titular
Altar of Repose - Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository
Altarpiece - A picture of some sacred subject painted on the wall or suspended in a frame behind the altar, or a group of statuary on the altar
Altar, Portable - Consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to resist every fracture
Altar, Privileged - An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, a plenary indulgence is also granted whenever Mass is celebrated thereon
Altar Protector - A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the time in which the sacred functions do not take place
Altar Rail - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail
Altar Screen - A cloth, on which images of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, or of saints, are represented, may be suspended above the altar, unless such images are painted on the wall
Altar Side - That part of the altar which faces the congregation
Altar Steps - The number of steps leading up to the high altar is for symbolical reasons uneven; usually three, five, or seven, including the upper platform
Altar Stole - An altar ornament from the Middle Ages
Altar Stone - A solid piece of natural stone, consecrated by a bishop, large enough to hold the Sacred Host and chalice
Altar, Stripping of an - Removal of the altar-cloths, vases of flowers, antipendium, and other ornaments, so that nothing remains but the cross and the candlesticks with the candles extinguished
Altar Tomb - A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having the appearance of an altar
Altar Vase - Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar
Altar Vessels - The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained
Altar Wine - Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid and licit consecration vinum de vite, i.e. the pure juice of the grape naturally and properly fermented, is to be used
Altarage - The fees received by a priest from the laity when discharging any function for them, e.g. marriages, baptisms, funerals
Altars (in the Greek Churches) - The altar of the Russian Orthodox or the Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches means the sanctuary, and not merely the altar known to Latin churches
Altars (in Scripture) - Describes several biblical uses of the word
Altar, History of the Christian - An elevated surface, tabular in form, on which the Sacrifice of the Mass is offered
Altmann, Blessed - Short biography of the eleventh-century bishop of Passau, driven from his see for enforcing Pope Gregory VII's call for clerical celibacy
Alto, Saint - Irish-born hermit and missionary in Bavaria, monastic founder, eighth century
Alton - Diocese in Illinois
Altoona - A suffragan see of the province of Philadelphia
Altruism - A term formed by Auguste Comte in 1851, to denote the benevolent, as contrasted with the selfish propensities
Alumbrados - False Spanish mystics
Alumnus - Signifies in ecclesiastical usage, a student preparing for the sacred ministry in a seminary
Alunno, Niccolò - Notable Umbrian painter (1430-1502)
Alva, The Duke of - Warrior and statesman (1508-1582)
Alva y Astorga, Pedro d' - A Friar Minor of the Strict Observance and a writer on theological subjects (d. 1667)
Alvarado, Alonzo de - A Knight of Santiago, b. at Secadura de Trasmura, near Burgos, date unknown; d. 1559
Alvarado, Fray Francisco de - A native of Mexico, entered the Dominican order 25 July, 1574
Alvarado, Pedro de - Accompanied Grijalva on his exploration of Yucatan and the Mexican coast in 1518, and was the chief officer of Cortez during the conquest of Mexico
Alvarez, Balthazar - A Spanish mystic, who was the spiritual director of St. Teresa (1533-1580)
Alvarez, Diego - Spanish theologian, born about 1550; died at Trani, Kingdom of Naples, 1635
Alvarez, Manoel - Jesuit and educator (1526-1582)
Alvarez de Paz - A famous mystic of the Society of Jesus (1560-1620)
Alvarus Pelagius - Spanish writer (1280-1352)
Alypius, Saint - Close friend of St. Augustine of Hippo. Like Augustine, Alypius was baptized by Ambrose. St. Alypius became bishop of Tagaste
Alzate, José Antonio - Seventeenth century priest born at Ozumba, Mexico
Alzog, Johann Baptist - Church historian (1808-1878)
Ama - A Semitic term meaning mother, adopted by the Copts and the Greeks as a title of honour applied to religious and ladies of high rank
Amadeo, Giovanni Antonio - Italian architect and sculptor (1447-1522)
Amadia and Akra - Designates two Catholic dioceses of the Chaldean Rite in Kurdistan, Turkey in Asia
Amalarius of Metz - A liturgical writer, b. at Metz, in the last quarter of the eighth century; d. about 850
Amalberga, Saint - Sister or niece of Pepin of Landen. Amalberga was married to Witger; they both entered monastic life. Also called St. Amelia
Amalberga, Saint - Virgin who rejected Charlemagne's advances
Amalec - A people remembered chiefly as the most hated of all the enemies of Israel
Amalfi - Archdiocese directly dependent on the Holy See, has its seat at Amalfi, not far from Naples
Amalricians - Heretical sect founded towards the end of the twelfth century
Amalricus Augerii - A church-historian of the fourteenth century, and member of the Augustinian Order
Amandus, Saint - Hermit, missionary, bishop of Maastricht, monastic founder, d. about 690
Amasia - A titular see and metropolis of Pontus in Asia Minor on the river Iris, now Amasiah
Amastris - A titular see of Paphlagonia in Asia Minor, on a peninsula jutting into the Black Sea
Amat, Thaddeus - Second Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, California (1810-1878)
Amathus - Name of two titular sees, one in Syria, suffragan of Apameia, with an episcopal list known from 449 to 536; the other on the southern coast of Cyprus, whose episcopal list reaches from the fourth century to 787
Amazones, Diocese of - A South American diocese, dependent on San Salvador of Bahia
Ambarach, Peter - Maronite Orientalist (1663-1742)
Ambition - The undue craving for honor
Ambo - A word of Greek origin, supposed to signify a mountain or elevation
Ambo (in the Russian and Greek Church) - Sometimes two ambos were used, from one of which the Epistle was read and from the other the Gospel
Amboise, George d' - French cardinal, archbishop, and statesman (1460-1510)
Ambronay, Our Lady of - A sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin at Ambronay, France, regarded as one of the two candles of devotion to Our Lady in the Diocese of Belley
Ambros, August Wilhelm - Historian of music and art critic (1816-1876)
Ambrosian Basilica - Erected at Milan by fourth-century bishop, St. Ambrose, and was consecrated in the year 386
Ambrosian Hymnography - The term implies no attribution of authorship, but rather a poetical form or a liturgical use
Ambrosian Library - Founded between 1603 and 1609 by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo at Milan
Ambrose, Saint - Article on the life and teachings of this Bishop of Milan, and Doctor of the Church, who died in 397
Ambrose of Camaldoli, Saint - Born Ambrose Traversari, theologian, translator of many of the Fathers, author, d. 1439
Ambrose of Sienna, Blessed - Dominican teacher and missionary, diplomat, d. 1286
Ambrosian Chant - Chant composed by St. Ambrose
Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite - The liturgy and Rite of the Church of Milan, which derives its name from St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (374-397)
Ambrosians - The Order of St. Ambrose was the name of two religious congregations, one of men and one of women, founded in the neighbourhood of Milan during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
Ambrosiaster - The name given to the author of a commentary on all the Epistles of St. Paul, with the exception of that to the Hebrews
Ambulatory - A cloister, gallery, or alley; a sheltered place, straight or circular, for exercise in walking; the aisle that makes the circuit of the apse of a church
Amelia - Diocese comprising seven towns in the province of Perugia, Italy, and is under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See
Amelote, Denis - Ordained in 1631, a Doctor of the Sorbonne, and member of the French Oratory (1609-1678)
Amen - One of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church
Amende Honorable - An obsolete form of honorary satisfaction, customary in the Church in France as late as the seventeenth century
Amerbach, Veit - Humanist and convert from Lutheranism to the Catholic Church (1503-1557)
America - Consists of three main divisions: North America, Central America, and South America
America, Pre-Columbian Discovery of - Offers details of early exploration
American College at Louvain, The - An institution for the education of priests founded in 1857
American College in Rome, The - Owes its existence chiefly to Archbishop Hughes, of New York, and Archbishop Kenrick of Baltimore
American College in Rome, The South - The Rev. Ignatius Victor Eyzaguirre went to Rome, in 1857, and proposed to the Pope the erection of a college for students from Latin American countries
American Protective Association, The - A secret society which became a disturbing factor in the northern U.S. between 1891-1897
Amerigo Vespucci - Biographical article on the Italian navigator (1451-1512)
Amherst, Francis Kerril, D.D. - English bishop (1819-1883)
Amias, Ven. John - Cloth merchant, widower, priest, martyred 1589
Amiatinus, Codex - Manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, kept at Florence in the Bibliotheca Laurentiana
Amice - A short linen cloth, square or oblong in shape and, like the other sacerdotal vestments, needing to be blessed before use
Amico, Antonio - Canon of Palermo, and ecclesiastical historian of Syracuse and Messina, (d. 1641)
Amico, Francesco - Theologian born at Cosenza, in Naples, 2 April, 1578
Amida - An Armenian Rite diocese located in Mesopotamia, Asiatic Turkey
Amiens, Diocese of - Comprises the department of Somme
Amiot, Joseph Maria - Missionary to China (1718-1793)
Amisus - A titular see of Pontus in Asia Minor
Ammen, Daniel - American naval officer and author (1820-1898)
Ammon - The supreme divinity of the Egyptian pantheon
Ammon, Saint - One of the desert fathers. Lived with his wife for 18 years as brother and sister, after which he became a hermit in Nitria and she also became a monk. Fourth-century Egypt
Ammonian Sections - Divisions of the four Gospels
Ammonites - A race closely allied to the Hebrews
Amorbach - Former Benedictine abbey in Lower Franconia (Bavaria), founded in the early part of the eighth century by St. Pirmin
Amorios - A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, now known as Hergen Kaleh
Amorrhites - A name of doubtful origin and meaning, used to designate an ancient people often mentioned in the Old Testament
Amort, Eusebius - Philosopher and theologian (1692-1775)
Amos - Old Testament prophet
Amovibility - A term applied to the condition of certain ecclesiastics in regard to their benefices or offices
Amoy - Vicariate Apostolic of Amoy, located in China, created in 1883, and entrusted to the care of the Dominicans
Ampè, André-Marie - Physicist and mathematician (1775-1836)
Amphilochius of Iconium - Fourth-century Cappadocian bishop
Amphilochius of Sida - Fifth-century bishop
Amphoræ - Vessels generally made of clay, and furnished with ears or handles
Ampleforth, The Abbey of - Benedictine abbey in England
Ampullæ - Their peculiarity consists in the sediment of dark red colour they contain, from which they derive the name, blood-ampullae, on the theory that the sediment is the remains of the blood of a martyr
Ampurias - An Italian diocese in Sardinia, suffragan of Sassari
Amra - The name of certain ancient Irish elegies or panegyrics on native saints
Amrah - The Syrian houses in the region of Hauran were inhabited, from the third century to the seventh, by the upper and middle classes of the population. A house of this kind in perfect preservation is still to be seen at Amrah
Amraphel - King of Sennaar (Shinar), or Babylonia
Amsterdam - The capital, and second residential city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Amulet - An object generally inscribed with mysterious formulae and used by pagans as a protection against various maladies, as well as witchcraft
Amulets, Use and Abuse of - Amulets have had quite a general vogue among all people of all times and have been characterized by a bewildering variety as to the material, shape, and method of employment
Amyclae - A titular see of Peloponnesus in Greece, in the ecclesiastical province of Hellas, a suffragan of Corinth
Amyot, Jacques - Bishop of Auxerre, Grand Almoner of France (1513-1593)
Anabaptists - A violent and extremely radical body of ecclesiastico-civil reformers which first made its appearance in 1521 at Zwickau
Anacletus, Pope Saint - Third pope, a martyr, d. about 91. May be the same person as Pope St. Cletus
Anacletus II - The title which was taken by Cardinal Pietro Pierleone at the contested papal election of the year 1130
Anæsthesia - A term in medicine, and the allied sciences, signifying a state of insensibility to external impressions, consequent upon disease, or induced artificially by the employment of certain substances known as anaesthetics, or by hypnotic suggestion
Anagni - An Italian diocese in the province of Rome under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See
Analogy - A philosophical term used to designate, first, a property of things; secondly, a process of reasoning
Analysis - The process by which anything complex is resolved into simple, or at least less complex parts or elements
Anaphora - A liturgical term in the Greek Rite
Anarchy - An absence of law
Anastasia, Saint - Article on this martyr, whose feast day is 25 December. Attracted a cultus at Rome in the late fifth century, and a sixth-century legend makes her a Roman matron, though martyred elsewhere
Anastasiopolis - Name of four ancient sees
Anastasius, Saint - Bishop of Antioch, exiled by the emperor, restored to his see in 593 by St. Gregory the Great. Anastasius died in 598
Anastasius I, Pope Saint - Article on the pope remembered chiefly for condemning Origenism, d. 401
Anastasius II, Pope - Reigned 496-498
Anastasius III, Pope - Reigned 911-913
Anastasius IV, Pope - Reigned 1153-1154
Anastasius, Saint - A former magician and soldier, converted to Christianity, became a monk. He was martyred in 628
Anastasius Bibliothecarius - Librarian of the Roman Church (810-879)
Anastasius Sinaita, Saint - Profile of the seventh-century abbot of the monastery of Mt. Sinai, vociferous opponent of the Monophysites and Monothelites, writer
Anathema - Placed on high, suspended, set aside
Anathoth - Includes several mentioned by this name
Anatolia, Saint - Virgin and martyr, was denounced as a Christian and put to death by the sword in the Decian persecution
Anatolius, Saint - Third-century bishop of Laodicea, mathematician, scientist, philosopher
Anatolius, Saint - Patriarch of Constantinople, anti-Nestorian, anti-Eutychian. Some say he was killed by heretics in 458
Anatolia, Saint - Virgin and martyr, was denounced as a Christian and put to death by the sword in the Decian persecution
Anatomy - The science of the form and structure of living beings
Anazarbus - A titular metropolitan see of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia), suffragan of Antioch
Añazco, Pedro de - A missionary and student of Indian languages (1550-1605)
Anchieta, Joseph - Short biography of this famous Jesuit missionary to Brazil
Anchor (as Symbol), The - Regarded in ancient times as a symbol of safety
Anchorites - In Christian terminology, men who have sought to triumph over the two unavoidable enemies of human salvation, the flesh and the devil, by depriving them of the assistance of their ally, the world
Ancient of Days - A name given to God by the Prophet Daniel
Ancilla Dei - A title often given to a deceased woman in early Christian inscriptions
Ancona, Ciriaco d' - An Italian antiquary whose family name was Pizzicolli, born at Ancona about 1391; died about 1455 at Cremona
Ancona and Umana - An Italian diocese in the Archdiocese of Ancona
Ancren Riwle - The name given to a thirteenth-century code of rules for the life of anchoresses, which is sometimes called 'The Nuns' Rule'
Ancyra - A titular see of Galatia in Asia Minor, suffragan of Laodicea
Ancyra, Councils of - Three councils were held in the former capital of Galatia (now Angora) in Asia Minor, during the fourth century
Andalusia - The name given by the Arabs to the portion of Spain subject to their dominion
Andechs - Benedictine monastery in Bavaria
Anderdon, William Henry - English Jesuit and writer, born in London, 26 December, 1816; died 28 July, 1890
Anderledy, Anthony Maria - General of the Society of Jesus (1819-1892)
Anderson, Henry James - Scientist and educator (1799-1875)
Anderson, Lionel Albert - An English Dominican, b. about 1620; d. 21 October, 1710
Anderson, Patrick - A Scottish Jesuit (1575-1624)
Anderton, James - An English Catholic, b. 1557; d. 1618
Anderton, Venerable Robert - English priest and friend of William Marsden. The two were shipwrecked, whereupon they were arrested for being priests coming into England from abroad, and tried on the 'bloody question.' They were hanged, drawn, and quartered in 1586
Anderton, Roger - English Catholic layman (d. 1640)
Anderton, Thomas - English Benedictine (1611-1671)
Andlaw, Heinrich Bernhard, Freiherr von - Catholic statesman (1802-1871)
Andlaw, Venerable William - An English convert to Catholicism, he became a priest. He was martyred in 1597
Andrada, Alonso - Biographer and ascetic writer.1590-1672)
Andrada, Antonio de - Missionary and explorer of Tibet in the seventeenth century
Andrada de Payva, Diego - Portuguese theologian (1528-1575)
André, Bernard - Fifteenth-century friar, poet, chronographer
André, Yves Marie - Mathematician (1675-1764)
Andrea, Giovanni d' - Canonist (1275-1348)
Andrea Dotti, Blessed - Servite priest, miracle worker, d. 1315
Andrea Pisano - An Italian sculptor and architect, b. 1270; d. 1349
Andreas of Caesarea - Cappadocian bishop
Andreas, Saint - Also known as Andreas, monk, bishop of Gortyna, best known for his hymnody, d. 740 or 720
Andreas of Ratisbon - Fourteenth-century historian
Andreis, Felix de - Lazarist superior (1778-1820)
Andres, Juan - Sixteenth-century Spanish canonist
Andrés, Juan - Litterateur and historian (1740-1817)
Andrew, Saint (Apostle and Martyr) - The Apostle in Scripture and tradition
Andrew, Saint (Martyr of Lampsacus) - Was stoned to death at Lampsacus, during the Decian persecution, along with his companion Paul
Andrew Avellino, Saint - Canon lawyer, priest, reformer, Theatine, d. 1608
Andrew Bobola, Saint - Polish Jesuit priest and missionary, martyred in 1657
Andrew Corsini, Saint - Article on this Carmelite, called 'the Apostle of Florence,' regarded as a prophet and thaumaturgus, who became bishop of Fiesole, and died in 1373
Andrew of Crete, Saint - Also known as Andreas, monk, bishop of Gortyna, best known for his hymnody, d. 740 or 720
Andrew of Lonjumeau - Dominican missionary and papal ambassador (d. 1253)
Andrew of Rhodes - Theologian, d. 1440
Andrew the Scot, Saint - Brother of St. Bridget the Younger and archdeacon of Fiesole, d. about 877
Andrews, William Eusebius - Editor and author (1773-1837)
Andronicus, Probus, and Tarachus, Saints - Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (c. 304)
Andria, Diocese - Comprises three towns in the Province of Bari and one in the Province of Potenza, Archdiocese of Trani, Italy
Anemurium - Titular see of Cilicia
Anerio, Felice - Roman composer, b. c. 1560; d. c. 1630
Anerio, Giovanni Francesco - Born in Rome c. 1567; died. c. 1620
Anfossi, Filippo - Italian Dominican, b. at Taggia, in the province of Genoa; d. in Rome, 14 May, 1825
Ange de Saint Joseph - French missionary friar of the Order of Discalced Carmelites (1636-1697)
Ange de Sainte Rosalie - French genealogist and friar of the house of the Petits-Peres of the Discalced Augustinians (1655-1726)
Angel - The word is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger
Angel, Guardian - The lowest orders of angels are sent to men
Angela Merici, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Ursulines, who died in 1540
Angela of Foligno, Blessed - Short biography of the penitent, mystic, writer, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1309
Angeli, Francesco degli - Missionary to Ethiopia (1567-1628)
Angeli, Girolamo degli - Missionary to Japan (1567-1623)
Angelicals, The - A congregation of women founded at Milan about 1530 by Countess Luigia Torelli of Guastalla for the protection and reclamation of girls
Angelico, Fra - Biography of this Dominican, a famous painter, who died in 1455
Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, Blessed - Fifteenth-century Franciscan, a moral theologian
Angelo Clareno da Cingoli - One of the leaders of the Spiritual Franciscans
Angels, Early Christian Representations of - The oldest fresco in which an angel appears is the Annunciation scene (second century) of the cemetery of St. Priscilla
Angels of the Churches - St. John in the Apocalypse is shown seven candlesticks and in their midst, the Son of Man holding seven stars. The candlesticks represent the seven Churches of Asia; the stars, the angels of those Churches
Angelus - A short practice of devotion in honour of the Incarnation repeated three times each day, morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of the bell
Angelus Bell - The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was closely associated with the ringing of a bell
Angelus, Silesius - Convert, poet, controversialist, the son of a Lutheran Polish Nobleman (1624-1677)
Anger - The desire of vengeance
Angers - Comprises the territory embraced in the department of Maine and Loire
Angers, University of - Early in the eleventh century this school became famous under the direction of Marbodus
Anges, Notre Dame de - A miraculous shrine near Lur, France, containing a crypt (Sainte Chapelle) which tradition dates back to an early period
Angilbert, Saint - Abbot of Centula, fathered two children by Charlemagne's unmarried daughter Bertha. He died in 814
Angiolini, Francesco - A noted scholar, b. at Piscenza, Italy, 1750; d. at Polotsk, 21 February, 1788
Anglesea, The Priory of - Founded in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Nicholas for a community of Austin Canons, by Henry I. Dugdale
Anglican Orders - In the creed of the Catholic Church, Holy Order is one of the Seven Sacraments instituted by Our Lord Jesus Christ
Anglicanism - A term used to denote the religious belief and position of members of the established Church of England
Anglin, Timothy Warren - Canadian journalist and member of Parliament, born in the town of Cloankilty, County Cork, Ireland, 1822; died 3 May, 1896, in Canada
Anglo-Saxon Church, The - History of the occupation, conversion, and development
Anglona-Tursi - An Italian diocese comprising twenty-seven towns and three villages in the province of Potenza and nine towns and one village in the province of Cosenza, Archdiocese of Acerenza
Angola and Congo - Diocese of Portuguese West Africa, suffragan of Lisbon
Angora - Armenian rite diocese in Asia Minor
Angoulême - Diocese; comprises the Department of the Charente in France, and has always been suffragan to the Archbishopric of Bordeaux, under the old regime as well as under the Concordat
Angra - The episcopal see of the Azores, suffragan of Lisbon
Angulo, Pedro - Native of Burgos in Spain, came to America in 1524 as a soldier, but joined the Dominican order in 1529
Anhalt - Vicariate Apostolic comprising the territory of the German Duchy of Anhalt
Anicetus, Pope Saint - Biography of this martyr, a contemporary of St. Polycarp and of the heretic Marcion
Anima, College and Church of the, in Rome - S. Maria dell' Anima, the German national church and hospice in Rome, received its name, according to tradition, from the picture of Our Lady which forms its coat of arms
Anima Christi - Well known prayer dating from the first half of the fourteenth century and enriched with indulgences by Pope John XXII in the year 1330
Animals in Christian Art - Animal forms have always occupied a place of far greater importance than was ever accorded to them in the art of the pagan world
Animals in the Bible - The sacred books were composed by and for a people almost exclusively given to husbandry and pastoral life, hence in constant communication with nature
Animals, Cruelty to - Includes sections on pagan, Old and New Testament, scholastic, and Catholic perspectives
Animism - The doctrine or theory of the soul
Animuccia, Giovanni - An Italian composer, born at Florence about 1500; died 1571
Anise - Anise has been, since Wyclif, the rendering of anethon in the English Versions, But this is not accurate. The exact equivalent of the plant anethon is dill, while anise corresponds to the pimpinella anisum
Anna - Details of four women by this name in Sacred Scripture
Anna Comnena - Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118)
Annals, Ecclesiastical - The historical literature of the Middle Ages may be classed under three general heads: chronicles, annals, and lives of the saints
Annas - Son of Seth, succeeded (A.D. 6 or 7) Joazar in the high-priesthood by appointment of Quirinius who had come to Judea to attend to the incorporation of Archelaus's territory into the Roman province of Syria
Annat, François - French Jesuit, theologian, writer, and opponent of Jansenism (1590-1670)
Annates - The first fruits, or first year's revenue of an ecclesiastical benefice paid to the Papal Curia (in medieval times to bishops also)
Anne, Saint - According to apocryphal literature, the mother of Mary
Anne d'Auray, Sainte - A little village three miles from the town of Auray, in the Diocese of Vannes, famous for its sanctuary and for its pilgrimages, or pardons, in honour of St. Anne
Anne de Beaupré, Sainte - Devotion to Saint Anne, in Canada
Anne de Xainctonge, Venerable - Foundress of the Society of the Sisters of St. Ursula of the Blessed Virgin
Annecy - Diocese comprising the Department of Haute-Savoie in France
Annegarn, Joseph - Catholic theologian and popular writer (1794-1843)
Anne Line, Saint - A convert to Catholicism, hanged in 1601 for the (unproven) crime of harboring a priest. She is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
Anne-Marie Javouhey, Venerable - Founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, missionary to Africa and South America, d. 1851
Annibaldi, Annibale d' - Theologian, b. of a Roman senatorial family early in the thirteenth century; d. at Rome, 1 September, 1271
Annibale, Giuseppe d' - Cardinal and theologian (1815-1892)
Annius of Viterbo - Archeologist and historian, born at Viterbo about 1432; died 13 November, 1502
Anno, Saint - Former soldier, Archbishop of Cologne, d. 1075
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Fact of the - In the sixth month after the conception of St. John the Baptist by Elizabeth, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to the Virgin Mary
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Feast of the - In the Latin Church this feast is first mentioned in the Sacramentarium of Pope Gelasius
Annunciation, The Orders of the - A penitential order founded by St. Jeanne de Valois
Anointing of the Sick - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill
Anquetil, Louis-Pierre - A French historian (1723-1806)
Ansaldi, Casto Innocenzio - Theologian and archaeologist (1710-1780)
Ansaloni, Giordano - Dominican missionary to Asia (d. 1634)
Anschar, Saint - Benedictine monk, missionary to Scandinavia, bishop of Hamburg, d. 865
Anse, Councils of - A series of medieval councils
Ansegisus - Archbishop of Sens; d. 25 November 879, or 883
Ansegisus, Saint - Benedictine monk, abbot, reformer, d. 833 or 834
Anselm, Saint - Long biographical article on St. Anselm, monk, abbot, philosopher, theologian, Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church
Anselm, Saint - Duke of Forum Julii, Benedictine monk, monastic founder, Abbot of Nonantula, d. 805
Anselm of Laon - Medieval theologian (d. 1117)
Anselm of Liège - Belgian chronicler (1008-1056)
Anselm of Lucca (the Younger), Saint - Appointed bishop of Lucca by his uncle Anselm of Lucca the Elder (Pope Alexander II), then became a Benedictine monk, served as papal legate, and died in 1086
Anselme, Antoine - French preacher (1652-1737)
Anslo, Reyer - Dutch poet and convert (1622-1669)
Anstey, Thomas Chisholm - Lawyer and politician (1816-1873)
Antediluvians - People who lived before the flood
Anterus, Pope Saint - Also known as Anteros, pope for less than 2 months, d. in 236. Short biographical article
Anthelmi, Joseph - French ecclesiastical historian (1648-1697)
Anthemius - Fourth-century Byzantine official
Anthony of the Desert, Saint - Article on the founder of Christian monasticism
Anthony, Orders of Saint - Religious communities or orders under the patronage of St. Anthony the Hermit, father of monasticism, or professing to follow his rule
Anthony of Padua, Saint - Long article on the Augustinian canon turned Franciscan, priest, preacher, miracle worker, d. 1231. Known as 'the Hammer of the Heretics.'
Anthony of Sienna - A Dominican theologian, so called because of his great veneration for St. Catharine of Sienna
Anthony of the Mother of God - A Spanish Carmelite, b. at Leon in Old-Castile; d. 1641
Anthropomorphism, Anthropomorphites - A term used in its widest sense to signify the tendency of man to conceive the activities of the external world as the counterpart of his own
Antichrist - Defines the word according to its biblical and ecclesiastical usage
Antidicomarianites - An Eastern sect which flourished about A.D. 200 to 400, and which was so designated as being the 'opponents of Mary'
Antidoron - The remains of the loaves or cakes from which the various portions are cut for consecration in the Mass, according to the Greek Rite, are gathered up on a plate, in the sanctuary and kept upon the prothesis, during the celebration of the Mass
Antigonish - The shiretown of the county of the same name in Nova Scotia
Antimensium - Consecrated corporal of a kind used only in the Greek Rite
Antinoe - A titular see of the Thebaid, now Esneh or Esench, a city in Egypt
Antinomianism - The heretical doctrine that Christians are exempt from the obligations of moral law
Antioch - Provides information on two places by this name
Antioch, The Church of - A city on the banks of the lower Orontes
Antiochene Liturgy - The family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch begins with that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then follow that of St. James in Greek, the Syrian Liturgy of St. James, and the other Syrian Anaphorus
Antiochus of Palestine - Seventh century monk
Antipater of Bostra - Fifth century Greek prelate
Antipatris - Titular see of Palestine
Antiphellos - Titular see of Lycia
Antiphon - One or more psalm verses or sentences from Holy Scripture which are sung or recited before and after each psalm and the Magnificat during Matins and Vespers
Antiphon (in the Greek Church) - Socrates, the church historian, says that St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, the third in succession from St. Peter in that see, once had a vision of angels singing the praises of the Trinity in alternating hymns, and remembering the vision, gave this form of singing to the Church of Antioch
Antiphon (in Greek Liturgy) - The Greek Liturgy uses antiphons, not only in the Office, but also in the Mass, at Vespers, and at all the canonical Hours
Antiphon, Communion - The term Communion is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament
Antiphonary - One of the present liturgical books intended for use in the liturgical choir, and originally characterized, by the assignment to it principally of the antiphons used in various parts of the Roman liturgy
Antiphonary, Gregorian - Discovered in a Montpellier manuscript of the tenth or eleventh century
Antipodes - Speculations concerning the rotundity of the earth and the possible existence of human beings 'with their feet turned towards ours' were of interest to the Fathers of the Early Church only in so far as they seemed to encroach upon the fundamental Christian dogma of the unity of the human race, and the consequent universality of original sin and redemption
Antipope - A false claimant of the Holy See in opposition to a pontiff canonically elected
Antiquities, Biblical - Details domestic, political, and sacred antiquities
Antivari - So called from its position opposite to Bari in Italy; the Catholic archiepiscopal see of Montenegro
Antofogaste - Vicariate Apostolic in Chile, dependent on the Sacred Congregation of Ecclesiastical Affairs
Antoine, Paul Gabriel - French theologian (1678-1743)
Anton Ulrich - A convert to the Catholic faith (1633-1714)
Antonelli, Giacomo - Cardinal; Secretary of State to Pius IX (1806-1876)
Antonelli, Leonardo - Cardinal (1730-1811)
Antonelli, Nicolò Maria - Cardinal, learned canonist, ecclesiastical historian, and Orientalist (1698-1767)
Antoniano, Giovanni - Patrologist, b. at Nimeguen, in Holland, early in the sixteenth century; d. same place, in 1588
Antoniano, Silvio - Cardinal, writer on education (1540-1603)
Antoniewicz, Charles - Polish Jesuit and missionary (1807-1852)
Antoninus, Saint - Archbishop of Florence, Dominican reformer, moral theologian, d. 1459
Antoninus Pius - Roman Emperor (138-161)
Antonio Maria Zaccaria, Saint - A Doctor of Medicine, founder of the Barnabites, d. 1539
Antonio of Vicenza, Maria - A Reformed Minorite (1834-1884)
Antonius - A supposed Latin Christian poet of the third century
Antony, Franz Joseph - Received Holy Orders, and in 1819 became choirmaster at the cathedral, succeeding his father as organist, in 1832
Antwerp - A city of Belgium, in the archdiocese of Mechlin
Anunciación, Fray Domingo de la - Dominican missionary (1510-1591)
Anunciación, Fray Juan de la - Born at Granada in Spain, probably 1514; died 1594
Aosta - An Italian diocese, suffragan of Turin
Apaches - A tribe of North American Indians belonging linguistically to the Athapascan stock whose original habitat is believed to have been Northwestern Canada
Apameia - A titular metropolitan see of Syria, in the valley of the Orontes, whose episcopal list dates from the first century
Aparisi y Guijarro, Antonio - Parliamentary orator, jurisconsult, Catholic controversialist, and Spanish litterateur (1815-1872)
Apelles - Founder of a Gnostic sect; died at an advanced age late in the second century
Aphian, Saint - Martyred in about 306 at the age of 18
Aphraates - Wrter born of pagan parents during the last half of the third century
Apiarius of Sicca - A priest of the diocese of Sicca, in proconsular Africa
Apocalypse, Book of - The name given to the last book in the Bible, also called the Book of Revelation
Apocatastasis - A name given in the history of theology to the doctrine which teaches that a time will come when all free creatures will share in the grace of salvation; in a special way, the devils and lost souls
Apocrisiarius - Indicates in general the ecclesiastical envoys of Christian antiquity, whether permanent or sent temporarily on missions to high ecclesiastical authorities or royal courts
Apocrypha - A long article with a comments on each Apocryphal book. Classified according to origin
Apodosis - For several days after a great feast the celebrant turns back to certain prayers of the feast and repeats them in commemoration of it. The last day of such repetition of the prayers of the previous feast is called the apodosis
Apollinarianism - Fourth-century Christological heresy propounded by Apollinaris of Laodicea. The theory that Jesus had a human body and soul, but that the Logos took the place of the human spirit or mind in Jesus. Solemnly condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 381
Apollinaris - A first-century martyr, the bishop of Ravenna
Apollinaris, Saint - Born in Vienne, became bishop of Valence, was exiled to Sardinia, d. 520
Apollinaris (the Elder) - A Christian grammarian of the fourth century, first at Berytus in Phoenicia, then at Laodicea in Syria
Apollinaris Claudius, Saint - Second-century bishop of Hierapolis, apologist
Apollonia, Saint - A virgin, possibly ordained, martyr at Alexandria in late 248 or early 249
Apollonius of Ephesus - Anti-Montanist Greek ecclesiastical writer, between 180 and 210
Apologetics - A theological science which has for its purpose the explanation and defence of the Christian religion
Apolysis - The dismissal blessing said by the Greek priest at the end of the Mass, Matins, or Vespers
Apolytikion - A dismissal prayer or hymn said or sung at the end of the Greek Mass and at other times during Matins and Vespers
Apophthegmata Patrum - Sayings of the Fathers of the Desert
Aporti, Ferrante - An educator and theologian, born at San Martino dell'Argine, province of Mantua, Italy, 20 Nov., 1791; died 14 Nov., 1858, at Turin
Apostasy - The word itself in its etymological sense, signifies the desertion of a post, the giving up of a state of life; he who voluntarily embraces a definite state of life cannot leave it, therefore, without becoming an apostate
Apostle (in Liturgy) - The name given by the Greek Church to the Epistle of the Divine Liturgy, which is invariably of Apostolic origin and never taken, as sometimes happens in the Roman Rite, from the Old Testament
Apostle Spoons - A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of Our Lord (the Master spoon) and the twelve Apostles
Apostles, The - Apostolos (Apostle) means one who is sent forth, who is entrusted with a mission
Apostles, Acts of the - The fifth book of the New Testament
Apostles' Creed - A formula containing in brief statements, or 'articles,' the fundamental tenets of Christian belief, and having for its authors, according to tradition, the Twelve Apostles
Apostles, Portraits of the - The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of the fourth century. . .
Apostles of Erin, The Twelve - Twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the School of Clonard in Meath
Apostleship of Prayer, The - A pious association otherwise known as a league of prayer in union with the Heart of Jesus
Apostolic Blessing - The popes very often delegated to others the power to give this blessing in answer to petitions from princes, at the close of missions, and on such occasions
Apostolic Camera - The former central board of finance in the papal administrative system, which at one time was of great importance in the government of the States of the Church, and in the administration of justice
Apostolic Churches - All the individual orthodox churches could, in a sense, be called Apostolic Churches, because they were in some more or less mediate connection with the Apostles
Apostolic Church-Ordinance - A third-century pseudo-Apostolic collection of moral and hierarchical rules and instructions, compiled in the main from ancient Christian sources
Apostolic College - This term designates The Twelve Apostles as the body of men commissioned by Christ to spread the kingdom of God over the whole world and to give it the stability of a well-ordered society
Apostolic Constitutions - A fourth-century pseudo-Apostolic collection, in eight books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity
Apostolic Executor - A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order that it be effective
Apostolic Expeditors - Officials who attend to the sending of Bulls, Briefs, and Rescripts, that emanate from the Apostolic Chancery, the Dataria, the Sacred Paenitentiaria, and the Secretariate of Briefs
Apostolic Fathers, The - Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had personal relations with some of the Apostles, or to have been so influenced by them that their writings may be held as echoes of genuine Apostolic teaching
Apostolic Letters - The letters of the Apostles to Christian communities or those in authority
Apostolic Majesty - A title given to the Kings of Hungary
Apostolic See, The - A metaphorical term, used, as happens in all languages, to express the abstract notion of authority by the concrete name of the place in which it is exercised
Apostolic Succession - Article claims that Apostolic succession is found in the Catholic Church and not in others
Apostolic Union of Secular Priests, The - An association of secular priests who observe a simple rule embodying the common duties of their state, afford mutual assistance in the functions of the ministry, and keep themselves in the spirit of their holy vocation by spiritual conferences
Apostolicae Curae - A Bull of Leo XIII issued 15 September, 1896, and containing the latest papal decision with regard to the validity of Anglican orders
Apostolicæ Sedis Moderationi - A Bull of Pius IX (1846-78) which regulates anew the system of censures and reservations in the Catholic church
Apostolicæ Servitutis - A Bull issued by Benedict XIV, 23 February, 1741, against secular pursuits on the part of the clergy
Apostolici - The name of four different heretical bodies
Apostolici Ministerii - A Bull issued 23 May, 1724, by Innocent XIII, for the revival of ecclesiastical discipline in Spain
Apostolici Regiminis - A Bull issued 19 December, 1513, by Leo X, in defence of the Catholic doctrine concerning the immortality of the soul
Apostolicity - The mark by which the Church of today is recognized as identical with the Church founded by Jesus Christ upon the Apostles
Apostolicum Pascendi Munus - A Bull issued by Clement XIII, 12 January, 1765, in defense of the Society of Jesus against the attacks made upon it
Apotactics - The adherents of a heresy which sprang up in the third century and spread through the western and southern parts of Asia Minor
Apotheosis - Deification, the exaltation of men to the rank of gods
Apparitions - The article deals not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to the direct intervention of a power superior to man
Apparitor - The official name given to an officer in ecclesiastical courts designated to serve the summons, to arrest a person accused, and, in ecclesiastico-civil procedure, to take possession, physically or formally, of the property in dispute
Appeal as from an abuse - The object was to safeguard equally the rights both of the State and of the Church
Appeals - The purpose of this article is to give a comprehensive view of the positive legislation of the Church on appeals belonging to the ecclesiastical forum; but it does not treat of the nature of the ecclesiastical forum itself nor of the rights of the Church and its supreme head, the pope, to receive appeals in ecclesiastical matters
Appetite - A tendency, an inclination, or direction
Approbation - An act by which a bishop or other superior grants to an ecclesiastic the actual exercise of his ministry
Appropriation - In theology, appropriation is used in speaking of the different Persons of the Trinity
Apse - The semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or aisles of a church
Apse Chapel - A chapel radiating tangentially from one of the bays or divisions of the apse, and reached generally by a semicircular passageway, or ambulatory, exteriorly to the walls or piers of the apse
Apsidiole - A small or secondary apse, one of the apses on either side of the main apse in a triapsidal church, or one of the apse-chapels when they project on the exterior of the church
Apt, Council of - Held 14 May, 1365, in the cathedral of that city by the archbishops and bishops of the provinces of Arles, Embrun, and Aix, in the south of France
Aquarians - A name given to several sects in the early Church
Aquila - An Italian archdiocese in the Abruzzi, directly dependent on the Holy See
Aquila and Priscilla - Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome in the Jewish persecution under Claudius, 49 or 50, and settled in Corinth
Aquileia - A former city of the Roman Empire, situated at the head of the Adriatic
Aquileia, Councils of - A council held in 381, presided over by St. Valerian of Aquileia
Aquileian Rite - Aquileia and certain of its suffragan sees had a special rite but they do not give any clear indication as to what this rite was
Aquinas, St. Thomas - Lengthy article on the life, writings, and influence of this philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. Called the Angelic Doctor. Died in 1274
Aquino, Sora, and Pontecorvo - An Italian diocese immediately subject to the Holy See
Arabia - The cradle of Islam and, in all probability, the primitive home of the Semitic race
Arabia, Vicariate Apostolic of - Arabia formerly belonged to the mission of Galla (Africa), but was made a separate prefecture Apostolic by Pius IX, 21 Jan., 1875
Arabia, Councils of - In 246 and 247 two councils were held at Bostra in Arabia against Beryllus, Bishop of the see, and others who maintained with him that the soul perished and arose again with the body
Arabian School of Philosophy - A circumstance which favoured the study of letters and philosophy was the accession to the throne about A.D. 750 of the Abassides, an enlightened line of Caliphs who encouraged learning, and patronized the representatives, chiefly Syrian and Persian, of foreign culture
Arabici - A small sect of the third century, whose founder is unknown, and which is commonly named from Arabia, where it flourished, but sometimes also Thanatopsychitae
Arabissus - A titular see of Armenia, suffragan of Melitene
Arad - A titular see of Palestine
Aragon and Castile - The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon
Aran, The Monastic School of - During three hundred years from about 500 to 800, Aran Mor and its sister islands were a famous centre of sanctity and learning, which attracted holy men from all parts of Ireland to study the science of the saints in this remote school of the West
Aranda, Council of - Spanish Council held in 1473
Aranda, Philip - Jesuit theologian (1642-1695)
Arason Jón - The last Catholic bishop of Iceland before the introduction of Protestantism (1484-1550)
Arator - A Christian poet of the sixth century, probably of Ligurian origin
Araucania - Prefecture Apostolic in Chile
Araucanians - Indian tribe in Chile
Araujo, Antonio de - Brazilian missionary (d. 1632)
Araujo, Francisco de - Spanish theologian (1580-1664)
Arawaks - The first American aborigines met by Columbus
Arbieto, Ignacio de - Jesuit (1585-1676)
Arbitration - A method of arranging differences between two parties by referring them to the judgment of a disinterested outsider whose decision the parties to a dispute agree in advance to accept as in some way binding
Arbogast, Saint - Irish, traveled to the Continent and became a hermit, bishop of Strasburg, famous for miracles. He died in 678
Arbroath, Abbey of - Founded on the east coast of Scotland (1178) by William the Lion, for Benedictines, and was colonized by monks from Kelso
Arbuthnott, Missal of - A manuscript Scottish missal or mass-book, written in 1491 by James Sibbald, priest of Arbuthnott, in Scotland, for use in that church
Arca - A box in which the Eucharist was kept by the primitive Christians in their homes
Arcachon, Our Lady of - A miraculous image venerated at Arcachon, France, and to all appearances the work of the thirteenth century
Arcadelt, Jacob - A distinguished musician, born in Holland at the close of the fifteenth, or at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Article with details of secular and religious compositions, especially madrigals and masses
Arcadiopolis - A titular see of Asia Minor
Arcae - A titular see on the coast of Phoenicia, between Tripolis and Antaradus, suffragan of Tyre
Arcanum - An Encyclical Letter on Christian marriage, issued 10 February, 1880, by Leo XIII
Arch - A structure composed of separate pieces, such as stone or bricks, having the shape of truncated wedges, arranged on a curved line so as to retain their position by mutual pressure
Archæology, Christian - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments
Archæology, The Commission of Sacred - Founded in the middle of the nineteenth century for the purpose of promoting and directing excavations in the Roman Catacombs and on other sites of Christian antiquarian interest
Archange de Lyon - A preacher of the Capuchin order whose name was Michael Desgranges (1736-1822)
Archbishop - An archbishop or metropolitan, in the present sense of the term, is a bishop who governs a diocese strictly his own, while he presides at the same time over the bishops of a well-defined district composed of simple dioceses but not of provinces
Archconfraternity - A confraternity empowered to aggregate or affiliate other confraternities of the same nature, and to impart to them its indulgences and privileges
Archdeacon - The incumbent of an ecclesiastical office dating back to antiquity and up to the fifteenth century of great importance in diocesan administration, particularly in the West
Archdeacon, Richard - An Irish Jesuit, whose name is sometimes given as Archdekin or Arsdekin (1620-1693)
Archdiocese - Not an ecclesiastical province, but only that diocese of the province which is the archbishop's own
Archelais - A titular see of Palestine
Archeology, Christian - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments
Archer, James - An English missionary priest (1751-1832)
Arches, The Court of - Was held in the Church of St. Mary le Bow (Sancta Maria de Arcubus), in Cheapside, the chief and most ancient court and consistory of the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archiereus - A Greek word for bishop, when considered as the culmination of the priesthood
Archimandrite - In the Greek Rite the superior of a monastery or of several monasteries
Archinto, Filipo - An Italian theologian and diplomatist (1500-1558)
Architecture, Ecclesiastical - All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber
Architecture, Gothic - History of the style
Archives, Ecclesiastical - A collection of documents, records, and memorials, pertaining to the origin, foundation, growth, history, and constitutions of a diocese, parish, monastery, or religious community under the jurisdiction of the Church
Archontics - A Gnostic sect which existed in Palestine and Armenia about the middle of the fourth century
Archpriest - Since the fourth century numerous dioceses had an archpriest, or head of the college of presbyters, who aided and represented the bishop in the discharge of his liturgical and religious duties
Archpriest Controversy - Arose in England on the appointment of George Blackwell as archpriest with jurisdiction over the secular clergy of England and Scotland, by the Holy See on 7 March, 1598
Arcosolium - Term applied by the primitive Christians to one form of the tombs that exist in the Roman catacombs
Arculf - A Frankish Bishop of the latter part of the seventh century
Ardagh - An Irish diocese in the ecclesiastical province of Armagh, takes its name from a town in the parish and barony of same name in county Longford, province of Leinster
Ardbraccan - Site of an ancient abbey, now a parish and village in the county Meath, Ireland
Ardchatten, The Priory of - An Argyllshire house belonging to the Order of Vallis Caulium, or Val des Choux (the Valley of Cabbages), founded by Duncan Mackoul about A.D. 1230 and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. John Baptist
Arden, Edward - An English Catholic, executed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth
Ardilliers, Notre Dame des - A statue, fountain, and Church of Our Lady at Saumur, France
Aremberg, Prince Charles d' - Definitor-general and Commissary of the Capuchins (d. 1669)
Areopolis - Titular See of Palestine
Arequipa, Diocese of - Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima, Peru
Arethas of Caesarea - Born at Patrae, Greece, about 860
Arethusa - A titular see of Syria near Apameia
Arévalo, Faustino - Jesuit hymnographer and patrologist (1747-1824)
Arévalo, Rodríguez Sanchez de - A learned Spanish bishop (1404-1470)
Arezzo - A diocese of Tuscany, in Italy, which is directly dependent on the Holy See. It
Argenson, Pierre de Voyer d' - Called the vicomte d'Argenson, chevalier, vicomte de Mouze, seigneur de Chastres, was the fifth Governor-General of Canada (1657-61), b. 1626; d. 1710
Argentina - A South American confederation of fourteen provinces, or States, united by a federal Constitution framed on the same lines as the Constitution of the United States of America
Argos - A titular see of Peloponnesian Greece, from the fifth to the twelfth century
Argüello, Luis Antonio - Governor of California, born at San Francisco, 1784; died there in 1830
Argyll and the Isles, Diocese of - The Diocese of Argyll, founded about 1200, was separated from the Diocese of Dunkeld; it included the western part of Dunkeld, beyond the Drumalban mountain range, together with the Isle of Lismore, in which the cathedral was erected
Argyropulos, John - Humanist, and translator of Aristotle, born at Constantinople, 1416; died at Rome about 1486
Arialdo, Saint - A canon of Milan, reformer, martyr, murdered by agents of the bishop of Milan in 1065
Arianism - Founded by Arius, belief asserting that Christ was not God like the Father, but a creature made in time. Rejected by the Council of Constantinople (381)
Ariano - Diocese in the Archdiocese of Beneventum
Arias, Francis - Writer of ascetical treatises, born at Seville in Spain, 1533, died in that place, 15 May, 1605
Arias de Avila, Pedro - A Spanish knight from Segovia, b. about the middle of the fifteenth century; d. at Leon, 1530
Arias Montanus, Benedictus - Orientalist, exegete, and editor of the 'Antwerp Polyglot', born at Frejenal de la Sierra in Estremadura, Spain, 1527; died at Seville, 1598
Ariassus - A titular see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor
Aribo - Archbishop of Mainz; date of birth unknown; d. 6 April, 1032
Arindela - A titular see of Palestine
Ariosto, Ludovico - Son of Nicolo Ariosto, Governor of Reggio, and Daria Malaguzzi, born at Reggio in Emilia, 8 September, 1474; died at Ferrara, 6 June, 1533
Aristeas - A name given in Josephus to the author of a letter ascribing the Greek translation of the Old Testament to six interpreters sent into Egypt from Jerusalem
Aristides - A Christian apologist living at Athens in the second century
Aristotle - Philosopher, born at Stagira, a Grecian colony in the Thracian peninsula Chalcidice, 384 B.C.; died at Chalcis, in Euboea, 322 B.C
Arius - An heresiarch, born about A.D. 250; died 336
Arizona - Includes history, population, and government details from early in the twentieth century
Ark, Noah's - The form, very likely foursquare, was not convenient for navigation, but, as has been proven by the experiments of Peter Jansen and M. Vogt, it made the Ark a very suitable device for shipping heavy cargoes and floating upon the waves without rolling or pitching
Ark of the Covenant - A kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height
Arkansas - Includes history, climate, government, education, and Catholic information
Arlegui, Fray José - A Spaniard from Biscay, first attached to the Franciscan province of Cantabria, then transferred to Zacatecas in Mexico
Arles, The Synods of - The first Council of Arles was held in 314, for the purpose of putting an end to the Donatist controversy
Armada, The Spanish - A fleet intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English aggressions against the colonies and possessions of the Spanish Crown
Armagh - Archdiocese founded by St. Patrick about 445, as the primatial and metropolitan see of Ireland
Armagh, The Book of - A famous Irish-Latin manuscript preserved in the Library of Trinity College in Dublin
Armagh, The School of - The School of Armagh seems to have been the oldest, and down to the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion continued to be one of the most celebrated, of the ancient schools of Ireland
Armagnac, Georges d' - French cardinal and diplomatist, b. c. 1501; d. 2 June, 1585
Armellino, Mariano - Benedictine historian (1657-1737)
Armenia - A mountainous region of Western Asia occupying a somewhat indefinite area to the southeast of the Black Sea
Armenierstadt - A city in the Transylvanian county of Szolnok-Doboka
Armentia, Fray Nicolás - Bishop of La Paz, appointed 22 October, 1901; b. at Bemedo, diocese of Vittoria, Spain, 5 December, 1845
Armidale - A diocese situated in New South Wales
Arminianism - The popular designation of the doctrines held by a party formed in the early days of the seventeenth century among the Calvinists of the Netherlands
Arnauld - Celebrated French family, the history of which is connected with that of Jansenism and of Port-Royal
Arne, Thomas Augustine - Brief biography of the eighteenth-century English composer
Arni Thorlaksson - An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297
Arnobius - A Christian apologist, flourished during the reign of Diocletian (284-305)
Arnold - Name of several medieval figures
Arnold of Brescia - Born at Brescia towards the end of the eleventh century, date of death uncertain
Arnoldi, Alberto - Italian sculptor and architect, b. at Florence, fourteenth century
Arnoldi, Bartholomaeus - Usually called Usingen, after his birthplace, an Augustinian friar, teacher of Luther, and with him inmate of the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt (1463-1532)
Arnolfo di Cambio - Sometimes called di Lapo, the principal master of Italian Gothic, b. at Florence, about 1232
Arnoudt, Peter Joseph - Jesuit spiritual writer (1811-1865)
Arnpeck, Veit - Bavarian historian, b. at Landshut in 1440; d. at the same place about the year 1505
Arnulf of Bavaria - Son of Luitpold of the Agilulfing family and of Kunigunde, and Duke of Bavaria from 907 to 937
Arnulf of Lisieux - Studied canon law at Rome, and wrote in defence of Pope Innocent II a violent letter against Gerard, Bishop of Angouleme
Arnulf of Metz, Saint - Frankish civil servant at the court of Austrasia, bishop of Metz, hermit, d. about 640
Arras - Diocese comprising the Department of Pas-de-Calais in France
Arras, Councils of - In 1025 a council was held at Arras against certain (Manichaean) heretics who rejected the sacraments of the Church
Arriaga, Pablo José - Jesuit missionary to Peru (1564-1621)
Arricivita, Juan - A native of Mexico in the eighteenth century
Arrighetti, Nicola - Mathematician, b. at Florence and died there in 1639
Arrighetti, Nicolò - A professor of natural philosophy at Spoleto, Prato, and Sienna, b. at Florence, 17 March, 1709; d. 31 January, 1767
Arrowsmith, Venerable Edmund - English Jesuit and martyr, d. 1628. Short biography
Arsacidæ - It was under the Dynasty of the Arsacids, who ruled the Persian empire from the year 256 B.C. to A.D. 224, that Christianity found its way into the countries watered by the Euphrates and the Tigris
Arsenius Autorianos - Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 1273)
Arsenius, Saint - A Roman, was tutor to the emperor's children before fleeing to the monastery of St. John the Dwarf. Arsenius died in 450
Arsinoe - A titular see of Egypt, now Medinet el Fayum
Art, Christian - Also called ecclesiastical art
Art, Ecclesiastical - Article explores the origin, history, and types
Artemon - Mentioned as the leader of an Antitrinitarian sect at Rome, in the third century
Arthur, James - A Dominican friar, and a theologian of note, b. at Limerick, Ireland, early in the seventeenth century; d (probably) 1670
Arthur, Thomas - A celebrated Catholic physician of the seventeenth century, born at Limerick, 1593, died c. 1666
Articles of Faith - Certain revealed supernatural truths such as those contained in the symbol of the Apostles
Articles, The Organic - A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, and 44 relative to Protestantism, presented by order of Napoleon to the Tribunate and the legislative body at the same time that he made these two bodies vote on the Concordat itself
Artoklasia - A peculiar service in the Greek Church performed as the concluding part of Vespers
Arts, Bachelor of - A degree marking the completion of the traditional curriculum of the college
Arts, The Faculty of - One of the four traditional divisions of the teaching body of the university
Arts, Master of - An academic degree higher than that of Bachelor
Arts, The Seven Liberal - Chiefly used during the Middle Ages. Doesn't mean arts as the word is understood today, but those branches of knowledge which were taught in the schools of that time
Artvin - A Russian city in the trans-Caucasian province of Kutais
Arundel, Thomas - Sixtieth Archbishop of Canterbury, second son of Robert, Earl of Arundel and Warren, b. 1353; d. 19 February, 1414
Arundell - Thomas, first Lord Arundell of Wardour
Asaph, Saint - First bishop of the Welsh town named after him. Second half of sixth century
Ascalon - A titular see of Palestine
Ascelin - Ambassador of Innocent IV (1243-54) to the Tartars
Ascendente Domino - A Bull issued by Gregory XIII, 24 May, 1584, in favor of the Society of Jesus, to confirm the constitution of the Society, and the privileges already granted to it by Paul III, Julius III, Paul IV, and Pius V
Ascension - The elevation of Christ into heaven by His own power in presence of His disciples the fortieth day after His Resurrection
Ascension, Feast of the - The fortieth day after Easter Sunday, commemorating the Ascension of Christ into heaven, according to Mark 16:19, Luke 24:51, and Acts 1:2
Ascetical Theology - Briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism
Asceticism - The word asceticism comes from the Greek askesis which means practice, bodily exercise, and more especially, atheletic training
Aschbach, Joseph, Ritter von - German historian (1801-1882)
Ascoli-Piceno - Diocese comprising sixteen towns in the Province of Ascoli-Piceno, two in that of Aquila, and two in that of Teramo, Italy
Ascoli, Satriano, and Cirignola - An Italian diocese, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Beneventum
Aseity - The property by which a being exists of and from itself
Aseneth - The daughter of Putiphare (Poti-phera), priest of On
Aser - Details four uses of this name
Asgaard - Enclosure, garden; the Garden of the Gods
Ash Wednesday - The Wednesday after Quinquagesima Sunday, which is the first day of the Lenten fast
Ashby, George - Martyred English monk (d. 1537)
Ashby, Thomas - Suffered at Tyburn, 29 March, 1544
Ashes - A number of passages in the Old Testament connect ashes with mourning
Ashley, Venerable Ralph - English Jesuit lay-brother, cook and domestic servant, was tortured and martyred in 1606
Ashton, John - An early Jesuit missionary in Maryland; born in Ireland, 1742; died in Maryland, 1814, or 1815
Ashton, Venerable Roger - Martyr, third son of Richard Ashton of Croston, in Lancashire. Hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn, 23 June, 1592
Asia - Article intended to give a rapid survey of the geography, ethnography, political and religious history of Asia, and especially of the rise, progress, and actual condition of Asiatic Christianity and Catholicism
Asia Minor - The peninsular mass that the Asiatic continent projects westward of an imaginary line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta (Issus) on the Mediterranean to the vicinity of Trebizond (Trapezus) on the Black Sea
Asiongaber - More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the Aelanitic Gulf, now called the Gulf of Akabah
Aske, Robert - English insurgent (d. 1537)
Asmodeus - Demon mentioned in the Book of Tobias
Aspendus - A titular see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor
Asperges - The rite of sprinkling the congregation with holy water before the principal Mass on Sunday
Aspilcueta, Martin - Spanish canonist and moral theologian (1491-1586)
Ass, The, in Caricature of Christians - The calumny of onolatry, or ass-worship, attributed by Tacitus and other writers to the Jews, was afterwards, by the hatred of the latter, transferred to the Christians
Assam - A Prefecture Apostolic in the ecclesiastical province of Calcutta, India, established in 1889
Assemani - An illustrious Maronite family of Mount Lebanon, Syria, four members of which, all ecclesiastics, distinguished themselves during the eighteenth century in the East and in Europe
Assemblies of the French Clergy - Meetings of the Clergy of France for the purpose of apportioning the financial burdens laid upon the Church by the kings of France, and incidentally for other ecclesiastical purposes
Asser, John - A learned monk of St David's, Menevia, b. in Pembrokeshire; d. probably, 910
Asses, Feast of - The feast dates from the eleventh century, though the source which suggested it is much older
Assessor of the Holy Office - An official of the Congregation of the Inquisition
Assessors - In ecclesiastical law, learned persons who function is to counsel a judge with whom they are associated in the trial of causes
Assicus, Saint - St. Patrick's coppersmith, also a renowned bellfounder, Bishop of Elphin
Assideans - The maintainers of the Mosaic Law against the invasion of Greek customs
Assimilation, Physiological - The vital function by which an organism changes nutrient material into living protoplasm
Assimilation, Psychological - As applied to a mental process, assimilation derives all its force and meaning from the analogy which many educationists have found to exist between the way in which food is incorporated into the living tissue and the manner in which truth is acquired by the growing mind
Assisi - Diocese in Umbria
Assistant at the Pontifical Throne - Those prelates who belong to the Papal Chapel and hold toward the Pope much the same relation as cathedral canons do to the bishop
Assizes of Jerusalem - The code of laws enacted by the Crusaders for the government of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Assmayer, Ignaz - An Austrian musician, born at Salzburg, 11 February, 1790; died in Vienna, 31 August, 1862
Association, Right of Voluntary - Any group of individuals freely united for the pursuit of a common end
Association of Ideas - A principle in psychology to account for the succession of mental states
Association of Priestly Perseverance - A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese
Associations, Pious - Under this term are comprehended all those organizations, approved and indulgenced by Church authority, which have been instituted especially in recent times, for the advancement of various works of piety and charity
Assuerus - The name of two different persons in the Bible
Assumption, Augustinians of the - Had its origin in the College of the Assumption, established in Nimes France, in 1843
Assumption, Little Sisters of the - A congregation whose work is the nursing of the sick poor in their own homes
Assumption, Sisters of the - A congregation of French nuns devoted to the teaching of young girls
Assumption of Mary - The principal feast of the Blessed Virgin
Assumptionists - Had its origin in the College of the Assumption, established in Nimes France, in 1843
Assur (titular see) - A titular see of Proconsular Africa, now Henchir-Zenfour
Assur (multiple definitions) - Three definitions
Assyria - Includes geographical and historical information
Assyrian Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Asterisk - This is a utensil for the Liturgy according to the Greek Rite, which is not used in Roman Rite
Asterius - Name of several prominent persons in early Christian history
Asti - One of the divisions of the province of Alexandria, and suffragan of Turin
Aston - The name of several English Catholics of prominence
Astorga - Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Valladolid
Astrology - The supposed science which determines the influence of the stars, especially of the five older planets, on the fate of man
Astronomy - Divided into two main branches, astrometry and astrophysics; the former concerned with determining the places of the investigation of the heavenly bodies, the latter, with the investigation of their chemical and physical nature
Astronomy in the Bible - Includes examples of Old and New Testament references
Astros, Paul-Thérèse-David d' - French cardinal (1772-1851)
Astruc, Jean - Son of a converted Protestant minister (1684-1766)
Atahuallpa - Son of the Inca war chief Huayna Capac and an Indian woman from Quito
Atahualpa, Jean Santos - Claimed to have been sent by God to drive the Spaniards from western South America
Atavism - Duchesne introduced the word to designate those cases in which species revert spontaneously to what are presumably long-lost characters
Athanasian Creed, The - One of the symbols of the Faith approved by the Church and given a place in her liturgy
Athanasius, Saint - Long article on the Bishop of Alexandria, confessor and Doctor of the Church
Athabasca - Suffragan of Saint Boniface; erected 8 April, 1862, by Pius IX
Atheism - That system of thought which is formally opposed to theism
Athelney, The Abbey of - Established in the County of Somerset, England. Founded by King Alfred, A.D. 888, as a religious house for monks of the Order of St. Benedict
Athenagoras - A Christian apologist of the second half of the second century of whom no more is known than that he was an Athenian philosopher and a convert to Christianity
Athenry - A small inland town in the county Galway, Ireland, anciently called Athnere, from Ath-na-Riagh, the king's ford, or the abode of the king
Athens, Christian - History of the Church in Athens
Athens, Modern Diocese of - The majority of Catholics who live within the Diocese of Athens are foreigners, or of foreign descent
Athias, Joseph - Issued two editions of the Hebrew Bible
Athos, Mount - The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring
Atienza, Juan de - Jointly with Father Jose de Acosta, directed the publication of catechisms and textbooks of Christian doctrine for the use of the Indians
Atkinson, James - English Catholic confessor (d. 1595)
Atkinson, Nicholas - English priest and martyr (d. 1610)
Atkinson, Paul, of St. Francis - One of the notable confessors of the English Church during the age which succeeded the persecution of blood
Atkinson, Sarah - Irish philanthropist and biographer (1823-1893)
Atkinson, Ven. Thomas - Priest martyred at York in 1616
Atom - Primarily, the smallest particle of matter which can exist
Atomism - The system of those who hold that all bodies are composed of minute, indivisible particles of matter called atoms
Atonement, Day of - A most solemn fast, on which no food could be taken throughout the day, and servile works were forbidden
Atonement, Doctrine of the - In Catholic theology, the Atonement is the Satisfaction of Christ, whereby God and the world are reconciled or made to be at one
Atrib - A titular see of Lower Egypt
Atrium - An open place or court before a church
Attainder - An Act of Parliament for putting a man to death or for otherwise punishing him without trial in the usual form
Attala, Saint - Burgundian monk, companion of St. Columban in exile, co-founder and abbot of Bobbio, d. 627
Attalia - A titular metropolitan see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor
Attaliates, Michael - Byzantine stateman and historian, probably a native of Attalia in Pamphylia
Atticus - Patriarch of Constantinople (406-425), born at Sebaste in Armenia; died 425
Attigny, Councils of - Several councils held here are detailed
Attila the Hun - Life and times of the legendary king
Attiret, Jean Denis - Painter, born at Dole, France, 31 July, 1702; died at Pekin, 8 December, 1768
Atto - A faithful follower of Gregory VII in his conflict with the simoniac clergy
Atto of Pistoia - Bishop of Pistoia (1070-1155)
Atto of Vercelli - A learned theologian and canonist of the tenth century
Attracta, Saint - Contemporary of St. Patrick, founder of a hospice and several churches
Attributes, Divine - In order to form a more systematic idea of God, and as far as possible, to unfold the implications of the truth, God is All-Perfect, this infinite Perfection is viewed, successively, under various aspects, each of which is treated as a separate perfection and characteristic inherent to the Divine Substance, or Essence. A certain group of these, of paramount import, is called the Divine Attributes
Attrition - Also called 'imperfect contrition.' Definition, its relation to sacramental penance, and moral considerations
Attuda - A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor
Aubarède, Jean-Michel-d'Astorg - Canon regular, and Vicar Capitular of Pamiers, born 1639; died 4 August, 1692
Aubermont, Jean-Aontoine d' - Theologian of Bois-le-Duc; died 22 November, 1686
Aubery, Joseph - Jesuit missionary in Canada, born at Gisors in Normandy.(1673-1755)
Aubignac, François Hédelin, Abbé d' - Grammarian, poet, preacher, archeologist, philologist (1604-1676)
Aubusson, Pierre d' - Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, born 1423; died 1503
Auch - Archdiocese; comprises the Department of Gers in France
Auckland - Diocese comprising the Provincial District of Auckland (New Zealand), with its islets, and the Kermadec Group
Auctorem Fidei - A Bull issued by Pius VI, 28 August, 1794, in condemnation of the Gallican and Jansenist acts and tendencies of the Synod of Pistoia (1786)
Audiences, Pontifical - The receptions given by the pope to cardinals, sovereigns, princes, ambassadors, and other persons, ecclesiastical or lay, having business with or interest in the Holy See
Audifax, Abachum, Martha, and Maris, Saints - Family martyred at Rome in 270. SS. Maris and Martha were husband and wife
Audiffredi - Born at Saorgio, near Nice, in 1734; died at Rome, July, 1794
Audin, J.-M.-Vincent - Writer, born at Lyons in 1793; died in Paris, 21 February, 1851
Audisio, Guglielmo - Devoted himself to historical studies, especially in illustration of the papacy (1801-1882)
Auditor - The designation of certain officials of the Roman Curia, whose duty it is to hear and examine the causes submitted to the pope
Audran - The family name of four generations of distinguished French artists, natives of Paris and Lyons, which included eight prominent engravers and two painters
Auenbrugger, Leopold - An Austrian physician, born 19 November, 1722; died 17 May, 1807
Aufsees, Jobst Bernhard von - Canon of Bamberg and Wuerzburg, born 28 March, 1671, on the family estate of Mengersdorf; died 2 April, 1738
Auger, Edmond - Entered the Society of Jesus while St. Ignatius was still living, and was regarded as one of the most eloquent men of his time (1530-1591)
Augilæ - A titular see of Cyrenaica in Northern Africa
Augsburg - Diocese in the Kingdom of Bavaria, Germany, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Munich-Freising
Augsburg, Synods of - Two general imperial synods were held in Augsburg. The first, convened in August, 952, through the efforts of Emperor Otto the Great, provided for the reform of abuses in civil and ecclesiastical life. A similar synod, convened by Anno, Archbishop of Cologne (27 October, 1062), was occupied with the internal conditions of the empire and the attitude of the Church of Germany towards the schism of Cadalus, antipope during the reign of Alexander II
Augusta - A titular see of Cilicia in Asia Minor
Augustin von Alfeld - One of the earliest and most aggressive opponents of Luther, born in the village of Alfeld, near Hildesheim, from which he took his surname; died probably in 1532
Augustine, Rule of Saint - Names the five documents sometimes identified as the Rule of Augustine, quickly narrows the field to two contenders, settles on Letter 211. Also deals with Augustine's relation to monasticism
Augustine of Canterbury, Saint - Biographical article on the monk who was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, called 'Apostle of the English.'
Augustine of Hippo, Saint - Biography, with extensive hyperlinks to related articles
Augustine of Hippo, Teaching of Saint - Article on Augustine as a Doctor of the Church, and his influence in the history of philosophy and theology. Particular interest in his teaching on grace
Augustine of Hippo, Works of Saint - Annotated bibliography of Augustine's principal writings
Augustinian Canons - According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric
Augustinians - A religious order which in the thirteenth century combined several monastic societies into one, under this name
Augustinians of the Assumption - Had its origin in the College of the Assumption, established in Nimes France, in 1843
Augustinus, Antonius - Historian of canon law and Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, born at Saragossa 26 February, 1517, of a distinguished family; died at Tarragona, 31 May, 1586
Augustinus-Verein, The - An association organized in 1878 to promote the interests of the Catholic press, particularly the daily press, of Germany
Augustopolis - A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Petra
Augustus - The name by which Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born, is usually known; born at Rome, 62 B.C.; died A.D. 14
Augustus Abbey, Fort - A Benedictine monastery in Inverness-shire, Scotland
Aulne Abbey - A former Cistercian monastery near Landelies on the Sambre in the Diocese of Liege
Aumbry - Its original meaning was a cupboard and it has never lost this more general sense, but even in classical Latin it had of it acquired in addition the special signification of a cupboard of holding books
Aunarius, Saint - Bishop of Auxerre, d. 603
Aurea - A title given to certain works and documents
Aurelian - Roman Emperor, 270-275, born near Sirmium in Pannonia, 9 September, 214; died 275
Aureliopolis - A titular see of Lydia in Asia Minor
Aurelius - Archbishop of Carthage from 388 to 423
Aurelius Antoninus, Marcus - Second-century Roman emperor and philosopher
Aureoli, Petrus - Brief article by E.A. Pace notes the highlights of Aureol's intellectual career
Auriesville - The site of the Mohawk village, Montgomery County, New York, U.S.A., in which Father Issac Jogues, and his companions, Goupil and Lalande, were put to death for the Faith by the Indians
Aurispa, Giovanni - A famous ltalian humanist and collector of Greek manuscripts, born about 1369 at Noto, in Sicily; died at Ferrara in 1459
Aurora Lucis Rutilat - One of the Ambrosian hymns
Ausculta Fili - A letter addressed 5 December 1301, by Pope Boniface VIII to Philip the Fair, King of France
Ausonius, Decimus Magnus - Professor and poet (310-394)
Austin, John - An English lawyer and writer, born 1613 at Walpole, in Norfolk; died London, 1669
Australia - Includes history, education, and religious statistics
Austremonius, Saint - Apostle of Auverne, said to have been the first bishop of Clermont. Probably early fourth century
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, The - The European monarchy whose dominions have for their main life-distributing artery the River Danube, in its course from Engelhartszell, near Passau, to Orsova. South of the Danube lie the Austrian Alpine provinces and the provinces of Carinthia and Carnola; north of the Danube are the Carpathian and Sudetic provinces
Authentic - The term is used in two senses. It is applied first to a book or document whose contents are invested with a special authority, in virtue of which the work is called authentic. In its second sense it is used as a synonym for 'genuine', and therefore means that a work really emanates from the author to whom it is ascribed
Authenticity of the Bible - The authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold authorship: human authors and divine inspiration
Authority, Civil - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members
Authorized Version, The - Historical background on the AV, also called the King James Bible
Autocephali - A designation in early Christian times of certain bishops who were subject to no patriarch or metropolitan, but depended directly on the triennial provincial synod or on the Apostolic See
Autos Sacramentales - A form of dramatic literature which is peculiar to Spain, though in some respects similar in character to the old Morality plays of England
Autpert, Ambrose - An early medieval writer and abbot of the Benedictine Order, born in France, early in the eighth century
Autran, Joseph - French poet, born at Marseilles 20 June, 1813; died in the same city, 6 March, 1877
Autun - Comprises the entire Department of Saone et Loire in France. It was suffragan to the Archdiocese of Lyons under the old regime
Auxentius of Milan - Ordained (343) to the priesthood by Gregory, the intruded Bishop of Alexandria
Auxentius, Junior - Originally Mercurinus, a Scythian, and a disciple of Ulfilas, or Wulfila, of whose life and death he wrote an account
Auxentius of Mopsuestia - Although he is identified in the Roman Martyrology, at least one scholar thinks that this bishop was an Arian
Auxerre, Councils of - In 585 (or 578) a Council of Auxerre held under St. Annacharius formulated forty-five canons, closely related in context to canons of the contemporary Councils of Lyons and Macon
Auxiliary Bishop - A bishop deputed to a diocesan who, capable of governing and administering his diocese, is unable to perform the pontifical functions; or whose diocese is so extensive that it requires the labors of more than one; or whose episcopal see has attached to it a royal or imperial office requiring protracted presence at court
Auxilius of Naples - The name (probably fictitious, according to Hefele) of an ecclesiastic to whom we owe a series of remarkable writings (P.L., CXXIX, 1054 sqq.) that deal with the controversies concerning the succession and fate of Pope Formosus (891-896), and especially the validity of the orders conferred by him
Ava - A German poetess, the first woman known to have written in German and probably identical with a recluse of that name who died in Austria in the vicinity of Melk, A.D. 1127
Avancini, Nicola - Chiefly known as an ascetical writer, born in the Tyrol, 1612; died 6 December, 1686
Avarice - The inordinate love for riches
Avatar - The word is used, in a technical sense, in the Hindu religion to denote the descent upon earth of a portion of the essence of a god, which then assumes some coarser material form, be it animal, monster, or man
Avaugour, Pierre du Bois, Baron d' - Sixth Governor General of Canada
Ave Maria - Analysis of the prayer Ave Maria: origins and development
Ave Maris Stella - The first verse of an unrhymed, accentual hymn, of seven strophes of four lines each, assigned in Roman Breviary to Vespers in the Common office, the Office of Saturdays, and the Little Office (as well as for Feasts) of the Blessed Virgin
Ave Regina - An antiphon so called from its first line, Ave regina caelorum (Hail, Queen of Heaven)
Avellino - An Italian diocese in the Province of Naples, suffragan to Benevento
Avellino, Saint Andrew - Canon lawyer, priest, reformer, Theatine, d. 1608
Avempace - Arabian philosopher, physician, astronomer, mathematician, and poet, b. at Saragossa towards the end of the eleventh century; d. at Fez, 1138
Avendano, Fernando - Priest, native of Lima, spoke Quichua. Died 1665, shortly after being named bishop of Santiago de Chile
Averbode - A Premonstratensian abbey belonging to the circary of Brabant and situated near Diest in the Archdiocese of Malines
Averroes - Arabian philosopher, astronomer, and writer on jurisprudence; born at Cordova, 1126; died at Morocco, 1198
Aversa, Diocese of - Comprising twenty-one towns in the Province of Caserta and twelve in the Province of Naples, it is under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See
Avesta, The - The sacred books of Parsees, or Zoroastrians, and the main source of our knowledge concerning the religious and spiritual life the ancient Persians
Avesta, Theological Aspects of the - Explores the subjects of God, dualism, angelology, and man
Avicebron - Jewish religious poet, moralist, and philosopher. He was born at Malaga in 1020 or 1021, and died at Saragossa in 1070
Avicenna - Arabian physician and philosopher, born at Kharmaithen, in the province of Bokhara, 980; died at Hamadan, in Northern Persia, 1037
Avignon - Written in the form of Avennio in the ancient texts and inscriptions, takes its name from the House, or Clan, Avennius
Avignon, Councils of - Details of several councils held here
Avignon, University of - Developed from the already existing schools of the city, was formally constituted in 1303, by a Bull of Boniface VIII
Avila - Diocese; suffragan of Valladolid in Spain
Avila, Francisco de - Curate or vicar in the province of Huarochiri of Peru, later curate at Huanaco, finally Canon of the Church of La Plata, in Bolivia
Avila, Sancho de - Born at Avila of the Kings, in Old Castile, 1546, and named after the place of his birth; died at Plasencia, in the same province, 6 or 7 December, 1625
Avitus, Saint - Anti-Arian Bishop of Vienne, converted King Sigismund, was a renowned poet, d. about 518
Aviz, Order of - Military body of Portuguese knights
Avranches, Council of - In 1172 (September 27-28) a Council was held at Avranches in France, apropos of the troubles caused in the English Church by the murder of St. Thomas Becket
Avril, Philippe - Jesuit, born at Angouleme, France, 16 September, 1654; died in a shipwreck in 1698
Axum - A titular metropolitan see of ancient Christian Ethiopia
Ayacucho, Diocese of - A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima
Ayeta, Fray Francisco de - A Spanish Franciscan of the seventeenth century
Ayllón, Lucas Vésquez de - This Spanish discoverer of Chesapeake Bay, and the first who tried to find a northwest passage from Europe to Asia, date of birth uncertain; died 18 October, 1526
Aylward, James Ambrose Dominic - Theologian and poet, born at Leeds, 4 April, 1813; died at Hinckley (England), 5 October, 1872
Aymará - Tribe of sedentary Indians inhabiting the northern sections of Bolivia
Aymeric of Piacenza - A learned Dominican, b. at Piacenza, Italy; d. at Bologna, 19 August, 1327
Azara, Féliz de - Spanish naturalist, b. at Barbunales in Aragon, 18 May, 1746; d. 1811
Azaria, Aristaces - A Catholic Armenian abbot and archbishop, b. at Constantinople, 18 July, 1782; d. at Vienna, 6 May, 1854
Azarias, Brother - Educator, essayist, litterateur, and philosopher, b. near Killenaule, County Tipperary, Ireland, 29 June, 1847
Azevedo, Luiz de - An Ethiopic missionary and scholar, born, probably at Carrezedo Montenegro, in the Diocese of Braga, in Portugal, in 1573; died in Ethiopia in 1634
Azor, Juan - Professor of philosophy and later of theology, both dogmatic and moral, at Piacenza, Alcala, and Rome (1559-1603)
Azores - An archipelago situated in that tract of the Atlantic Ocean which is known to mariners as the Sargasso Sea
Azotus - Three uses, one of the five great cities of the Philistines, the mountain to which Bacchides pursued the Jews in battle, and a titular see of Palestine situated near the seacoast, between Jaffa and Ascalon
Aztecs - A surname applied to the tribe of the Mexica, or Chichimeca Mexitin, which occupied aboriginal Mexico, in more or less contiguous groups, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the Spaniards first came into contact with them
Azymes - Unfermented cakes used by the Jews in their various sacrifices and religious rites
Azymites - A term of reproach used by the schismatic Greeks since the eleventh century against the Latins, who, together with the Armenians and the Maronites, celebrate the Holy Eucharist with unleavened bread
Copyright © 2023 by New Advent LLC. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.