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Caballero, Fernán de - Nom de plume of Cecilia Böhl von Faber, a noted Spanish novelist (1796-1877)
Caballero, Raimundo Diosdado - Writer (1740-1830)
Caballero y Ocio, Juan - Priest, remarkable for lavish gifts to the Church and for charity (1644-1707)
Cabas - Titular see of Egypt
Cabassut - French theologian and priest (1604-1685)
Cabello de Balboa, Miguel - Sixteenth century Spanish priest
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nuñez - Born at Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain; dates of birth and death uncertain
Cabot, John & Sebastian - Navigators and explorers
Cabral, Francisco - Portuguese missionary in Japan (1529-1609)
Cabral, Pedralvarez - Portuguese navigator (b. 1460)
Cabrillo, Estévan - Sixteenth century sailor
Cadalous - Bishop and antipope (d. 1072)
Caddo Indians - In the earlier period they were commonly known to the Spaniards as Tejas, whence the name of the State, and to the French as Cenis or Assinais
Cades - The name, according to the Vulgate and the Septuagent, of three, or probably four cities mentioned in Scripture
Cadillac, Antoine de Lamothe, Sieur de - Founder of Detroit (1657-1730)
Cadiz, Diocese of - Suffragan of Seville
Cadwallador, Venerable Roger - Short biography of the English priest, martyred in 1610
Cædmon, Saint - Article on the laborer for the double monastery of Whitby, composer of hymns and other Biblical poems in Anglo-Saxon, who died between 670 and 680
Caen, University of - Founded in 1432 by Henry VI of England, who was then master of Paris and of a large part of France
Cæremoniale Episcoporum - A book containing the rites and ceremonies to be observed at Mass, Vespers, and other functions, by bishops and prelates of inferior rank, in metropolitan, cathedral, and collegiate churches
Cærularius, Michael - Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and final schism of the Byzantine Church, date of birth unknown; d. 1058
Cæsarea - A Latin titular see, and the seat of a residential Armenian bishopric, in Cappadocia
Cæsarea Mauretaniæ - Titular see in North Africa
Cæsarea Palestinæ - Titular see in Palestine
Cæsarea Philippi - A Greek Catholic residential see, and a Latin titular see, in Syria
Cæsarius of Arles, Saint - Bishop, theologian, renowned as a popular preacher, wrote two monastic rules, died 543
Cæsarius of Heisterbach - Cistercian monk (1170-1240)
Cæsarius of Nazianzus - Physician, brother of St. Gregory of Nazianzus (the Theologian). Caesarius died in late 368 or early 369
Cæsarius of Prüm - Twelfth-century Benedictine abbot and Cistercian monk
Cæsar of Speyer - Friar Minor and leader of the Caesarines (d. 1239)
Cæsaropolis - Titular see of Macedonia
Cagliari, Archdiocese of - Cagliari, called by the ancient Caralis, is the principal city and capital of the Island of Sardinia, and an important port on the Gulf of Cagliari
Cagli e Pergola, Diocese of - Situated in Umbria (Italy), in the province of Pesaro, suffragan of Urbino
Cahier, Charles - French antiquarian (1807-1882)
Cahill, Daniel William - Lecturer and controversialist (1796-1864)
Cahors, Diocese of - Comprising the entire department of Lot, in France
Caiaphas - Jewish High Priest
Caiazzo, Diocese of - Situated in the province of Caserta, Italy, amid the mountains of Tifati near the river Volturno
Caillau, Armand-Benjamin - Priest and writer, born at Paris, 22 October, 1794, died there, 1850
Cain - First-born of Adam and Eve
Cainites - A name used for (1) the descendants of Cain, (2) a sect of Gnostics and Antinomians
Caiphas - Jewish High Priest
Caius - Third-century Christian author
Caius, John - Physician and scholar (1510-1573)
Caius and Soter, Saints - Popes, having their feast together on 22 April
Cajetan, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines
Cajetan, Constantino - Benedictine savant (1560-1650)
Cajetan, Tommaso de Vio Gaetani - Domincan cardinal, philosopher, theologian, and exegete (1469-1534)
Calabozo, Diocese of - A town in the State of Miranda, Venezuela, on the River Guarico, 120 miles south-southwest of Caracas
Calahorra and La Calzada, Diocese of - Suffragan of Burgos, comprising almost all the province of Logrono and part of the provinces of Navarre and Soria. Calahorra
Calama - Titular see in Africa
Calancha, Fray Antonio de la - Augustinian monk (1584-1654)
Calas Case, The - Jean Calas was a French Calvinist, born 19 March, 1698, at La Caparede near Castres, in the department of Tarn; executed 10 March, 1762, at Toulouse
Calasanctius, Saint Joseph - Priest, founder of the Piarists, d. 1648
Calasio, Mario di - Friar Minor and lexicographer (1550-1620)
Calatayud, Pedro de - Jesuit missionary (1689-1773)
Calatrava, Military Order of - Founded in Castile, in the twelfth century, as a military branch of the great Cistercian family
Calcutta - Extends along the sea-coast from the Khabadak to the Mahanundi River
Caldani, Leopoldo Marco Antonio - Italian anatomist and physiologist (1725-1813)
Caldara, Polidoro (da Caravaggio) - Italian painter (1492-1543)
Caldas-Barbosa, Domingo - Brazilian poet (1740-1800)
Calderon de la Barca, Pedro - Spanish dramatist (1600-1681)
Caleb - Six people with this name are described
Calendar, Christian - Includes history and Saint's days
Calendar, Jewish - Details include days, weeks, months, years, and eras
Calendar, Reform of the - Such alterations were too obvious to be ignored, and throughout the Middle Ages many observers both pointed them out and endeavoured to devise a remedy
Calepino, Ambrogio - Italian lexicographer (1440-1510)
Cali, Diocese of - Located in Colombia
Caliari, Paolo - Eminent painter of the Venetian school (1528-1588)
California - Includes history, population, education, resources, and religion
California, Vicariate Apostolic of Lower - Located in Mexico
California Missions - Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California
Callières, Louis-Hector de - Thirteenth Governor of New France (1646-1705)
Callinicus - Titular see of Asia Minor
Callipolis - Titular see of Thrace
Callistus I, Pope - Martyr, d. about 223. Also known as Callixtus or Calixtus
Callistus II, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 13 December, 1124
Callistus III, Pope - Born near Valencia in Spain, 31 December, 1378; died at Rome, 6 August, 1458
Callot, Jacques - French etcher, engraver, and painter (1592-1635)
Cally, Pierre - Philosopher and theologian, b. at Mesnil-Hubert, department of Orne, France, date of birth uncertain; d. 31 December, 1709
Calmet, Dom Augustin - Celebrated exegetist (1672-1757)
Caloe - A titular see of Asia Minor
Caltagirone - A city in the province of Catania, Sicily, built on two eminences about 2000 feet above sea-level, connected by a bridge
Caltanisetta - The city is situated in a fertile plain of Sicily, on the River Salso, in the vicinity of the most extensive sulphur mines in the world
Calumny - Etymologically any form of ruse or fraud employed to deceive another, particularly in judicial proceedings
Calvaert, Dionysius - Painter (1540-1619)
Calvary, Congregation of Our Lady of - A congregation founded at Poitiers, in 1617, by Antoinette of Orleans-Longueville
Calvary, Mount - The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
Calvert, George - First Lord Baltimore, statesman and colonizer (1580-1632)
Calvert, Cecilius - Second Lord Baltimore (1606-1675)
Calvert, Charles - Third Baron of Baltimore, and Second Proprietary Governor of Maryland (1629-1715)
Calvert, Leonard - Governor of Maryland (1607-1647)
Calvert, Philip - Proprietary Governor of Maryland in 1660-1661
Calvi and Teano, Diocese of - The ancient Cales or Calenum in the Campagna, not far from Capua
Calvin, John - Born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564
Calvinism - Calvin succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli's disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians
Calvinus, Justus Baronius - Convert and apologist (1570-1606)
Calynda - A titular see of Asia Minor
Camachus - A titular see in Armenia
Camaldolese - A joint order of hermits and cenobites, founded by St. Romuald at the beginning of the eleventh century
Cámara y Castro, Tomás - Spanish bishop (1847-1904)
Camargo, Diego Muñoz - Born of a Spanish father and Indian mother soon after 1521; died at a very advanced age, the exact date unknown
Cambiaso, Luca - Genoese painter, b. at Moneglia near Genoa, in 1527; d. in the Escorial, Madrid, 1585
Cambrai, Archdiocese of - Comprises the entire Departement du Nord of France
Cambridge, University of - Includes information on history, studies, and buildings
Cambysopolis - Titular see of Asia Minor
Camel, George Joseph - Botanist, born at Brunn, in Moravia, 21 April 1661, died in Manila, 2 May, 1706
Camerino, Diocese of - Situated in the Italian province of Macerata in the Apennines, about 40 miles from Ancona
Camerlengo - The title of certain papal officials
Cameroon - Located in German West Africa, between British Nigeria and French Congo
Camillus de Lellis, Saint - Biographical article on founder of a religious order devoted to care of the sick and dying
Camisards - Eighteenth-century French sect
Camões, Luis Vaz de - Epic poet, born in 1524 or 1525; died 10 June, 1580
Campagna, Girolamo - Sculptor born in Verona, 1552; died about 1623 or 1625
Campagnola, Domenico - Painter of the Venetian school, b. at Padua in 1482; date of death unascertained
Campan, Jeanne-Louise-Henriette - French educator, born 6 November, 1752, at Paris; died in 1822, at Mantes
Campaña, Pedro - Flemish painter, known in France as Pierre de Champagne, and in Brussels as Pieter de Kempeneer (his actual name), or, as translated in Flemish, Van de Velde, b. at Brussels in 1503; d. there in 1580
Campanella, Tommaso - In-depth article on the strange career of the Italian anti-Aristotelian Dominican writer
Campani, Giuseppe - Italian optician and astronomer who lived in Rome during the latter half of the seventeenth century
Campbell, James - American public official (1812-1893)
Campeche - Diocese in the State of Campeche, Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Yucatan
Campeggio, Lorenzo - Cardinal, an eminent canonist, ecclesiastical diplomat, and reformer
Campi, Bernardino - Italian painter of the Lombard School, b. at Cremona, 1522; d. at Reggio, about 1590
Campi, Galeazzo - Italian painter, b. at Cremona, 1475; d. 1536
Campi, Giulio - Italian painter and architect, b. at Cremona about 1500; died there, 1572
Campion, Saint Edmund - English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article
Campo Santo de' Tedeschi - A cemetery, church, and hospice for Germans on the south side of St. Peter's, Rome
Camus de Pont-Carré, Jean-Pierre - French bishop, b. 3 November, 1584, at Paris; d. there 25 April, 1652
Cana - A city of Galilee, Palestine
Canaan, Canaanites - The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person
Canada - Comprises all that part of North America north of the United States, with the exception of Newfoundland, and Labrador
Canada, Catholicity in - Treated under three headings: I. Period of French domination, from the discovery of Canada to the Treaty of Paris, in 1763; II. Period of British rule, from 1763 to the present day; III. Present conditions
Canal, José de la - Ecclesiastical historian
Canary Islands, The - An archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean facing the western coast of Africa
Canatha - A titular see of Arabia
Cancer de Barbastro, Luis - Dominican missionary to the New World (d. 1549)
Candace - Ethiopian queen
Candia - The residence of the Greek Metropolitan of Crete, who has seven suffragan sees, Khania, Kisamos, Rethymnon (Retimo), Sitia, Lampa, Arkadia, and Chersonesos
Candidus - The name of two scholars of the Carlovingian revival of letters in the ninth century
Candle, Paschal - A large wax candle, usually fixed in a great candlestick and featured in the service on Holy Saturday
Candlemas - Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple
Candles - The word candle (candela, from candeo, to burn) was introduced into the English language as an ecclesiastical term, probably as early as the eighth century
Candles, Altar - For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other liturgical functions be made of beeswax
Candlestick, Seven-Branch - One of the three chief furnishings of the Holy of the Tabernacle and the Temple. In reality it was an elaborate lampstand, set on the south side of the Holy Place
Candlestick, Triple - A name given along with several others to a church ornament used only in the office of Holy Saturday
Candlesticks - Provides the history of their use in Christian churches
Candlesticks, Altar - Consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drippings of wax, and the pricket, i.e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed
Canea - Formerly a titular see of Crete, suppressed by a decree of 1894
Canelos and Macas - Vicariate Apostolic in Ecuador, South America
Canes, Vincent - Friar Minor and controversialist, born on the borders of Nottingham and Leicestershire, date uncertain; died in London, June, 1672
Canice, Saint - Irish priest, monastic founder, missionary to Scotland, d. 600
Canisius, Henricus - Canonist and historian, born at Nymwegen in Geldern
Canisius, Peter, Blessed - Long essay on the Dutch Jesuit priest, who died in 1597
Canisius, Theodorich - Born at Nimwegen, Holland, 1532; died 27 September, 1606, at Ingolstadt
Cano, Alonso - Spanish painter, architect, and sculptor (1601-1667)
Cano, Melchior - Article by John R. Volz on the character, teachings, and life of this Dominican bishop and theologian
Canon - Ecclesiastical person
Canon - Musical term, the strictest of all contrapuntal forms
Canoness - The assistance of women in the work of the Church goes back to the earliest time, and their uniting together for community exercises was a natural development of religious worship
Canon of the Mass - Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations
Canon of the Old Testament - Signifies the authoritative list or closed number of the writings composed under Divine inspiration, and destined for the well-being of the Church
Canon of the New Testament - The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history
Canon Law - Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members
Canonical Hours - Essay on the practice of reciting the Divine Office according to set hours
Canonization and Beatification - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis
Canons, Apostolic - A collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions
Canons, Collections of Ancient - Includes authority and methods
Canons, Ecclesiastical - Certain rules or norms of conduct or belief prescribed by the Church
Canons and Canonesses Regular - According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric
Canons, Penitential - Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins.
Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception - A congregation founded in the department of Isere, at Saint-Antoine, France, by the Abbe Dom Adrien Grea
Canopus - A titular see of Egypt
Canopy - An ornamental covering of cloth, stone, wood, or metal, used to crown an altar, throne, pulpit, or statue
Canopy, Altar - The 'Caeremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, 13), treating of the ornaments of the altar, says that a canopy (baldachinum) should be suspended over the altar
Canossa - A former castle of Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, in the foothills of the Apennines
Canova, Antonio - Italian sculptor (1757-1822)
Cantate Sunday - A name given to the fourth Sunday after Easter
Canterbury - The Ancient Diocese of Canterbury was the Mother-Church and Primatial See of All England, from 597 till the death of the last Catholic Archbishop, Cardinal Pole, in 1558
Canticle - Used in the English Catholic translation of the Bible as the equivalent of the Vulgate canticum in most, but not all, of the uses of that word; for where canticum is used for a sacred song
Canticle of Canticles - One of three books of Solomon, contained in the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Christian Canon of the Scriptures
Canticle of Simeon - The Canticle of Simeon found in Luke 2:29-32
Canticle of Zachary - One of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis
Cantius, Saint John - Polish priest, professor of Sacred Scripture, d. 1473
Cantor - The chief singer (and sometimes instructor) of the ecclesiastical choir, called also precentor
Cantù, Cesare - Italian historian and poet, b. at Brivio, 8 December, 1807; d. at Milan, 11 March, 1895
Canute - King of the English, Danes, and Norwegians, b. about 994; d. at Shaftesbury, 12 November 1035
Canute IV, Saint - King of Denmark, martyr, d. 1086
Capaccio and Vallo - Suffragan diocese of Salerno
Capecelatro, Alfonso - Archbishop of Capua (1824-1912)
Capefigue, Baptiste-Honoré-Raymond - Historian, b. at Marseilles, 1802; d. at Paris, 22 December, 1872
Caperolo, Pietro - Friar Minor, date of birth unknown; d. at Velletri in 1480
Capgrave, John - Augustinian friar, historian, and theologian, b. at Lynn in Norfolk, 21 April, 1393
Cap Haïtien - Erected by Pius IX, 3 October, 1861, in the ecclesiastical Province of Port au Prince
Capharnaum - A titular see of Palestine
Capital Punishment - The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime.
Capitolias - A titular see of Palestine, suffragan to Scythopolis in Palestina Secunda
Capitulations, Episcopal and Pontifical - Agreements, by which those taking part in the election of a bishop or pope imposed special conditions upon the candidate to be fulfilled by him after his election
Capocci, Gaetano - Italian composer (1811-1898)
Capponi, Gino, Count - Historian and litterateur; born at Florence, Italy, 13 September, 1792; died 3 February, 1876
Capranica, Domenico - Cardinal, theologian, canonist, and statesman, b. at Capranica near Palestrina, Italy, in 1400; d. at Rome, 14 July, 1458
Caprara, Giovanni Battista - Statesman and cardinal, born at Bologna, 29 May, 1733; died at Paris, 27 July, 1810
Capreolus, John - A theologian, born towards the end of the fourteenth century, (about 1380), in the diocese of Rodez, France; died in that city 6 April, 1444
Capsa - Titular see of North Africa
Captain (in the Bible) - In the Douay version captain represents several different Hebrew and Latin words, and designates both civil and military officers
Captivities of the Israelites - Includes the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman captivities
Capua - Situated in the province of Caserta, Southern Italy
Capuchinesses - A branch of the Poor Clares of the Primitive Observance, instituted at Naples, in 1538, by the Venerable Maria Longo
Capuchin Friars Minor - An autonomous branch of the first Franciscan Order
Capuciati - From caputium, hood - So named from the headgear which was one of their distinctive marks
Caquetá - Apostolic prefecture situated in South America on the southern border of the Republic of Colombia
Carabantes, José de - Friar Minor Capuchin and theologian, born in Aragon, in 1628; died in 1694
Caracalla - Roman Emperor, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, b. 188; d. 217
Caracas - Located in the Republic of Venezuela, a metropolitan see with the Barquisimeto, Calabozo, Guayana, Merida, and Zulia as suffragans
Caraffa, Vincent - Seventh General of the Society of Jesus (1585-1649)
Caraites - A Jewish sect professing to follow the text of the Bible (Miqra) to the exclusion of Rabbinical traditions, and hence opposed to the Talmud
Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Juan - Spanish ecclesiastic and writer (1606-1682)
Caravaggio (Michaelangelo Morigi) - Milanese painter, b. at Caravaggio in 1569, d. at Porto d' Ercole in 1609
Carayon, Auguste - French author and bibliographer (1813-1874)
Carbery, James Joseph - Third Bishop of Hamilton, Ontario (1823-1887)
Carbonari - The name of a secret political society, which played an important part, chiefly in France and Italy, during the first decades of the nineteenth century
Carbonnelle, Ignatius - Professor of mathematics and science (1829-1889)
Carcassonne - Diocese comprising the entire department of Aude, and suffragan to Toulouse
Cardan, Girolamo - Italian physician and mathematician (1501-1576)
Cardenas, Juan - Moral theologian and author (1613-1684)
Cardica - A titular see of Thessaly
Cardinal - A dignitary of the Roman Church and counsellor of the pope
Cardinal Protector - Since the thirteenth century it has been customary at Rome to confide to some particular cardinal a special solicitude in the Roman Curia for the interests of a given religious order or institute, confraternity, church, college, city, or nation
Cardinal Vicar - The vicar-general of the pope, as Bishop of Rome, for the spiritual administration of the city, and its surrounding district, properly known as Vicarius Urbis
Cardinal Virtues - The four principal virtues upon which the rest of the moral virtues turn or are hinged
Cardinals (1913 List) - Members of the College of Cardinals, 1913
Cards, Altar - To assist the memory of the celebrant at Mass in those prayers which he should know by heart, cards on which these prayers are printed are placed on the altar in the middle, and at each end
Carducci, Bartolommeo and Vincenzo - Florentine painters, brothers, usually grouped under the Spanish School
Carem - Name of a town in the Tribe of Juda
Carey, Mathew - Author and publisher, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 28 January, 1760; d. in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 15 September, 1839
Carheil, Etienne de - French missionary among the Indians of Canada, born at Carentoir, France, November 1633; died at Quebec, 27 July, 1726
Cariati - Suffragan of Santa Severina
Caribs - Next to the Arawaks, probably the most numerous Indian stock, of more or less nomadic habits, in South America
Carissimi, Giacomo - Detailing his work in and composition for the Roman Catholic Church
Carli, Dionigi da Piacenza - Seventeenth century Capuchin missionary
Carlisle - The Catholic was smaller in extent than the present Anglican diocese, which was enlarged in 1856
Carlovingian Schools - Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court
Carmel - Designates in the Old Testament a certain city and its adjacent territory in the tribe of Juda
Carmel, Mount - A well-known mountain ridge in Palestine, usually called in the Hebrew Bible Hakkarmel
Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of Mount - This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386
Carmelite Order, The - One of the mendicant orders
Carneiro, Melchior - Missionary bishop (d. 1583)
Carnoy, Jean-Baptiste - Belgian biologist (1836-1899)
Carochi, Horacio - Jesuit missionary to Mexico (1586-1666)
Caroline Books - A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and written about 790-92
Caroline Islands - A group of about 500 small coral islands, east of the Philippines, in the Pacific Ocean
Carolingian Schools - Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court
Caron, Raymond - Franciscan friar and author, b. at Athlone, Ireland, in 1605; d. at Dublin, 1666
Caron, Reneé-Edouard - French Canadian statesman and magistrate (1800-1876)
Carpaccio, Vittore - Venetian painter whose real name was Scarpazza, b. at Venice about 1455; d. in the same city between 1523 and 1526
Carpasia - A titular see of Cyprus. Carpasia, Karpasia, also Karpasion is said to have been founded by King Pygmalion near Cape Sarpedon
Carpets, Altar - The sanctuary and altar-steps of the high altar are ordinarily to be covered with carpets
Carpi - Situated in the province of Modena, Central Italy
Carracci - Italian painter, engraver, and etcher, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1557; d. at Parma, 22 March, 1602
Carranza, Bartolomé - Archbishop of Toledo; b. at Miranda de Arga, Spain, 1503; d. at Rome, 2 May, 1576
Carranza, Diego - Missionary among the Chontal Indians
Carreno de Miranda, Juan - Spanish painter, b. at Aviles in Asturia, 1614; d. at Madrid, 1685
Carrera, Rafael - In 1847 Carrera was, by a kind of election, made President of Guatemala, and seven years later he became dictator, that is, president for life with the right to designate his successor
Carrhae - A titular see of Mesopotamia
Carrière, Joseph - Moral theologian, thirteenth superior of the seminary and Society of Saint-Sulpice (1795-1864)
Carrières, Louis de - Born in the chateau de la Plesse in Avrille, Angers, France, 1 September, 1662; d. at Paris, 11 June 1717
Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton - American statesman (1737-1832)
Carroll, Daniel - Brother of Archbishop Carroll, b. at upper Marlboro, Maryland, U. S. A., 1733; d. at Washington, 1829
Carroll, John - First American bishop (1735-1815)
Cartagena - The city of the same name, residence of the archbishop, is situated on an island to the north of Tierra Bomba, Colombia
Cartagena - Suffragan of Granada in Spain since the concordat of 1851, previously of Toledo
Carter, Venerable William - English printer, martyred in 1584
Carthage, Saint - Also known as Mochuda. Irish monk, priest, hermit, founder. He composed a monastic rule in Irish verse. Died in 637
Carthage - Founded by Phoenician colonists, and long the great opponent of Rome in the duel for supremacy, was destroyed by a Roman army, 146 B.C. A little more than a century later (44 B.C.), a new city composed of Roman colonists was founded on the site
Carthusian Order, The - The name is derived from the French chartreuse through the Latin cartusia, of which the English 'charterhouse' is a corruption
Cartier, Georges-Etienne - French Canadian statesman, son of Jacques Cartier and Marguerite Paradis, b. at St. Antoine, on the Richelieu, 16 Sept., 1814; d. in London 20 May, 1873
Cartier, Jacques - The discoverer of Canada, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, in 1491; d. 1 September, 1557
Carvajal, Bernardino Lopez de - Cardinal, b. 1455, at Plasencia in Estremadura, Spain; d. at Rome 16 Dec., 1523
Carvajal, Gaspar de - Dominican missionary, b. in Estremadura, Spain, c. 1500; d. at Lima, Peru, 1584
Carvajal, Juan - Cardinal; b. about 1400 at Truxillo in Estremadura, Spain; d. at Rome, 6 December, 1469
Carvajal, Luis de - Friar Minor and Tridentine theologian, b. about 1500; the time of his death is uncertain
Carvajal, Luisa de - Born 2 Jan., 1568, at Jaraizejo, Spain; died 2 Jan., 1614, at London, a lady of high birth, who received from God what appears to have been a special vocation to go to England and minister to those who were suffering for the Faith
Carve, Thomas - Historian, b. in Co. Tipperary, Ireland, 1590; d. probably in 1672
Caryll, John - Poet, dramatist, and diplomatist, b. at West Harting, England, 1625; d. 1711
Carystus - A titular see of Greece
Casale Monferatto - A suffragan of Vercelli. Casale Monferrato
Casali, Giovanni Battista - Musician, b. at Rome in 1715; d. there 1792. From 1759 until his death he held the position of choir-master in the church of St. John Lateran
Casanare - Vicariate Apostolic in the Republic of Colombia, South America, administered by the Augustinians, subject to the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs
Casanata, Girolamo - Cardinal, b. at Naples, 13 July, 1620; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1700
Casas, Bartolomé de las - Born at Seville, probably in 1474; d. at Madrid, 1566
Caserta - The capital of the province of that name in Southern Italy
Casey, John - Mathematician, b. at Kilkenny, Ireland, 12 May, 1820; d. at Dublin, 3 Jan, 1891
Casgrain, Henri Raymond - Author of French Canadian literature (1831-1904)
Cashel - A town in the County Tipperary, Ireland, which is also a Catholic archbishopric and the see of a Protestant bishop
Casimir, Saint - Prince of Poland, remained unmarried by choice, d. in 1484 at the age of 25
Casium - A titular see of Lower Egypt
Casot, Jean-Jacques - The last surviving Jesuit of the old Canada mission, born in Liege, Belgium, 4 October, 1728; died at Quebec, 16 March, 1800
Cassander, George - Flemish Humanist and theologian (1513-1566)
Cassani, Joseph - Spanish Jesuit (1673-1686)
Cassano all' Ionio - Suffragan of Reggio
Casserly, Patrick S. - Educator, b. in Ireland; d. in New York, where for many years he conducted a classical school
Cassian, John - Article on the monk and ascetic writer, who attempted to convey the teaching and way of life of the desert fathers and mothers to the fledgling monastic movement in Gaul
Cassidy, William - Journalist, essayist, critic, b. at Albany, New York, U.S.A., 12 Aug., 1815; d. there 23 Jan., 1873
Cassini, Giovanni Domenico - Italian astronomer (1625-1712)
Cassiodorus - Roman writer, statesman, and monk, b. about 490; d. about 583
Casson, François Dollier de - Fourth superior of Saint-Sulpice, Montreal, Canada, b. near Nantes, France, 1636; d. in 1701
Cassovia - Diocese in Hungary, founded in 1804 by the division of the Diocese of Agria, in the archdiocese of the same name, and the Dioceses of Cassovia and Szatmar
Castabala - A titular see of Asia Minor, Latin title suppressed, 1894
Castagno, Andrea - Florentine painter, b. near Florence, 1390; d. at Florence, 9 August, 1457
Castellammare di Stabia - The seat of the diocese is an industrial city, situated on the Bay of Naples, on a slope of Monte Gauro, and famous for its health-giving mineral springs
Castellaneta (Castania) - Suffragan of Taranto
Castellanos, Juan de - Soldier, priest, and epic poet, born in Spain in the first half of the sixteenth century; date of death unknown
Castelli, Benedetto - Mathematician and physicist; b. at Perugia, Italy, 1577; d. at Rome, 1644
Castelli, Pietro - Italian physician and botanist, b. at Rome in 1574; d. at Messina in 1662
Castello, Giovanni Battista - Italian painter, sculptor, and architect; b. at Gandino, in the Valle Seriana, in the territory of Bergamo, in 1509 (some writers state 1500 or 1506); d. at Madrid in 1579
Castiglione, Baldassare - Italian prose-writer, b. at Casatico, near Mantua, 6 December, 1478; died at Toledo, Spain, 7 February, 1529
Castiglione, Carlo Ottavio - Philologist and numismatist, b. of an ancient family at Milan, Italy, 1784; d. at Genoa, 10 April, 1849
Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto - Painter and etcher, b. at Genoa, Italy, 1616; d. at Mantua, 1670
Castile and Aragon - The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon
Castillejo, Cristóbal de - Spanish poet, b. in Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca), 1491; d. in Vienna, 12 June, 1556
Castner, Caspar - Jesuit missionary to China (1655-1709)
Castoria - A titular see of Macedonia
Castracane degli Antelminelli, Francesco - Naturalist, b. at Fano, Italy, 19 July, 1817; d. at Rome 27 March, 1899
Castro, Guigo de - Medieval Carthusian (1083-1137)
Castro, Alphonsus de - Friar Minor and theologian, b. in 1495 at Zamora, Leon, Spain; d. 11 February 1558, at Brussels
Castro Palao, Fernando - Spanish theologian (1581-1633)
Castro y Bellvis, Guillen de - Spanish dramatic poet, b. of a noble family at Valencia in 1569; d. at Madrid in 1631
Casuistry - The application of general principles of morality to definite and concrete cases of human activity, for the purpose, primarily, of determining what one ought to do, or ought not to do, or what one may do or leave undone as one pleases; and for the purpose, secondarily, of deciding whether and to what extent guilt or immunity from guilt follows on an action already posited
Caswall, Edward - Oratorian and poet, b. 15 July 1814, at Yately, Hampshire, of which place his father, the Rev. R. C. Caswall, was vicar; d. at the Oratory, Birmingham, 2 January, 1878
Catacombs, Roman - The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome
Catafalque - Derived from the Italian word catafalco, literally means a scaffold or elevation, but in its strictly liturgical sense the word is employed to designate the cenotaph-like erection which is used at the exequial offices of the Church, and takes the place of the bier whenever the remains are not present
Catalani, Giuseppe - A Roman liturgist of the eighteenth century, member of the Oratory of San Girolamo della Carita (Hieronymite), famous for his correct editions of the chief liturgical books of the Roman Church, which are still in habitual use, and which he enriched with scholarly commentaries illustrative of the history, rubrics, and canon law of the Roman Liturgy
Catalonia - A principality within the Spanish Monarchy
Catania - A seaport and capital of the province of the same name in Sicily, situated on the eastern side of Mount Etna
Catanzaro - Suffragan of Reggio
Catechesis - The word katechesis means instruction by word of mouth, especially by questioning and answering. The Apostle insists upon 'doctrine' as one of the most important duties of a bishop
Catechism, Roman - This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism
Catechumen - In the early Church, was the name applied to one who had not yet been initiated into the sacred mysteries, but was undergoing a course of preparation for that purpose
Categorical Imperative - A term which originated in Immanuel Kant's ethics
Category - The term was transferred by Aristotle from its forensic meaning (procedure in legal accusation) to its logical use as attribution of a subject
Catenæ - Collections of excerpts from the writings of Biblical commentators, especially the Fathers and early ecclesiastical writers, strung together like the links of a chain, and in this way exhibiting a continuous and connected interpretation of a given text of Scripture
Cathari - From the Greek katharos, pure, literally 'puritans', a name specifically applied to, or used by, several sects at various periods
Cathedra - Three uses of the word are detailed
Cathedral - The chief church of a diocese
Cathedraticum - A certain sum of money to be contributed annually for the support of the bishop, as a mark of honour and in sign of subjection to the cathedral church, hence its name
Catherick, Venerable Edmund - Priest and martyr, born probably in Lancashire about 1605; executed at York, 13 April, 1642
Catherine, Monastery of Saint - Situated on Mount Sinai, in a gorge below the Jebel-Musa, the reputed Mountain of the Law
Catherine de' Medici - Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France
Catherine de' Ricci, Saint - Biography of the cloistered Third Order Dominican nun, mystic, who died in 1590
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - Article on the virgin and martyr. In the Middle Ages, one of the most popular saints
Catherine of Bologna, Saint - Short biography of this Poor Clare, mystic, and writer, who died in 1463
Catherine of Genoa, Saint - Biography of the mystic and author, who died in 1510
Catherine of Siena, Saint - Third Order Dominican, hermit, reformer, mystic, d. 1380. Biographical article by Edmund G. Gardner
Catherine of Sweden, Saint - Daughter of St. Bridget of Sweden. Widow, pilgrim, superior of the Brigittine motherhouse, d. 1381. Biographical article
Catholic - The combination 'the Catholic Church' (he katholike ekklesia) is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110
Catholic Benevolent Legion - A fraternal assessment life-insurance society organized in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A., 5 September, 1881
Catholic Club of New York - A social organization described by its constitution as a club which 'shall consist of Catholic gentlemen who are governed by a spirit of devotion to the Church and fidelity to the Holy Father'
Catholic Epistle - The name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter
Catholic Knights of America - A fraternal life-insurance company chartered under the laws of the State of Kentucky, U.S.A. It was founded in Nashville, Tennessee by James J. McLoughlin, D.N. Burke, John Broderick, and John McDonald
Catholic Missionary Union - The corporate name of a society whose directors are chosen from among the bishops of the United States, the seminaries, the parishes and the missionary organizations of that country, its purpose being to engage priests and lay-men as missionaries to non-Catholics in the United States, to provide for their maintenance, to distribute Catholic literature, and in every way to assist the bishops in establishing and carrying on home missions in their various jurisdictions
Catholicos - The ecclesiastical title of the Nestorian and Armenian patriarchs
Catholic University of America - A pontifical institution located in Washington, D.C. It comprises the Schools of the Sacred Sciences, Philosophy, Law, Letters, and Science, each of which includes several departments
Catholic University of Ireland - The project was launched at the Synod of Thurles in 1850
Catrou, François - French historian, b. at Paris, 28 December, 1659; d. there 12 October, 1737
Cattaro - Suffragan of Zara
Cauchy, Augustin-Louis - French mathematician, b. at Paris, 21 August, 1789; d. at Sceaux, 23 May, 1857
Caughnawaga - Also known as Sault St. Louis. An Iroquois reservation, situated on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, about ten miles above Montreal
Caulet, François-Etienne - A French bishop and Jansenist, b. at Toulouse, 1610; d. at Pamiers, 1680
Caunus - A titular see of Asia Minor. Kaunos was said to have been founded by Kaunos, son of Miletos and Kyane, on the southern coast of Caria, opposite Rhodes, and was known as Rhodian Peraea, at the foot of Mount Tarbelos
Cause - Cause, as the correlative of effect, is understood as being that which in any way gives existence to, or contributes towards the existence of, any thing; which produces a result; to which the origin of any thing is to be ascribed
Caussin, Nicolas - French Jesuit preacher and moralist (1583-1651)
Cavagnis, Felice - Canonist, b. in Bordogna, Diocese of Bergamo, Italy, 13 January, 1841; d. at Rome, 29 December, 1906
Cavalieri, Bonaventura - Italian mathematician, b. at Milan in 1598; d. at Bologna, 3 December, 1647
Cavanagh, James - Soldier, b. in County Tipperary, Ireland, 1831; d. in New York, 7 January, 1901
Cavazzi, Giovanni Antonio - Of Montecucolo, a Capuchin friar of the province of Bologna, date of birth uncertain; died at Genoa, 1692
Cavedoni, Celestino - Italian ecclesiastic, archaeologist, and numismatist; b. 18 May, 1795, at Levizzano-Rangone, near Modena; d. 26 November, 1865, at Modena
Cavity, Altar - A small square or oblong chamber in the body of the altar, in which are placed the relics of two canonized martyrs
Cavo, Andres - A writer frequently quoted on Spanish-Mexican history; b. at Guadalajara in Mexico, 21 January, 1729, he entered the Society of Jesus, 14 January, 1758, and went to Italy with the other members of the order after their expulsion from Mexico in 1767
Caxton, William - Born in the Weald of Kent, c. 1422; died at Westminster, 1491; the first English printer and the introducer of the art of printing into England
Cayes - Diocese in the republic of Haiti, suffragan to Port-au-Prince
Cayetano, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines
Caylus, Comte de - French archaeologist, b. at Paris, in 1692; d. in 1765
Cazeau, Charles-Félix - French-Canadian priest (1807-1881)
Ceadda, Saint - Commonly known as St. Chad. Seventh-century bishop of Lichfield
Cebú - Located in the Philippine Islands. Cebu, the diocesan city, spelled also Sebu and Zebu, in the province of the same name
Cecilia, Saint - Virgin and martyr; patroness of church music
Cedar - A coniferous tree frequently mentioned in the Bible
Cedar - The name of the second son of Ismael; also of an Arabian tribe descended from him, and of the territory occupied by it
Cedd, Saint - Brother of St. Chad (Ceadda) and bishop of the East Saxons, d. 664
Cedes - A Levitical city and place of refuge in Nephtali and a Levitical city of Issachar assigned to the family of Gersom
Cedron, Brook of - The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives
Cefalù - The city of the same name in the province of Palermo, in Sicily (Italy), is situated nearly in the centre of the northern coast of the island
Ceillier, Rémi - Patrologist, b. at Bar-le-Duc, 14 May, 1688; d. at Flavigny, 26 May, 1763
Celebret - A letter which a bishop gives to a priest, that he may obtain permission in another diocese to say Mass, and for this purpose bears testimony that he is free from canonical censures
Celenderis - A port and fortress in Isauria, founded by the Phoenicians or, according to legend, by Sandacos, son of Astynooes and grandson of Phaethon
Celestine I, Pope Saint - Excommunicated Nestorius, sent St. Patrick to Ireland, d. 432
Celestine II, Pope - Reigned 1143-1144
Celestine III, Pope - The first Orsini pope (b. 1106) who reigned 1191-1198
Celestine IV, Pope - Reigned October-November 1241
Celestine V, Pope Saint - Benedictine priest and hermit, d. 1296
Celestine Order - Also called the Hermits of St. Damian or Hermits of Murrone
Celestines - The name given to certain extreme 'Spiritual' Franciscans of the Marches, because they were taken by Celestine V under his special protection
Celibacy of the Clergy - The renunciation of marriage implicitly or explicitly made, for the more perfect observance of chastity, by all those who receive the Sacrament of Orders in any of the higher grades
Cella - One of the names by which the small memorial chapels sometimes erected in the Christian cemeteries of the first age were known
Cellier, Elizabeth - A noted London midwife, who came into prominence through the pretended 'Meal-Tub Plot' of 1680
Cellites - A religious institute which had its origin at Mechlin, in Brabant, in the fifteenth century, during the ravages of the 'black death.'
Celsus and Nazarius, Saints - Roman martyrs of the Diocletian persecution
Celsus the Platonist - An eclectic Platonist and polemical writer against Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the second century
Celtes, Conrad - German Humanist, b. at Wipfeld in Lower Franconia, 1 February, 1459; d. at Vienna, 4 February, 1508
Celtic Rite, The - The term 'Celtic Rite' is generally, but rather indefinitely, applied to the various rites in use in Great Britain, Ireland, perhaps in Brittany, and sporadically in Northern Spain, and in the monasteries which resulted from the Irish missions of St. Columbanus in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, at a time when rites other than the then existing rite of Rome were used, wholly or partially, in those places
Cemeteries - The word coemeterium or cimiterium (in Gr. koimeterion) may be said in early literature to be used exclusively of the burial places of Jews and Christians
Cemeteries in Law - Includes information concerning the laws in the United States and Canada
Cemeteries, Early Roman Christian - This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome
Cenacle, Religious of the - The Society of Our Lady of the Cenacle was founded in 1826, at La Louvesc in France, near the tomb of St. John Francis Regis
Cenalis, Robert - Bishop, historian, and controversialist, b. in Paris, 1483; d. there, 1560
Ceneda - Situated in the province of Treviso, in former Venetian territory, on a declivity of the Rhaetian Alps
Censer - A vessel suspended by chains, and used for burning incense at solemn Mass, Vespers, Benediction, processions, and other important offices of the Church
Censorship of Books - Either ecclesiastical or civil, according as it is practiced by the spiritual or secular authority, and it may be exercised in two ways, viz.: before the printing or publishing of a work, by examining it (censura praevia); and after the printing or publishing, by repressing or prohibiting it (censura repressiva)
Censures, Ecclesiastical - Medicinal and spiritual punishments imposed by the Church on a baptized, delinquent, and contumacious person, by which he is deprived, either wholly of in part, of the use of certain spiritual goods, until he recover from his contumacy
Censures, Theological - Doctrinal judgments by which the Church stigmatizes certain teachings detrimental to faith or morals
Census - A canonical term variously defined by different writers
Central Verein of North America, German Roman Catholic - The origin dates back to 1854, in which year the presidents of three German Catholic benevolent societies of Buffalo, new York, issued a call to various German Catholic societies for the purpose for forming a central body
Centre (Party), The - This name is given to a political party in the German Reichstag and to a number of parties in the diets of the various states of the German Empire
Centuriators of Magdeburg - A group of Lutheran scholars who had gathered at Magdeburg, and who are now known to history as the 'Centuriators of Magdeburg' because of the way in which they divided their work (century by century) and the place in which the first five volumes were written
Centurion - A Roman officer commanding a century or company, the strength of which varied from fifty to one hundred men
Ceolfrid, Saint - Anglo-Saxon Benedictine, abbot of Wearmouth and Jarrow, d. 716
Ceolwulf - King of Northumbria and monk of Lindisfarne, date and place of birth not known; died at Lindisfarne, 764
Cepeda, Francisco - A very active missionary among the Indians, born in the province of La Mancha, 1532; died at Guatemala, 1602
Ceramus - A titular see of Asia Minor
Cerasus - A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus in Asia Minor
Ceremonial - The book which contains in detail the order of religious ceremony and solemn worship prescribed to be observed in ecclesiastical functions
Ceremony - In liturgy, an external action, gesture, or movement which accompanies the prayers and public exercise of divine worship
Cerinthus - A Gnostic-Ebionite heretic, contemporary with St. John; against whose errors on the divinity of Christ the Apostle is said to have written the Fourth Gospel
Certitude - The word indicates both a state of mind and a quality of a proposition, according as we say, 'I am certain', or, 'It is certain'
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de - Spanish author (1547-1616)
Cervantes, Salazar Francisco - One of the first professors of the University of Mexico, born at Toledo, Spain, probably in 1513 or 1514; went to Mexico in 1550; died there in 1575
Cervia - Suffragan of Ravenna
Cesalpino, Andrea - Article by Joseph Rompel dwells upon Cesalpino's botanical accomplishments as well as his philosophical positions
Cesarini, Giuliano - Born at Rome, 1398; died at Varna, in Bulgaria 10 November, 1444
Cesena - The ancient Caesena is a city of Emilia, in the province of Forli (Italy), in the former States of the Church
Ceslaus, Saint - Polish Dominican, d. about 1242
Cestra - Titular see of Asia Minor
Ceva, Thomas - Mathematician (1648-1737)
Ceylon - An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge
Chabanel, Noel - Biographical profile of the Jesuit missionary and martyr
Chachapoyas - Diocese in Peru
Chad, Saint - Commonly known as St. Chad. Seventh-century bishop of Lichfield
Chadwick, James - Irish bishop (1813-1882)
Chaignon, Pierre - French Jesuit (1791-1883)
Chair of Peter - From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City
Chalcedon - A titular see of Asia Minor. The city was founded 676 B.C. by the Megarians on the Bithynian coast, opposite the place where a little later Byzantium rose
Chalcedon, Council of - The Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in 451, from 8 October until 1 November inclusive, at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor
Chaldean Christians - The name of former Nestorians now reunited with the Roman Church
Chalice - Occupies the first place among sacred vessels, and by a figure of speech the material cup is often used as if it were synonymous with the Precious Blood itself
Challoner, Richard - Bishop of Debra, Vicar Apostolic of the London District, author of spiritual and controversial works, b. 29 Sept., 1691; d. 12 Jan., 1781
Châlons-sur-Marne - The Diocese comprises the department of Marne, exclusive of the arrondissement of Reims
Cham, Chamites - Son of Noe and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ethnographical table is given by Genesis 10
Chambéry - In 1467, in the ducal chapel built for the Holy Winding-Sheet (Santo Sudario) by Amadeus IX, duke of Savoy, and the Duchess Yolande of France, Paul II erected a chapter directly subject to the Holy See, and his successor Sixtus IV, united this chapter with the deanery of Savoy
Chamberlain - The title of certain papal officials
Champlain, Samuel de - Founder of Quebec (1570-1635)
Champney, Anthony - Controversialist (1569-1643)
Champollion, Jean-François - A biography of the French Orientalist renowned for deciphering hieroglyphics through the triple inscription on the Rosetta Stone
Champs, Etienne Agard de - Theologian and author (1613-1701)
Chanaan, Chanaanites - The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person
Chanca, Diego Alvarez - A physician-in-ordinary to Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile and Aragon; dates of birth and death uncertain
Chancel - Part of the choir near the altar of a church, where the deacons or sub-deacons stand to assist the officiating priest
Chancery, Diocesan - That branch of administration which handles all written documents used in the official government of a diocese
Chanel, Peter-Louis-Marie, Saint - Two articles on the French Marist missionary. Martyred in 1841
Changanacherry - Vicariate Apostolic in Travancore, India
Chant, Gregorian - Short description and history, with links to more information
Chant, Plain - Description and history of the precursor to Gregorian chant
Chantal, Saint Jane Frances de - Biography of the widowed baroness, mother, founder of the Congregation of the Visitation, who died in 1641
Chantelou, Claude - Patristic scholar, born in 1617, at Vion, in the present Diocese of Le Mans, France; died 28 November, 1664, at the Monastery of Saint-Germain-des-Pres in Paris
Chantry - The endowment of one or more priests to say or sing Mass for the soul of the endower, or for the souls of persons named by him, and also, in the greater number of cases, to perform certain other offices, such as those of choir member in a collegiate church or cathedral, or of curate in outlying districts, or of chaplain in hospitals and jails, or of schoolmaster or librarian
Chapeauville, Jean - Belgian theologian and historian, b. at Liege, 5 January, 1551; d. there 11 May 1617
Chapel - When St. Martin divided his military cloak (cappa) and gave half to the beggar at the gate of Amiens, he wrapped the other half round his shoulders, thus making of it a cape (capella). This cape, or its representative, was afterwards preserved as a relic and accompanied the Frankish kings in their wars, and the tent which sheltered it became known also as cappella or capella. In this tent Mass was celebrated by the military chaplains (capellani). When at rest in the palace the relic likewise gave its name to the oratory where it was kept, and subsequently any oratory where Mass and Divine service were celebrated was called capella, chapelle, chapel
Chapelle, Placide-Louis - Archbishop of New Orleans, U.S.A., b. at Runes Lozere, France, 28 August, 1842; d. at New Orleans, 9 August, 1905
Chaplain - Discusses the types including court, beneficed, parochial, domestic, pontifical, and military
Chaplets (Prayer Beads) - Essay on chaplets, rosaries, prayer ropes, prayer cords. Brief treatment of the use of beads in prayer by non-Christians
Chaptal, Jean-Antoine - Comte de Chanteloup, technical chemist and statesman; b. Nogaret, Lozere, France, 4 June, 1756; d. Paris, 30 July, 1832
Chapter - Designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies, said to be derived from the chapter of the rule book, which it was the custom to read in the assemblies of monks
Chapter House - A building attached to a monastery or cathedral in which the meetings of the chapter are held
Chapter and Conventual Mass - A conventual Mass sung or said in all cathedrals and collegiate churches that have a chapter; in this case it is often called the 'chapter' Mass
Character - A consideration of the term as it is used in psychology and ethics
Character, Sacramental - Indicates a special effect produced by three of the sacraments, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy orders
Charadrus - A titular see of Asia Minor
Chardon, Jean-Baptiste - Indian missionary in Canada, and in the Louisiana territory, born at Bordeaux, France, 27 April, 1672; died at Quebec, 11 April, 1743
Chardon, Mathias - A learned French Benedictine of the Congregation of the Saint-Vannes, b. at Yvoi-Varignan in the present department of Ardennes, France, 22 September, 1695; d. at the monastery of St-Arnold in Metz, 21 October, 1771
Charette de la Contrie, Baron Athanase-Charles-Marie - French monarchist (1832-1911)
Chariopolis - A titular see of Thrace
Charismata - The spiritual graces and qualifications granted to every Christian to perform his task in the Church
Charitable Bequests, Civil Law Concerning - A charity, in the legal sense of the term, may be defined as a gift to be applied consistently with existing laws, for the benefit of an indefinite number of persons, either by bringing their minds or hearts under the influence of education or religion, by relieving their bodies from disease, suffering, or constraint, by assisting them to establish themselves in life, or by erecting and maintaining public buildings or works or otherwise lessening the burdens of the government
Charity and Charities - In its widest and highest sense, charity includes love of God as well as love of man
Charity, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13:13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God
Charity, Congregation of the Brothers of - Founded in Belgium, the rule and constitutions were approved and confirmed by Pope Leo XIII, 4 July, 1899
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul - A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul (New York) - Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul founded earlier
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Elizabeth - A community founded at Newark, in 1859, by Mother Mary Xavier Mehegan, who for twelve years previously had been a member of the Sisters of Charity, of St. Vincent de Paul in New York
Charity, Sisters of, (St. John, New Brunswick) - Founded in 1854 by Bishop, subsequently Archbishop, Connolly
Charity, Sisters of, of the Blessed Virgin Mary - A congregation begun by five young women in Dublin, Ireland, 8 December, 1831, with the purpose of devoting themselves to the service of God in the education of children
Charity, Sisters of, of Providence - More accurately, Daughters of Charity, Servants of the Poor, founded in Montreal, Canada, by Bishop Bourget and Madame Jean Baptiste Gamelin (Marie Emelie Eugenie Tavernier), 25 March, 1843
Charity, Sisters of, of Jesus and Mary - A congregation founded in 1803 by Canon Triest, who was known as 'the St. Vincent de Paul of Belgium', for he was the founder as well of the Brothers of St. John of God, and the Sisters of the Infant Jesus
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Louis - Founded at Vannes in Brittany, in 1803, by Madame Mole, nee de Lamoignan, for the education of poor girls, at the suggestion of Bishop de Pancemont, of Vannes, who was her director
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Paul - These sisters who now add 'Of Chartres' to their title to distinguish them from another congregation of the same name, were founded at Chartres in 1704 by Monsignor Marechaut, a theologian of the Cathedral of Chartres, assisted by Mlle de Tilly and Mlle de Tronche
Charity, Sisters of, of Our Lady Mother of Mercy - A congregation founded in Holland in 1832 by the Rev. John Zwijsen, pastor of Tilburg, aided by Mary M. Leijsen, for the instruction of children and the betterment of a people deprived of spiritual aid by the disastrous effects of the Reformation
Charity, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Cor., xiii, 13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God
Charlemagne - Biography of the emperor covering his political, military, and religious entanglements
Charlemagne and Church Music - Charlemagne's interest in church music and solicitude for its propagation and adequate performance throughout his empire, have never been equalled by any civil ruler either before or since his time
Charles V, Emperor - Born at Ghent, 1500; died at Yuste, in Spain, 1558; was a descendant of the house of Hapsburg, and to this descent owed his sovereignty over so many lands that it was said of him that the sun never set on his dominions
Charles Borromeo, Saint - Biographical article on the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal, a leading light of the Catholic Reformation
Charles Martel - French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741
Charleston - The Diocese of Charleston (Carolopolitana) comprises the entire state of South Carolina, U.S.A
Charlevoix, François-Xavier - Historian, b. at St-Quentin, France, 24 October, 1682, d. at La Fleche, 1 February, 1761
Charlottetown - Diocese includes all Prince Edward Island (formerly called St. John's Island), the smallest province of the dominion of Canada
Charpentier, François-Philippe - French engraver, inventor, and mechanician, b. at Blois, 1734; d. there 22 July, 1817
Charron, Pierre - Article by Charles B. Schrantz notes this French thinker's impact and the regrettable superficiality of his thought
Charterhouse - From the fact that St. Bruno founded the first house of his austere order at Chartreux, near Grenoble, the institution has ever since been known by the name of that place
Chartier, Alain - French poet (1390-1440)
Chartres - Diocese in France. Comprises the department of Eure-et-Loir
Chartreuse, La Grande - The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine
Chartulary - A medieval manuscript volume or roll (rotulus) containing transcriptions of original documents relating to the foundation, privileges, and legal rights of ecclesiastical establishments, municipal corporations, industrial associations, institutions of learning, and private families
Chastel, Guigues du - Medieval Carthusian (1083-1137)
Chastellain, Georges - Burgundian chronicler, born in the County of Alost, Flanders, in 1403; died at Valenciennes in 1475
Chastellain, Pierre - Missionary among the Huron Indians, born at Senlis, France, in 1606; died at Quebec, 14 August, 1684
Chastity - The virtue which excludes or moderates the indulgence of the sexual appetite
Chasuble - Called in Latin casula planeta or paenula, and in early Gallic sources amphibalus, the principal and most conspicuous Mass vestment, covering all the rest
Chateaubriand, François-René - French writer, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, 4 September, 1768; d. at Paris, 4 July, 1848
Chatham - The Diocese comprises the northern half of the Province of New Brunswick, Canada, i.e., the counties of Gloucester, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Victoria, and the part of Kent north of the Richibucto River
Chaucer, Geoffrey - Summary of the author's life and literary contributions
Chaumonot, Pierre-Joseph - Jesuit missionary in North America (1611-1693)
Chauncy, Maurice - Prior of the English Carthusians at Bruges (d. 1581)
Chauveau, Pierre-Joseph-Octave - Canadian statesman (1820-1890)
Chelm and Belz - A diocese of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite in Russian Poland, subject directly to the Holy See, and formerly a suffragan of Kiijow
Cheminais de Montaigu, Timoléon - Pulpit orator (1652-1689)
Cherokee Indians - The largest and most important tribe of Iroquoian stock of the southern section of the United States, and formerly holding the whole southern Alleghany mountain region of North and South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee, with considerable portions of Alabama, Virginia and Kentucky
Chersonesus - The name for both a titular see of Crete and a titular see of Thrace, and suffragan to Heracleia
Cherubim - Angelic beings or symbolic representations thereof, mentioned frequently in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament
Cherubini, Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore - Article with biographical details emphasizing religious music and his time away from its composition
Chester - Located in England. Though the See of Chester, schismatically created by Henry VIII in 1541, was recognized by the Holy See only for the short space of Queen Mary's reign, the city had in earlier times possessed a bishop and a cathedral, though only intermittently
Cheverus, Jean-Louis Lefebvre de - First Bishop of Boston, U.S.A., Bishop of Montauban; Archbishop of Bordeaux, France, and Cardinal, b. at Mayenne, France, 28 January, 1768; d. at Bordeaux 19 July, 1836
Chevreul, Michel-Eugène - Chemist, physicist, and philosopher, b. at Angers, France, 31 August, 1786; d. at Paris, 9 April, 1889
Cheyenne - Diocese established 9 August, 1887
Chézy, Antoine-Léonard - French Orientalist (1773-1832)
Chiabrera, Gabriello - Italian poet (1552-1638)
Chiapas - The Diocese comprises almost the entire state of that name in the Republic of Mexico. San Cristobal Las Casas, formerly called Ciudad Real, is the episcopal seat, and is the principal city of the state
Chiavari - Suffragan of Genoa. A city of the province of Genoa in Northern Italy, situated on a little bay of the Gulf of Genoa
Chibchas - In the beginning of the sixteenth century they occupied what is now the departments of Boyaca and Cundinamarca with, possible, a few outlying settlements
Chicago, Archdiocese of - Diocese created 28 November, 1842; raised to the rank of an archdiocese, 10 September, 1880
Chichele, Henry - Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, England, 1362; d. at Oxford, 12 April, 1441
Chichester - Ancient Catholic Diocese. This see took its rise in consequence of the decree passed at the Council of London in 1075, requiring all bishoprics to be removed from villages to towns
Chicoutimi - Diocese created, 28 May, 1878, a part of the civil and ecclesiastical Province of Quebec
Chieregati, Francesco - Papal nuncio, b. at Vicenza, 1479; d. at Bologna, 6 December, 1539
Chieti - Archdiocese with the perpetual administration of Vasto
Chihuahua - Diocese in the north of Mexico, comprises the state of Chihuahua
Chilapa - Diocese suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico, comprises the state of Guerrero, in the south of Mexico
Children of Mary - The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast
Children of Mary of the Sacred Heart, The - A Sodality of the Blessed Virgin, founded by Mother Barat of the Society of the Sacred Heart, in the Parish school about 1818, almost simultaneously with the convent itself
Chile - A comparatively narrow strip of coast-land in South America between the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Andes Mountains on the east, including the watershed
Chimalpain, Domingo (San Anton y Muñon) - A Mexican Indian of the second half of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth centuries, who received a liberal education in the colleges for Indians of Mexico City under the direction of the clergy
China - Includes history, government, education, and religion
China, The Church in - The introduction of Christianity into China has been ascribed not only to the Apostle of India, St. Thomas, but also to St. Bartholomew
China, History of - Discusses the origin of the Chinese
China, Martyrs in - With the revival of the missions in China with Matteo Ricci, who died at Peking in 1610, the blood of martyrs was soon shed to fertilize the evangelical field; the change of the Ming dynasty to the Manchu dynasty, giving occasion for new prosecution
Chinooks - An aboriginal tribe of the extreme northwest of the United States
Chioggia (Chiozza) - A sea-coast city in the province of Venice. In antiquity it was known as Fossa Clodia; in the Middle Ages as Clugia
Chios - One of the Sporades in the Aegean Sea
Chippewa Indians - The popular name is a corruption of Ojibwa, a name of uncertain etymology, but generally supposed to refer to the 'puckered up' appearance of the seam along the front of the tribal moccasin
Chi-Rho (Labarum) - The name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his celebrated vision (Lactantius, 'De mortibus persecutorum', 44), was known in antiquity
Chiusi-Pienza - Suffragan of Siena
Chivalry - Considered from three points of view: the military, the social, and the religious
Choctaw Indians - An important tribe or confederacy of Muskogean stock formerly holding most of Southern Alabama and Mississippi, with adjoining portions of Louisiana
Choir - Church architecture term. Strictly speaking, the choir is that part of the church where the stalls of the clergy are
Choir - A body of singers entrusted with the musical parts of the Church service, and organized and instructed for that purpose
Choiseul, Etienne-François, Duc de - French statesman, b. 28 June, 1719; d. in Paris 8 May, 1785
Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Gilbert - French bishop, b. 1613; d. at Paris, 31 December, 1689
Cholonec, Pierre - French missionary to Canadian Indians (1641-1723)
Chorepiscopi - A name originally given in the Eastern Church to bishops whose jurisdiction was confined to rural districts
Choron, Alexandre-Etienne - French musician and teacher of music (1772-1834)
Chrism - A mixture of oil of olives and balsam, blessed by a bishop in a special manner and used in the administration of certain sacraments and in the performance of certain ecclesiastical functions
Chrismal, Chrismatory - Formerly used to designate the sheath, or cloth-covering (theca) in which relics were wrapped up
Chrismarium - A place in a church set apart for the administration of confirmation
Christ, Jesus - The incarnate Son of God and the redeemer of the human race
Christ, Agony of - The word is used only once in Sacred Scripture (Luke 22:43) to designate the anguish of Our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemani
Christ, Character of - The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most varied type
Christ, Chronology of the Life of - Includes absolute and relative chronologies
Christ, Early Historical Documents on - Divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources
Christ, Genealogy of - Offers the genealogy according to Saint Matthew and Saint Luke
Christ, Holy Name of - Article examines the name Jesus and Christ separately
Christ, Knowledge of - 'Knowledge of Jesus Christ,' as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know about Jesus Christ, but a survey of the intellectual endowment of Christ
Christ, Order of the Knights of - A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple
Christ, Temptation of - Christ endured temptation only from without, inasmuch as His human nature was free from all concupiscence
Christ, Virgin Birth of - The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son
Christchurch - Its centre being Christchurch, the Capital of Canterbury, New Zealand. Diocese comprises the provinces of Canterbury and Westland, a small portion of the Province of Nelson, and the Chatham Islands
Christendom - In its wider sense this term is used to describe the part of the world which is inhabited by Christians
Christendom, Union of - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it
Christian - First Bishop of Prussia, d. 1245
Christian Archæology - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments
Christian Art - Also called ecclesiastical art
Christian Brothers - A society of male religious approved by the Church, but not taking Holy orders, and having for its object the personal sanctification of its members and the Christian education of youth, especially of the children of artisans and the poor
Christian Brothers of Ireland - An institute founded at Waterford, Ireland, in 1802, by Edmund Ignatius Rice, a merchant of that city
Christian Charity, Sisters of - Also called Daughters of the Immaculate Conception, an institute for teaching poor schools and for the care of the blind, founded at Paderborn, Germany, on August, 1849, by Pauline von Mallinckrodt (b. 3 June, 1817, at Minden, Westphalia; d. 30 April, 1881), sister to the famous Hermann von Mallinckrodt
Christian Doctrine, Confraternity of - An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction
Christian Instruction, Brothers of - A congregation founded in 1817 at Saint-Brieuc, Cotes-du-Nord, France, by Jean-Marie-Robert de la Mennais (b. 1780; d. 1860), for the instruction of youth
Christianity - An account is given of Christianity as a religion, describing its origin, its relation to other religions, its essential nature and chief characteristics, but not dealing with its doctrines in detail nor its history as a visible organization
Christian Knowledge, Society for Promoting - A society within the Church of England
Christian Retreat, Congregation of - There are two branches of this congregation, the Fathers of Christian Retreat and the Sisters. It was founded on the 19th of November, 1789, at Fontenelle, Doubs, France, by Father Antoine-Silvestre Receveur, who was declared Venerable in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII
Christina Alexandra - Queen of Sweden. Biographical article by P. Wittman
Christine de Pisan - Biography, including a list of her major poetic and historical works
Christine of Stommeln, Blessed - A visionary at a very early age, became a Beguine, d. 1312
Christmas - Provides a detailed overview of the holiday from the fourth century through the modern age. Includes links to related topics
Christology - Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ
Christopher, Saint - Article on this martyr, probably of the third century. Although Christopher has been a center of popular legend since the sixth century, all that can be known for certain is that he was a great martyr
Christopher, Pope - Reigned 903-904
Christopher Numar of Forli - Minister General of the Friars Minor and cardinal (d. 1528)
Chrodegang, Saint - Bishop of Metz, d. 766
Chromatius, Saint - Bishop of Aquileia, anti-Arian theologian, tried to reconcile Rufinus and Jerome, d. 406 or 407
Chronicle of Eusebius - Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the 'Chronograph' or 'Chronographies'; the second he terms the 'Canon', or 'Canons', and also the 'Chronological Canons'
Chronicon Paschale - The name ordinarily given to a valuable Byzantine chronicle of the world written in the seventh century, so designated because, like many other chronicles of the Middle Ages, it follows a system of Christian chronology based on the paschal canon, or cycle
Chronicles (Paralipomenon), Books of - Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity.
Chronology, Biblical - Deals with the dates of the various events recorded in the Bible
Chronology, General - Mathematical chronology determines the units to be employed in measuring time, and historical chronology which fixes in the general course of time the position of any particular occurrence, or, as it is generally termed, its date
Chrysanthus and Daria, Saints - Martyrs at Rome, perhaps in 283 or 284
Chrysogonus, Saint - Martyr at Aquileia, probably during the Diocletian persecution
Chrysopolis - A titular see of Roman Arabia
Chrysostom, Saint John - Long biographical article on this bishop and Doctor of the Church
Chur - Comprises at present the Swiss Cantons of Graubuenden (Grisons), Glarus, Zuerich, Unterwalden, and Uri, as well as the little Principality of Lichtenstein
Church, The - The term church is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which the New Testament writers denote the society founded by Jesus Christ
Church and State - The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all the necessary and sufficient means thereto
Churching of Women - A blessing given by the Church to mothers after recovery from childbirth
Church Maintenance - The proper support of church edifices and church institutions
Chusai - The Arachite, i.e. the native of Archi, a place south of the portion of Ephraim, near Bethel
Chysoloras, Manuel - First teacher of Greek in Italy, born at Constantinople about the middle of the fourteenth century; died at Constance, German, and was buried there, 15 April, 1415
Chytri - A titular see of Cyprus
Ciampini, Giovanni Giustino - Ecclesiastical archaeologist (1633-1698)
Ciasca, Agostino - Italian Augustinian and cardinal (1835-1902)
Ciborium - A chalice-like vessel used to contain the Blessed Sacrament
Cibot, Pierre-Martial - Missionary, born at Limoges, France, 14 August, 1727; died at Peking, China, 8 August, 1780
Ciboule, Robert - French theologian and moralist (d. 1458)
Cibyra - A titular see of Caria, in Asia Minor. Kibyra, later Kibyrrha, had been founded by the Lycian district inhabited by the Solymi
Ciccione, Andrea - Fifteenth-century Italian sculptor and architect
Cicognara, Leopoldo, Count - Politician, writer on art (1767-1834)
Cid, El - Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen
Cidyessus - A titular see of Asia Minor
Cienfuegos - The Diocese of Cienfuegos (Centumfocensis), includes all the Province of Santa Clara in the central part of Cuba
Cignani Family - Carlo, Felice, and Paolo, Bolognese painters
Cimabue, Cenni di Pepo - Florentine painter (1240-1301)
Cima da Conegliano, Giovanni Battista - Venetian painter (1459-1517)
Cimbebasia - The name given for a long time to the western part of Southern Africa
Cincinnati - Archdiocese in the state of Ohio
Cincture - More commonly called in England, the girdle is an article of liturgical attire which has been recognized as such since the ninth century
Cinites - A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as Qayin from which the nomen gentilicium Qeni is derived
Cinna - A titular see of Asia Minor
Circesium - A titular see of Osrhoene
Circumcision - The Hebrew word, like the Greek (peritome), and the Latin (circumcisio), signifies a cutting and, specifically, the removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, from the penis
Circumcision, Feast of the - As Christ wished to fulfil the law and to show His descent according to the flesh from Abraham. He, though not bound by the law, was circumcised on the eighth day (Luke 2:21), and received the sublime name expressive of His office, Jesus, i.e. Saviour
Cisalpine Club - An association of Catholic laymen formed in England to perpetuate the movement which had found expression in the 'Declaration and Protestation' signed by the Catholic body in 1789
Cisamus - Titular see of Crete
Cistercians - Religious of the Order of Citeaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Citeaux in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, for the purpose of restoring as far as possible the literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict
Cistercian Sisters - The first Cistercian monastery for women was established at Tart in the Diocese of Langres (now Dijon), in the year 1125, by sisters from the Benedictine monastery of Juilly, and with the co-operation of St. Stephen Harding, Abbot of Citeaux
Cistercians in the British Isles - St. Stephen Harding, third Abbot of Citeaux (1109-33), was an Englishman and his influence in the early organization of the Cistercian Order had been very great. It was natural therefore that, when, after the coming of St. Bernard and his companions in 1113, foundations began to multiply, the project of sending a colony of monks to England should find favourable consideration
Cîteaux, Abbey of - Founded in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme, in a deserted and uninhabited part of the Diocese of Chalons-sur Saone
Citation - A legal act through which a person, by mandate of the judge, is called before the tribunal for trial
Citharizum - A titular see of Armenia
Città della Pieve, Diocese of - A city of obscure origin in the province of Perugia in Umbria, Central Italy
Città di Castello, Diocese of - A town in the province of Perugia, in Umbria, Central Italy
Ciudad Real - Bishopric-Priorate of the Military Orders of Spain, directly subject to the Holy See
Ciudad Rodrigo - Suffragan of the Diocese of Santiago; comprises the greater part of the province of Salamanca, and a portion of the province of Caceres
Cius - A titular see of Asia Minor
Civil Allegiance - The duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen
Civil Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members
Civil Marriage - The municipal law deals with this status only as a civil institution
Cività Castellana, Orte, and Gallese - A town in the Province of Rome, on the Treia
Civitavecchia and Corneto, Diocese of - An important and fortified Mediterranean seaport, in the province of Rome
Clairvaux, Abbey of - The third daughter of Citeaux and mother in the fourth line of numerous and celebrated monasteries, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, in a deep valley upon the bank of the Aube, and known as the Vallee d'Absinthe
Clandestinity (in Canon Law) - Strictly speaking, clandestinity signifies a matrimonial impediment introduced by the Council of Trent to invalidate marriages contracted at variance with the exigencies of the decree 'Tametsi', commonly so called because the first word of the Latin text is tametsi
Clare of Assisi, Saint - Cofounded the 'Poor Clares' with St. Francis. She died in 1253
Clare of Montefalco, Saint - Abbess, claimed by both the Franciscans and the Augustinians, d. 1308
Clare of Rimini, Blessed - Widow, penitent, Poor Clare, superior of the convent at Rimini, contemplative, d. 1346
Claret y Clará, Saint Antonio María - Spanish priest and missionary, founder of the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (better known as the Claretians), d. 1870
Clark, William - English priest, date of birth unknown, executed at Winchester, 29 Nov., 1603
Claude de la Colombière, Saint - Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682
Claudia - A Christian woman of Rome, whose greeting to Timothy St. Paul conveys with those of Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, 'and all the brethren'
Claudianus Mamertus - Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne, d. about 473
Claudiopolis - Titular see in Asia Minor
Claudiopolis - A titular see of Bithynia, in Asia Minor
Claver, Saint Peter - Biography of the Spanish Jesuit priest who for 33 years ministered to African slaves in the New World, and tried to stop the slave trade. Died in 1654
Clavigero, Francisco Saverio - Mexican Jesuit (1731-1787)
Clavius, Christopher - Mathematician and astronomer (1538-1612)
Clavius, Claudius - Danish cartographer (b. 1388)
Clayton, James - Priest, confessor of the faith, b. at Sheffield, England, date of birth not know; d. a prisoner in Derby gaol, 22 July, 1588
Clazomenae - Titular see of Asia Minor
Clean and Unclean - The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral
Cleef, Jan van - Flemish painter (1646-1716)
Cleef, Joost van - Flemish painter (1520-1556)
Cleef, Martin van - Flemish painter (1520-1570)
Clémanges, Mathieu-Nicolas Poillevillain de - French Humanist and theologian, b. in Champagne about 1360; d. at Paris between 1434 and 1440
Clémencet, Charles - Benedictine historian, b. at Painblanc, in the department of Cote-d'Or, France, 1703; d. at Paris, 5 August, 1778
Clemens, Franz Jacob - German Catholic philosopher, b. 4 October, 1815, at Coblenz; d. 24 February, 1862, at Rome
Clemens non Papa - Composer (d. 1558)
Clement I, Pope Saint - Lengthy article on Clement I, also called Clemens Romanus, the fourth pope and the first of the Apostolic Fathers
Clement II, Pope - Reigned 1046-47
Clement III, Pope - Reigned 1187-1191
Clement IV, Pope - Reigned 1265-68
Clement V, Pope - Reigned 1305-14
Clement VI, Pope - Born 1291 in the castle of Maumont, departmentof Correze, France, elected pope, 7 May, 1342, at Avignon, where he died 6 December, 1352
Clement VII, Pope - Reigned 1523-34
Clement VIII, Pope - Reigned 1592-1605
Clement IX, Pope - Reigned 1667-1669
Clement X, Pope - Reigned 1670-1676
Clement XI, Pope - Reigned 1700-1721
Clement XII, Pope - Reigned 1730-1740
Clement XIII, Pope - Reigned 1758-69
Clement XIV, Pope - Reigned 1769-1774
Clement, Cæsar - Date of birth uncertain; died at Brussels 28 Aug., 1626, great-nephew of Sir Thomas More's friend, Dr. John Clement
Clément, François - A member of the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur and historian; born at Beze in the department of Cote-d'Or, France, 1714; died at Paris, 29 March, 1793
Clement, John - President of the College of Physicians and tutor to St. Thomas More's children, born in Yorkshire about 1500; died 1 July, 1572
Clementines - The name given to the religious romance in two forms as composed by Pope St. Clement I
Clement Mary Hofbauer, Blessed - Second founder of the Redemptorists, called 'the Apostle of Vienna,' d. 1821
Clement of Alexandria - Fairly lengthy article on his life and writings
Clement of Ireland, Saint - Also known as Clemens Scotus. Famed scholar and teacher of youth, died no earlier than 818
Clenock, Maurice - Date of birth unknown; died about 1580. He was b. in Wales and educated at Oxford, where he was admitted Bachelor of Canon Law in 1548
Cleophas - According to the Catholic English versions the name of two persons mentioned in the New Testament. In Greek, however, the names are different, one being Cleopas, abbreviated form of Cleopatros, and the other Clopas
Clerestory - A term formerly applied to any window or traceried opening in a church, e. g. in an aisle, tower, cloister, or screen, but now restricted to the windows in an aisled nave, or to the range of wall in which the high windows are set
Cleric - A person who has been legitimately received into the ranks of the clergy
Clericato, Giovanni - Canonist, born 1633, at Padua; died 1717
Clericis Laicos - The initial words of a Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to an earnest appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the intolerable exactions of the civil power
Clerk, John - Bishop of Bath and Wells; date of birth unknown; died 3 January, 1541
Clerke, Agnes Mary - Astronomer, born at Skibbereen, County Cork, Ireland, 10 February, 1842; died in London, 20 January 1907
Clerke, Ellen Mary - Journalist and novelist, b. at Skibbereen, County Cork, Ireland, 1840; d. in London, 2 March 1906
Clerks Regular - Those bodies of men in the Church who by the very nature of their institute unite the perfection of the religious state to the priestly office, i.e. who while being essentially clerics, devoted to the exercise of the ministry in preaching, the administration of the sacraments, the education of youth, and other spiritual and corporal works of mercy, are at the same time religious in the strictest sense of the word, professing solemn vows, and living a community life according to a rule solemnly approved of by the sovereign pontiff
Clerks Regular of Our Saviour - A religious congregation instituted in its present form in 1851, at Benoite-Vaux in the Diocese of Verdun, France
Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca - A congregation founded by St. Giovanni Leonardi
Clermont - Comprises the entire department of Puy-de-Dome and is a suffragan of Bourges
Cletus, Pope Saint - Third pope, a martyr, d. about 91. May be the same person as Pope St. Cletus
Cletus, Pope Saint - Says that 'Cletus' is only another form of 'Anacletus,' briefly explains how the error of thinking the two names are two different popes came about, says that Cletus died in about 88
Cleveland - The Diocese, established 23 April, 1847, comprises all that part of Ohio lying north of the southern limits of the Counties of Columbiana, Stark, Wayne, Ashland, Richland, Crawford, Wyandot, Hancock, Allen, and Van Wert, its territory covering thirty-six counties
Clichtove, Josse - Theologian (1472-1543)
Clifford, William - English Divine (d. 1670)
Clifton - Diocese of England, consisting of Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and Wiltshire
Climent, José - Spanish bishop, b. at Castellon de la Plana (Valencia), 1706; d. there 25 Nov., 1781
Clitherow, Saint Margaret - Article on this martyr, d. 1586, who is called the 'Pearl of York.' St. Margaret was crushed to death for the crime of harboring priests
Clogher - A suffragan of Armagh, Ireland, which comprises the County Monaghan, almost the whole of Fermanagh, the southern portion of Tyrone, and parts of Donegal, Louth, and Cavan
Cloister - The English equivalent of the Latin word clausura (from claudere, 'to shut up')
Clonard, School of - Situated on the river Boyne. Founded by St. Finnian, an abbot and great wonder-worker
Clonfert - The Diocese, a suffragan see of the metropolitan province of Tuam, was founded in 557 by St. Brendan the Navigator
Clonmacnoise, Abbey and School of - Situated on the Shannon, about half way between Athlone and Banagher, King's County, Ireland
Cloths, Altar - The custom of using three altar-cloths began probably in the ninth century, but at present it is of strict obligation for the licit celebration of Mass
Clotilda, Saint - Queen of the Franks, wife of King Clovis I and grandmother of St. Cloud. Devoted to St. Martin of Tours and instrumental in the conversion of the Franks, she died in 545
Clouet - The family name of several generations of painters
Clovesho, Councils of - Notable as the place at which were held several councils of the Anglo-Saxon Church
Clovio, Giorgio - Italian miniaturist, called by Vasari 'the unique' and 'little Michelangelo', b. at Grizani, on the coast of Croatia, in 1498; d. at Rome, 1578
Clovis - King of the Salic Franks (466-511)
Cloyne, Diocese of - Comprises the northern half of County Cork
Cluny, Congregation of - The earliest reform, which became practically a distinct order, within the Benedictine family
Clynn, John - Irish Franciscan and annalist, b. about 1300; d., probably, in 1349
Cobo, Bernabé - Spanish Jesuit missionary (1582-1657)
Coccaleo, Viatora - A Capuchin friar, so called from his birthplace, Coccaglio in Lombardy, date of birth unknown; d. 1793
Cochabamba - The city from which this diocese takes its name is the capital of the department of Cochabamba, Bolivia
Cochem, Martin of - German theologian, preacher and ascetic writer, born at Cochem, a small town on the Moselle, in 1630; died in the convent at Waghaeusel, 10 September, 1712
Cochin, Diocese of - Erected and constituted a suffragan of the Diocese of Goa, of which it had previously formed a part, by the Bull 'Pro excellenti praeeminentia' of Paul IV, 4 February, 1558
Cochin, Jacques-Denis - Preacher and philanthropist (1726-1783)
Cochin, Pierre-Suzanne-Augustin - Author of religious, pedagogical, and sociological works (1823-1872)
Cochlæus, Johann - Humanist and Catholic controversialist, b. 1479; d. 11 Jan., 1552, in Breslau
Co-Consecrators - The bishops who assist the presiding bishop in the act of consecrating a new bishop
Cocussus - A titular see of Armenia
Codex - The name given to a manuscript in leaf form, distinguishing it from a roll
Codex Alexandrinus - Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see
Codex Amiatinus - Manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, kept at Florence in the Bibliotheca Laurentiana
Codex Bezae - Greek, New Testament manuscript
Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus - The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, received its name from the treatises of St. Ephraem the Syrian (translated into Greek) which were written over the original text
Codex Sinaiticus - A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf
Codex Vaticanus - A quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century
Codrington, Thomas - Catholic divine, chiefly known for his attempt to introduce into England the 'Institute of Secular Priests Living in Community', founded in Bavaria by Bartholomaus Holzhauser
Co-education - The term is now generally reserved to the practice of educating the sexes together; but even in this sense it has a variety of meanings
Coeffeteau, Nicolas - Preacher and controversialist, born 1574, at Chateau-du-Loir, province of Maine, France; died Paris, 21 April, 1623
Coelchu - Abbot of the School of Clonmacnoise in Ireland, who flourished during the latter half of the eighth century
Coelde, Theodore - Friar Minor and missionary, born at Muenster, in 1435; died at Louvain, 11 December, 1515
Coemgen, Saint - Abbot of Glendalough, d. 618
Coenred - King of Mercia (reigned 704-709); date of birth and death unknown
Coeur d'Alêne Indians - A small tribe of Salishan stock formerly ranging along the lake and river of the same name in northern Idaho
Coffin, Edward - English Jesuit and missionary (1570-1626)
Coffin, Robert Aston - Ecclesiastical writer and bishop (1819-1885)
Cogitosus - Sixth-century Irish monk and author
Cogolludo, Diego López de - Seventeenth-century Mexican historian
Cohen, Hermann - A Discalced Carmelite (Augustin-Marie of the Blessed Sacrament, generally known as Father Hermann), born at Hamburg, Germany, 10 November, 1820; died at Spandau, 20 January, 1871
Coimbatore, Diocese of - Includes the Collectorate of Coimbatore (except the Taluk of the Collegal), the Nilgiris with the south-eastern Wynaad, the Taluks of Palgat, Collancodoo, Tamalpuram, and part of Wallavanad, the Chittur Taluks, and the Nelliampathy Hills in the Cochin territory
Coimbra, Diocese of - Located in Portugal
Coimbra, University of - University in Portugal
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste - Marquis de Seignelay, statesman, b. at Rheims, France, 1619; d. at Paris, 1683
Cole, Henry - English confessor (1500-1579)
Coleman, Edward - Controversialist, politician, and secretary of the Duchess of York (d. 1678)
Coleridge, Henry James - Writer and preacher (1822-1893)
Colet, John - Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral and founder of St. Paul's School, London; b. in London, 1467; d. there 18 Sept., 1519
Coleti, Nicola - Priest and historian, b. at Venice, 1680; d. in the same city, 1765
Colette, Saint - Founder of the Colettine Poor Clares (Clarisses), d. 1447
Colgan, John - Hagiographer and historian, b. in County Donegal, Ireland, about the beginning of the seventeenth century; d. probably in 1657
Colima - The city of Colima, the capital of the state of the same name in Mexico, is situated on the Colima River, at an altitude of 1400 feet, and was founded in the year 1522 by Gonzalo de Sandoval
Colin, Frédéric-Louis - Superior of the Sulpicians in Canada, b. at Bourges, France, in 1835; d. at Montreal, 27 November, 1902
Colin, Jean-Claude-Marie - French priest, founder of the Marists (1790-1875)
Coliseum, The - Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, commenced A.D. 72 by Vespasian, the first of the Flavian emperors, dedicated by Titus A.D. 80
Collado, Diego - Sixteenth-century Spanish missionary
Colle de Val d'Elsa - Diocese in Italy
Collect - The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at Lauds, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers
Collectarium - The book which contains the Collects
Collections - Article discussing the development which took the form of a contribution in money, corresponding particularly to what is conveyed by the French word quête
Collectivism - The term is sometimes employed as a substitute for socialism
College - The word college, from the Latin collegium, originally signified a community, a corporation, an organized society, a body of colleagues, or a society of persons engaged in some common pursuit
College (in Canon Law) - A collection of persons united together for a common object so as to form one body
College, Apostolic - This term designates The Twelve Apostles as the body of men commissioned by Christ to spread the kingdom of God over the whole world and to give it the stability of a well-ordered society
Collège de France, The - Founded in the interest of higher education by Francis I
Colleges, Roman - This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ecclesiastical auspices and are under ecclesiastical direction, with the exception of those that are treated separately under their respective titles throughout the Catholic Encyclopedia
Collegiate - An adjective applied to those churches and institutions whose members form a college
Colman, Saint, of Kilmacduagh - Hermit, monastic founder, bishop of Kilmacduagh, d. 632
Colman, Saint, of Templeshambo - Abbot, d. about 595. This St. Colman was a contemporary of St. Aidan, and is sometimes confused with a later saint of the same name, Colman of Kilmacduagh
Colman Mac Lenine, Saint - Founder and patron saint of the Diocese of Cloyne, poet, d. 601
Colman, Saint, of Mayo - Monk of Iona, bishop of Lindisfarne, later founded the Abbey and Diocese of Mayo, d. 676
Colman, Saint, of Dalaradia - First bishop and patron saint of Dromore. Born in Dalaradia c. 450, date of death uncertain
Colman, Saint Elo - Nephew of St. Columba. This St. Colman was the first abbot of Muckamore. He died at Lynally (Lann Elo) in 611
Colman, Saint MacCathbad - Bishop of Kilroot and a contemporary of St. Ailbe
Colman, Saint - Irishman martyred while on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, near Vienna in 1012
Colman, Walter - Friar Minor and English martyr: date of birth uncertain; died in London, 1645
Colmar, Joseph Ludwig - Bishop of Mainz; born at Strasburg, 22 June, 1760; died at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1818
Cologne - German city and archbishopric
Cologne, University of - Near the end of the fourteenth century Urban VI, at the instance of the Town Council, issued (21 May, 1388) the Bull of foundation
Colomba of Rieti, Blessed - Third Order Dominican, intensely devoted to the Eucharist, d. 1501
Colombia - Forms the northwest corner of the South American Continent
Colombière, Saint Claude de la - Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682
Colombo - The Archdiocese of Colombo, situated on the western seaboard of the Island of Ceylon, includes two of the nine provinces into which the island is divided, viz. the Western and the Northwestern
Colombo, Mateo Realdo - Italian anatomist and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation, b. at Cremona in 1516; d. at Rome, 1559
Colonna, Blessed Margaret - A Roman orphan, hermit, founder of a community of Poor Clares, d. 1284
Colonia - A titular see of Armenia
Colonia - A titular see in Armenia Prima
Colonna - A celebrated family which played an important role in Italy during medieval and Renaissance times
Colonna, Egidio - A Scholastic philosopher and theologian, b. about the middle of the thirteenth century, probably 1247, in Rome
Colonna, Giovanni Paolo - Noted church composer of the seventeenth century
Colonna, Vittoria - Italian poet, born at Marino, 1490; died at Rome, February 25, 1547
Colonnade - A number of columns symmetrically arranged in one or more rows
Colophon - A titular see of Asia Minor
Colorado - The thirty-fifth, in point of admission, of the United States of America
Colossæ - A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, suppressed in 1894
Colossians, Epistle to the - One of the four Captivity Epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome
Colours, Liturgical - The Church directs that the vestments worn by ministers, and the drapery used in the decoration of the altar should correspond in colour to that which is prescribed for the Office of the day
Columba, Saint - Also known as Columcille. Long article on the Irish-born monk, founder and abbot of Iona. He died in 597
Columba, Saint - A nun beheaded by the Muslims in 853
Columba of Sens, Saint - Woman martyred towards the end of the third century
Columba of Terryglass, Saint - A disciple of St. Finnian of Clonard, and himself taught St. Fintan. This St. Columba founded the monastery of Tirdaglas, and died of the plague in 552
Columbanus, Saint - Irish-born abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio, author of a monastic rule and of a penitential, d. 615. Biography
Columbia University (Oregon) - Formerly known as Portland University, located on the east bank of the Willamette River in northern Portland, and is conducted by the Congregation of Holy Cross, whose mother-house is at Notre Dame, Indiana
Columbus, Christopher - Lengthy biographical article on the explorer
Columbus, Knights of - Brief explanation and history of the organization
Columbus, Diocese of - This portion of the State belonged originally to the Diocese of Cincinnati, and was recommended to Rome for erection as a see by the Fathers of the Second Plenary Council, of Baltimore, held in 1866
Column - Architectural term for a supporting pillar
Comacchio - Diocese; suffragan of Ravenna
Comana - A titular see of Asia Minor
Comayagua - The Diocese of Comayagua, suffragan to Guatemala, includes the entire Republic of Honduras in Central America
Combefis, François - Patrologist, b. November, 1605, at Marmande in Guyenne; d. at Paris, 23 March, 1679
Comboni, Daniel - Short biographical profile of this nineteenth-century Italian missionary to Africa
Comellas y Cluet, Antonio - Philosopher (1832-1884)
Comgall, Saint - Founder and abbot of the monastery of Bangor, d. 597 or 602
Commandments of the Church - Article includes: I. the nature of the Commandments of the Church in general; II. the history of the Commandments of the Church; and III. their classification
Commandments of God (The Ten Commandments) - The fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will in relation to man's whole duty to God and to his fellow-creatures
Commemoration (in Liturgy) - The recital of a part of the Office or Mass assigned to a certain feast or day when the whole cannot be said
Commendatory Abbot - An ecclesiastic, or sometimes a layman, who holds an abbey in commendam
Commendone, Giovanni Francesco - Cardinal and Papal Nuncio, born at Venice, 17 March, 1523; died at Padua, 26 Dec., 1584
Commentaries on the Bible - Includes: I. Jewish Commentaries; II. Patristic; III. Medieval; IV. Modern Catholic; and V. Non-Catholic
Commines, Philippe de - French historian and statesman, b. in Flanders probably before 1447; d. at the Chateau d'Argenton, France, about 1511
Commissariat of the Holy Land - In the Order of Friars Minor the territory or district assigned to a commissary, whose duty it is to collect alms for the maintenance of the Holy Places in Palestine committed to the care of the Friars Minor; also, in a more restricted sense, the convent where the aforesaid commissary resides
Commissary Apostolic - One who has received power from a Legitimate superior authority to pass judgment in a certain cause or to take informations concerning it
Commissions, Ecclesiastical - Bodies of ecclesiastics juridically established and to whom are committed certain specified functions or charges
Commodianus - A Christian poet, the date of whose birth is uncertain, but generally placed at about the middle of the third century
Commodus - Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192
Common Life, Brethren of the - A community founded by Geert De Groote, born at Deventer in Gelderland in 1340; died 1384
Common Prayer, Book of - Includes history and contents
Common Sense, Philosophy of - The term common sense designates (1) a special faculty, the sensus communis of the Aristotelean and Scholastic philosophy; (2) the sum of original principles found in all normal minds; (3) the ability to judge and reason in accordance with those principles (recta ratio, good sense)
Commune, Martyrs of the Paris - Article on the priests who were killed in Paris in May 1871
Communicatio Idiomatum - A technical expression in the theology of the Incarnation. It means that the properties of the Divine Word can be ascribed to the man Christ, and that the properties of the man Christ can be predicated of the Word
Communion, Frequent - Discusses the history and practice
Communion, Holy - By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist
Communion Antiphon - The term Communion is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament
Communion Bench - An adaptation of the sanctuary guard or altar rail
Communion of Children - Article includes (1) the ancient practice, and (2) the present discipline of the Church in regard to the Communion of children
Communion of Saints - The doctrine expressed in the second clause of the ninth article in the received text of the Apostles' Creed: 'I believe... the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints'
Communion of the Sick - Differs from ordinary Communion as to the class of persons to whom it is administered, as to the dispositions with which it may be received, and as to the place and ceremonies of administration
Communion Rail - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail
Communion under Both Kinds - Communion under one kind is the reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist under the species or appearance of bread alone, or of wine alone, Communion under two or both kinds, the distinct reception under the two or both species, sub utraque specie, at the same time
Communism - In its more general signification communism refers to any social system in which all property, or at least all productive property, is owned by the group, or community, instead of by individuals
Comnena, Anna - Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118)
Como - An important town in the province of Lombardy (Northern Italy), situated on Lake Como, the ancient Lacus Larius
Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement - Seventeenth-century secret society
Compensation - Denotes the price paid for human exertion or labour
Compensation, Occult - An extra-legal manner of recovering from loss or damage; the taking, by stealth and on one's private authority, of the value or equivalent of one's goods from a person who refuses to meet the demands of justice
Competency, Privilege of - The competency of a cleric means his right to proper sustenance
Compiégne, Teresian Martyrs of - Guillotined at the Place du Trone Renverse (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 July, 1794
Compline - Scholarly essay on what is essentially a bedtime prayer, often recited privately
Compostela - A famous city of Spain, situated on an eminence between the Sar (the Sars of Pomponius Mela) and Sarela
Compromise (in Canon Law) - In a general sense, a mutual promise or contract of two parties in controversy to refer their differences to the decision of arbitrators
Conal, Saint - Or Conall. Bishop of Drum, County Roscommon--now called Drumconnell, after the saint. Blood brother of St. Attracta. St. Conal died in about 500
Conan, Saint - Also known as Mochonna. Irish missionary and Bishop of the Isle of Man, d. 684
Concelebration - The rite by which several priests say Mass together, all consecrating the same bread and wine
Concepción - Located in the Republic of Chile, suffragan to Santiago de Chile
Conceptionists - A branch of the Order of Saint Clare, founded by Beatriz de Silva
Conceptualism, Nominalism, Realism - The theories that have been proposed as solutions of the problem of universals
Conciliation, Industrial - The discussion and adjustment of mutual differences by employers and employees or their representatives
Concina, Daniello - Dominican preacher (1687-1756)
Conclave - The closed room or hall specially set aside and prepared for the cardinals when electing a pope; also the assembly of the cardinals for the canonical execution of this purpose
Concordances of the Bible - Lists of Biblical words arranged alphabetically with indications to enable the inquirer to find the passages of the Bible where the words occur
Concordat - In general, a concordat means an agreement, or union of wills, on some matter
Concordat of 1801, The French - This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope Pius VII and Bonaparte, First Consul, re-established the Catholic Church in France
Concordia, Diocese of - Located in Italy, suffragan of Venice
Concordia, Diocese of - Erected 2 August, 1887, and is situated in the northwestern part of Kansas, U.S.A
Concubinage - The meaning of the term in Roman law, and consequently in early ecclesiastical records and writings, was much the same; a concubine was a quasi-wife, recognized by law if there was no legal wife
Concupiscence - In its widest acceptation, concupiscence is any yearning of the soul for good; in its strict and specific acceptation, a desire of the lower appetite contrary to reason
Concursus - A special competitive examination prescribed in canon law for all aspirants to certain ecclesiastical offices to which is attached the cure of souls
Condamine, Charles-Marie de la - Explorer and physicist, b. at Paris, 28 January, 1701; d. there 4 February, 1774
Condillac, Ettiene Bonnot de - Article by G.M. Sauvage. Divides Condillac's career into an early Lockean phase and a later, more original phase
Condition - That which is necessary or at least conducive to the actual operation of a cause
Conecte, Thomas - Carmelite reformer, b. at Rennes towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. at Rome, 1433
Conferences, Ecclesiastical - Meetings of clerics for the purpose of discussing, in general, matters pertaining to their state of life, and, in particular, questions of moral theology and liturgy
Confession - Architectural term, originally used to designate the burial-place of a confessor or martyr, gradually came to have a variety of applications: the altar erected over the grave; the underground cubiculum which contained the tomb; the high altar of the basilica erected over the confession; later on in the Middle Ages the basilica itself; and finally the new resting-place to which the remains of a martyr had been transferred
Confession, Lay - This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the purpose of obtaining the remission of sins by God
Confession, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same.
Confession, Seal of - 'Let the priest who dares to make known the sins of his penitent be deposed....'
Confessor - A title of honour to designate of the Faith who had confessed Christ publicly in time of persecution and had been punished with imprisonment, torture, exile, or labour in the mines, remaining faithful in their confession until the end of their lives
Confirmation - Describes its origin from Biblical texts and how it has been handed down through the ages. The rite is briefly described, and the minister, matter, form, recipient, effects, necessity and sponsors are detailed
Confiteor - A general confession of sins; it is used in the Roman Rite at the beginning of Mass and on various other occasions as a preparation for the reception of some grace
Confraternity (Sodality) - A voluntary association of the faithful, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of special works of Christian charity or piety
Confraternity of Christian Doctrine - An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction
Confucianism - An article by Charles F. Aiken. Reviews the key teachings and history of Confucianism, and its relation to Christianity
Congo - An account written before the annexation of the state by the Belgian government
Congregatio de Auxiliis - A commission established by Pope Clement VIII to settle the theological controversy regarding grace which arose between the Dominicans and the Jesuits towards the close of the sixteenth century
Congregationalism - The successful establishment of the New England colonies was an event of the utmost importance in the development of Congregationalism, a term preferred by the American Puritans to Independency and gradually adopted by their coreligionists in Great Britain
Congregational Singing - In his Instruction on sacred music, commonly referred to as the Motu Proprio (22 Nov., 1903), Pius X says (no. 3): 'Special efforts are to be made to restore the use of Gregorian chant by the people, so that the faithful may again take a more active part in ecclesiastical offices, as was the case in ancient times'
Congregations, Roman - The most important of certain departments organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome
Congresses, Catholic - Includes information on the history and types of congresses held
Congrua - A canonical term to designate the lowest sum proper for the yearly income of a cleric
Congruism - The term by which theologians denote a theory according to which the efficacy of efficacious grace is due, at least in part, to the fact that the grace is given in circumstances favourable to its operation, i. e. 'congruous' in that sense
Conimbricenses - The name by which Jesuits of the University of Coimbra in Portugal were known
Coninck, Giles de - Jesuit theologian (1571-1633)
Connecticut - U.S. state and one of the thirteen original colonies
Connolly, John - Second Bishop of New York, U.S.A., b. at Slane, Co. Meath, Ireland, 1750; d. New York, 6 February, 1825
Conon, Pope - Reigned 686-687
Conradin of Bornada - Dominican preacher, b. in the latter part of the fourteenth century; d. at Bologna, 1 November, 1429
Conrad of Ascoli, Blessed - Italian-born Franciscan missionary to Africa, d. 1289
Conrad of Hochstadt - Archbishop of Cologne and Imperial Elector (1238-1261), date of birth unknown; d. 28 September, 1261
Conrad of Leonberg - A Cistercian monk and Humanist, b. at Leonberg in Swabia in 1460; d. at Engenthal near Basle after 1520
Conrad of Marburg - Confessor of Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia and papal inquisitor, b. at or near Marburg, Germany, in the second half of the twelfth century; d. 30 July, 1233
Conrad of Offida, Blessed - Italian Franciscan, trusted by Brother Leo, on good terms with the Spiritual Franciscans, founded the Celestines but returned to the main branch of the Franciscans when a later pope suppressed the Celestines. Bl. Conrad died 12 December, 1306
Conrad of Piacenza, Saint - Married man, penitent, Third Order Franciscan hermit, d. 1351
Conrad of Saxony - Friar Minor and ascetical writer, date and place of birth uncertain; d. at Bologna in 1279
Conrad of Urach - Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina; born about 1180; d. 1227
Conrad of Utrecht - Bishop; born in Swabia at an unknown date; killed at Utrecht, 14 April, 1099
Conry, Florence - Archbishop of Tuam, patriot, theologian and founder of the Irish (Franciscan) College of St. Anthony at Louvain, born in Galway, 1560; died at Madrid, 18 Nov., 1629
Consalvi, Ercole - Cardinal and statesman (1757-1824)
Consanguinity (in Canon Law) - The term here means, within certain limitations defined by the law of nature, the positive law of God, or the supreme authority of State or Church, the blood-relationship (cognatio naturalis), or the natural bond between persons descended from the same stock
Conscience - The individual, as in him customary rules acquire ethical character by the recognition of distinct principles and ideals, all tending to a final unity or goal, which for the mere evolutionist is left very indeterminate, but for the Christian has adequate definition in a perfect possession of God by knowledge and love, without the contingency of further lapses from duty
Conscience, Examination of - By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law
Conscience, Hendrik - Flemish novelist, b. at Antwerp, 3 December, 1812; d. at Brussels, 10 September, 1883
Consciousness - In its widest sense it includes all sensations, thoughts, feelings, and volitions, in fact the sum total of mental life
Consecration - An act by which a thing is separated from a common and profane to a sacred use, or by which a person or thing is dedicated to the service and worship of God by prayers, rites, and ceremonies
Consent (in Canon Law) - The deliberate agreement required of those concerned in legal transactions in order to legalize such actions
Consentius - The name of a fifth-century Gallo-Roman family, three of whose representatives are known in history
Conservator - A judge delegated by the pope to defend certain privileged classes of persons, as universities, religious orders, chapters, the poor from manifest or notorious injury or violence, without recourse to a judicial process
Consistory, Papal - The origin of the papal consistory is closely connected with the history of the Roman presbytery or body of the Roman clergy
Constable, Cuthbert - Date of birth uncertain; d. 27 March, 1746
Constable, John - English Jesuit controversialist (1676-1743)
Constance - Formerly the seat of a diocese
Constance, Council of - A (partly) ecumenical council held at Constance, now in the Grand Duchy of Baden, from 5 Nov., 1414, to 22 April, 1418
Constantia - Titular see of Arabia
Constantine, Pope - Reigned 708-715
Constantine (Cirta) - Comprises the present arrondissement of Constantine in Algeria
Constantine Africanus - A medieval medical writer and teacher; born c. 1015; died c. 1087
Constantine the Great - Information on the Roman emperor
Constantine, Donation of - By this name is understood, since the end of the Middle Ages, a forged document of Emperor Constantine the Great, by which large privileges and rich possessions were conferred on the pope and the Roman Church
Constantinople - Capital, formerly of the Byzantine, now of the Ottoman, Empire (As of 1908, when the article was written.)
Constantinople, First Ecumenical Council of - Called in May, 381, by Emperor Theodosius, to provide for a Catholic succession in the patriarchal See of Constantinople, to confirm the Nicene Faith, to reconcile the semi-Arians with the Church, and to put an end to the Macedonian heresy
Constantinople, Second Ecumenical Council of - This council was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June, 553), having been called by Emperor Justinian. It was attended mostly by Oriental bishops; only six Western (African) bishops were present
Constantinople, Third Ecumenical Council of - The Sixth General Council was summoned in 678 by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, with a view of restoring between East and West the religious harmony that had been troubled by the Monothelistic controversies
Constantinople, Fourth Ecumenical Council of - The Eighth General Council was opened, 5 October, 869, in the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, under the presidency of the legates of Adrian II
Constantinople, Council of - A particular council held in A.D. 382
Constantinople, Council of, in Trullo - Particular council held in A.D. 692
Constantinople, Council of - Particular council held in A.D. 754
Constantinople, Councils of - Three Photian synods held in 861, 867, and 879
Constantinople, Councils of - Particular councils held in 1639 and 1672
Constantinople, The Rite of - The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople
Constantius, Flavius Julius - Roman emperor (317-361)
Constitutions, Ecclesiastical - In legal language the term constitutiones denotes only church ordinances, civil ordinances being termed leges, laws
Constitutions, Papal - Ordinations issued by the Roman pontiffs and binding those for whom they are issued, whether they be for all the faithful or for special classes or individuals
Consubstantiation - This heretical doctrine is an attempt to hold the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist without admitting Transubstantiation
Consultors, Diocesan - A certain number of priests in each diocese of the United States who act as official advisers of the bishop in certain matters pertaining to the administration of the diocese
Contant de la Molette, Philippe du - Theologian and Biblical scholar, born at Cote-Saint-Andre, in Dauphine, France, 29 August, 1737; died on the scaffold during The Terror, 1793
Contarini, Gasparo - Venetian statesman and cardinal, born 16 October, 1483, of an ancient and noble family in Venice; died at Bologna, 24 August, 1542
Contarini, Giovanni - Italian painter of the Venetian School, born at Venice about 1549; died in 1605
Contemplation - The idea of contemplation is connected with that of mystical theology
Contemplative Life - A life ordered in view of contemplation; a way of living especially adapted to lead to and facilitate contemplation, while it excludes all other preoccupations and intents
Contenson, Vincent - Dominican theologian and preacher (1641-1674)
Continence - Defined as abstinence from even the licit gratifications of marriage
Contingent - Aside from its secondary and more obvious meaning (as, for instance, its qualification of the predicable accident, of a class of modal propositions, and so on), the primary and technically philosophical use of the term is for one of the supreme divisions of being, that is, contingent being, as distinguished from necessary being
Contract - The canonical and moralist doctrine on this subject is a development of that contained in the Roman civil law. In civil law, a contract is defined as the union of several persons in a coincident expression of will by which their legal relations are determined
Contract, The Social - Includes contents and critique
Contractus, Hermann - Chronicler, mathematician, and poet (1013-1054)
Contrition - Lat. contritio, a breaking of something hardened
Contrition, Imperfect - Also called 'imperfect contrition.' Definition, its relation to sacramental penance, and moral considerations
Contumacy (in Canon Law) - Contumacy, or contempt of court, is an obstinate disobedience of the lawful orders of a court
Contzen, Adam - Jesuit economist and exegete (1573-1635)
Convent - (1) A religious community of either sex when spoken of in its corporate capacity (2) The buildings in which resides a community of either sex
Convent Schools (Great Britain) - Convent education is treated here not historically but as it is at the present day (Article written in 1908.)
Conventual and Chapter Mass - A conventual Mass sung or said in all cathedrals and collegiate churches that have a chapter; in this case it is often called the 'chapter' Mass
Conventuals, Order of Friars Minor - One of the three separate bodies, forming with the Friars Minor and the Capuchins what is commonly called the First Order of St. Francis
Conversano - Suffragan to Bari. Conversano, situated in the province of Bari, in Apulia (Southern Italy), is the ancient Cupersanum, a city of the Peucetians
Conversi - Lay brothers in a religious order. The term was originally applied to those who, in adult life, voluntarily renounced the world and entered a religious order to do penance and to lead a life of greater perfection
Conversion - Refers to a moral change, a turning or returning to God and to the true religion
Convocation of the English Clergy - The technical name given in the Church of England to what corresponds in some respects to a provincial synod, though in other respects it differs widely from it
Conwell, Henry - Second Bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A., b. at Moneymore, County Derry, Ireland, in 1745; d. at Philadelphia, 22 April, 1842
Conza - Archdiocese with the perpetual administration of Campagna (Campaniensis)
Cooktown - The Vicariate Apostolic of Cooktown comprises North Queensland, Australia, from 16°30' south latitude to Cape York, and from the Pacific Coast to the boundary of Northern Territory
Coombes, William Henry - Described as a spiritual and self-denying priest, an eminent scholar and theologian (1767-1850)
Copacavana - A village on the shore of Lake Titicaca, province of Omasuyos, in northern Bolivia
Cope - A vestment which may most conveniently be described as a long liturgical mantle, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp
Copenhagen, University of - Founded by a Bull which Sixtus IV issued 19 June, 1475, at the request of King Christian I
Copernicus, Nicolaus - Latinized form of Niclas Kopernik, the name of the founder of the heliocentric planetary theory; born at Torun (Thorn), 19 February, 1473, died at Frauenburg, 24 May, 1543
Coppée, François Edouard Joachim - Poet, dramatist and novelist, b. at Paris, 26 January, 1842; d. 23 May, 1908
Coptic Literature - Details of the Morgan and the British Museum's collections
Coptic Persecutions - During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria seems to have been freer from official persecution at the hands of the Roman Government than its sister churches of Rome and Antioch. . .
Coptic Versions of the Bible - At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest
Coptos - A titular see of Upper Egypt
Coquart, Claude-Godefroi - Jesuit missionary and army chaplain (1706-1765)
Coracesium - A titular see of Asia Minor
Corbie, Ambrose - English Jesuit (1604-1649)
Corbie, Venerable Ralph - Sometimes called Ralph Corrington. An Irish-born Jesuit, martyred together with secular priest John Duckett in 1644
Corbie, Monastery of - A Benedictine abbey in Picardy, in the Diocese of Amiens, dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul
Corbinian - Bishop of Freising, in Bavaria, born about 680 at Chatres near Melun, France; died 8 September, 730
Corcoran, James Andrew - Theologian, editor, and Orientalist, b. at Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A., 30 March, 1820; d. at Philadelphia, 16 July, 1889
Corcoran, Michael - Soldier, b. at Carrowkeel, County Sligo, Ireland, 21 September, 1827; d. at Fairfax Court House, Virginia, U.S.A., 22 December, 1863
Cord, Confraternities of the - Pious associations of the faithful, the members of which wear a cord or cincture in honour of a saint, to keep in mind some special grace or favour which they hope to obtain through his intercession
Cordara, Guilo Cesare - Italian Jesuit historian (1704-1785)
Cordell, Charles - English missionary priest, b. 5 October, 1720; d. at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 January, 1791
Cordier, Balthasar - Exegete and editor of patristic works, b. at Antwerp, 7 June, 1592; d. at Rome, 24 June, 1650
Cordova - Diocese in Spain, formerly suffragan of Toledo, since 1851 of Seville
Cordova - Diocese in the Argentine Republic, suffragan of Buenos Aires
Cordova, Juan de - Dominican sent to Oaxaca in 1548 to minister to the Indians
Cordova, Pedro de - Spanish Dominican (1460-1525)
Core, Dathan, and Abiron - Leaders of a revolt against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16)
Corea - Vicariate apostolic, coextensive with the Empire of Corea; it was created a distinct vicariate Apostolic, 9 September, 1831
Corfu - One of the Ionian Islands, at the entrance of the Adriatic, opposite the Albanian coast, from which it is separated by a narrow channel
Coria - Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Toledo; it includes nearly the entire province of Ceceres, with the exception of a few parishes that belong to the Diocese of Salamanca
Corinth - A titular archiepiscopal see of Greece
Corinthians, Epistles to the - The historical and internal evidence that they were written by St. Paul is overwhelmingly strong
Coriolis, Gaspard-Gustave de - French mathematician (1792-1843)
Cork, Diocese of - In Ireland, suffragan of Cashel
Cork, School of - The founder of the School and Diocese of Cork was Barra or Bairre (Barry), more commonly called Finbarr the Fair-haired
Corker, Maurus - An English Benedictine, born in 1636 in Yorkshire; died 22 December, 1715, at Paddington near London
Cormac MacCuilenan - Irish bishop and King of Cashel (836-908)
Cornaro, Elena Lucrezia Piscopia - A learned Italian woman of noble descent, born at Venice, 5 June, 1646; died at Padua, 26 July, 1684
Corneille, Jean-Baptiste - French artist (1646-1695)
Corneille, Michel, the Younger - French painter, etcher and engraver, b. in Paris in 1642; d. at the Gobelins manufactory at Paris, 16 August, 1708
Corneille, Michel, the Elder - French painter, etcher, and engraver, b. in Orleans about 1601; d. at Paris, 1664
Corneille, Pierre - French dramatist (1606-1684)
Cornelisz, Jacob - Also called Jacob van Amsterdam or van Oostzann, and at times confounded with a Walter van Assen, a Dutch painter of the first third of the sixteenth century
Cornelius - A centurion of the Italic cohort, whose conversion at Caesarea with his household is related in Acts 10
Cornelius, Pope - Had to contend with the antipope Novatian. When persecution broke out, Cornelius was exiled, and he died a martyr in 253
Cornelius, Peter - Fresco painter and illustrator (1783-1867)
Cornelius and Companions, Ven. John - Cornelius, born of Irish parents in Cornwall, studied for the priesthood at Reims. For 10 years he worked as a missionary in England till he was martyred in 1594 for being a Catholic priest, and three companions were also martyred for aiding him
Cornelius Cornelii a Lapide - Flemish Jesuit and exegete, b. at Bocholt, in Flemish Limburg, 18 December, 1567; d. at Rome, 12 March, 1637
Cornely, Karl Josef Rudolph - German biblical scholar and Jesuit, b. 19 April, 1830, at Breyell in Germany; d. at Treves, 3 March, 1908
Corner Stone - Rite regarding the blessing and laying of the Foundation Stone for the building of a church
Cornet, Nicolas - French theologian, born at Amiens, 1572; died at Paris, 1663
Cornice - The uppermost division of the entablature, the representative of the roof, of an order, consisting of projecting mouldings and blocks, usually divisible into bed-moulding, corona, and gutter
Cornillon, Abbey of - Founded by Albero, Bishop of Liege, in 1124, three years after St. Norbert had formed the Premonstratensian Order
Cornoldi, Giovanni Maria - Professor, author, and preacher, born at Venice, 29 Sept., 1822; d. at Rome, 18 Jan., 1892
Coronado, Francisco Vasquez de - Explorer, b. at Salamanca, Spain, 1500; d. in Mexico, 1553
Coronation - Discussed as (I) The Emperors at Constantinople; (II) Visigothic and Celtic Elements; (III) The English Coronation Orders; (IV) The Western Empire and the Roman Pontifical; and (V) Other Ceremonials
Coronel, Gregorio Nuñez - Theologian, writer, and preacher, b. in Portugal, about 1548; d. about 1620
Coronel, Juan - Franciscan sent to Yucatan, Mexico, in 1590, and there so familiarized himself with the Maya language that he was able to teach it, the historian Cogolludo being one of his pupils
Corporal - A square white linen cloth, now usually somewhat smaller than the breadth of an altar, upon which the Sacred Host and chalice are placed during the celebration of Mass
Corporation - An association recognized by civil law and regarded in all ordinary transactions as an individual. An artificial person
Corporation Act of 1661 - Belongs to the general category of test acts, designed for the express purpose of restricting public offices to members of the Church of England
Corpus Christi, Feast of - This feast is celebrated in the Latin Church on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday to solemnly commemorate the institution of the Holy Eucharist
Corpus Juris Canonici - The term corpus here denotes a collection of documents; corpus juris, a collection of laws, especially if they are placed in systematic order
Correction, Fraternal - The admonishing of one's neighbor by a private individual with the purpose of reforming him or, if possible, preventing his sinful indulgence
Correctories - The text-forms of the Latin Vulgate resulting from the critical emendation as practised during the course of the thirteenth century
Corrigan, Michael - Third Archbishop of New York, b. 13 August, 1839, at Newark, New Jersey, d. at New York, 5 May, 1900
Corrigan, Sir Dominic - Physician, b. 1802, in Dublin, Ireland; d. there, 1880; distinguished for his original observations in heart disease, a special type of pulse being named after him
Corsica - The third island of the Mediterranean in point of size, only Sicily and Sardinia being of greater extent
Corsini, Saint Andrew - Article on this Carmelite, called 'the Apostle of Florence,' regarded as a prophet and thaumaturgus, who became bishop of Fiesole, and died in 1373
Cortés, Hernando - Conqueror of Mexico, born at Medellin in Spain c. 1485; died at Castilleja de la Cuesta near Seville, 2 December, 1547
Cortese, Giovanni Andrea - Cardinal and monastic reformer, b. 1483 at Modena; d. 21 Sept., 1548
Cortona - Immediately subject to the Holy See
Corvey, Abbey of - Benedictine monastery in the Diocese of Paderborn, in Westphalia, founded c. 820
Corycus - A titular see of Cilicia Trachaea in Asia Minor
Corydallus - A titular see of Asia Minor
Cosa, Juan de la - Navigator and cartographer, according to tradition b. in 1460 at Sta. Maria del Puerto (Santona), on the Bay of Biscay, Spain, d. on the coast of the Gulf of Uraba, 28 February, 1510
Cosenza - An archdiocese immediately subject to the Holy See. A city in the province of Calabria, Southern Italy, at the confluence of the Crati and the Busento
Cosgrove, Henry - Second Bishop of Davenport, Iowa (1834-1906)
Cosin, Edmund - Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University, England
Cosmas - Eighth century Byzantine hymn writer
Cosmas and Damian, Saints - Short hagiography of these twins, physicians, and martyrs. They died on 27 September, probably in the year 287
Cosmas Indicopleustes - A Greek traveller and geographer of the first half of the sixth century
Cosmas of Prague - Bohemian historian, b. about 1045, at Prague, Bohemia; d. there, 21 October, 1125
Cosmati Mosaic - A peculiar style of inlaid ornamental mosaic introduced into the decorative art of Europe during the twelfth century
Cosmogony - By this term is understood an account of how the universe (cosmos) came into being (gonia - gegona = I have become). It differs from cosmology, or the science of the universe, in this: that the latter aims at understanding the actual composition and governing laws of the universe as it now exists; while the former answers the question as to how it first came to be
Cosmology - In our day cosmology is a branch of philosophical study, and therefore excludes from its investigation whatever forms the object of the natural sciences
Cossa, Francesco - Italian painter of the school of Ferrara, b. about 1430; d. probably at Ferrara, 1485
Costa, Lorenzo - Ferrarese painter, b. at Ferrara in 1460; d. at Mantua in 1535
Costadoni, Giovanni Domenico - Frequently known as Dom Anselmo, his name in religion, an Italian Camaldolese monk, historian, and theologian, b. 6 October, 1714, at Venice; d. 23 January, 1785, in the same city
Costa Rica - A narrow isthmus between Panama in the east and the Republic of Nicaragua in the north, the Caribbean Sea on the north-east and the Pacific Ocean on the south-west
Coster, Francis - Theologian, born at Mechlin, 16 June, 1532 (1531); died at Brussels, 16 December, 1619
Costume, Clerical - In almost every country and every order of the clergy, the clothing has its own distinctive features
Cosway, Maria - Miniature-painter, born in Florence, Italy, 1759; died at Lodi, 5 January, 1535
Cotelier, Jean-Baptiste - Patristic scholar and theologian, born December, 1629, at Nimes; died 19 August, 1686
Cotenna - A titular see of Asia Minor
Cotiæum - A titular see of Asia Minor
Coton, Pierre - French Jesuit, born 7 March, 1564, at Neronde in Forez; died 19 March, 1626, at Paris
Cotrone - A suffragan diocese of Reggio
Cottam, Blessed Thomas - A convert to Catholicism, entered the Jesuit novitiate, was ordained a priest. Imprisoned and tortured for a year and a half, he died a martyr in 1582
Coucy, Robert De - A medieval French master-builder and son of a master-builder of the same name
Coudert, Frederick René - Born in New York, 1 March, 1832; died at Washington, D. C., 20 December, 1903
Councils, Ecumenical - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I
Councils, General - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I
Councils, Plenary - A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods.
Counsels, Evangelical - The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed
Counterpoint - The term originated in the fourteenth century, though the art designated by it had been practiced for several centuries previous
Counter-Reformation, The - Denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648
Court (in Scripture) - The word court, in the English Bible, corresponds to the Hebrew hacer enclosed space. Also, in the English Bible the word court is occasionally used to mean the retinue of a person of high rank and authority
Courtenay, William - Archbishop of Canterbury, born in the parish of St. Martin's, Exeter, England, c. 1342; died at Maidstone, 31 July, 1396
Courts, Ecclesiastical - Legislative, judicial, and executive power to be exercised over the church, without any interference on the part of civil society
Cousin, Germain, Saint - Sickly, pious shepherdess, cruelly treated by her stepmother. St. Germaine died in 1601, at the age of 22
Cousin, Jean - French painter, sculptor, etcher, engraver, and geometrician, born at Soucy, near Sens, 1500; died at Sens before 1593, probably in 1590
Coussemaker, Charles-Edmond-Henride - French historian of music, b. at Bailleul, department of Nord, France, 19 April, 1805; d. at Lille, 10 January, 1876
Coustant, Pierre - Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Compiegne, France, 30 April, 1654; d. at the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, near Paris, 18 October, 1721
Coustou, Nicholas - French sculptor, b. at Lyons, 9 January, 1658; d. at Paris, 1 May, 1733
Coutances - The Diocese comprises the entire department of La Manche and is a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Rouen
Couturier, Louis-Charles - Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Pierre at Solesmes and President of the French Congregation of Benedictines (1817-1890)
Covarruvias, Diego - Born in Toledo, Spain, 25 July, 1512; died in Madrid, 27 Sept., 1577
Covenant, Ark of the - A kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height
Covenanters - The name given to the subscribers (practically the whole Scottish nation) of the two Covenants, the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643
Covetousness - Generally, an unreasonable desire for what we do not possess
Covington - Comprises that part of Kentucky, U. S. A., lying east of the Kentucky River, and of the western limits of Carroll, Owen, Franklin, Woodford, Jessamine, Garrard, Rockcastle, Laurel, and Whitley Counties
Cowl - A hood worn in many religious orders
Coxcie, Michiel - Flemish painter, imitator of Raphael, known as the Flemish Raphael; b. at Mechlin, 1499; d. there 1592
Coysevox, Charles-Antoine - French sculptor, b. at Lyons, 29 Sept., 1640; d. at Paris, 10 Oct., 1720
Cozza, Lorenzo - Friar Minor, cardinal, and theologian, b. at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 31 March, 1654; d. at Rome, 18 January, 1729
Cozza-Luzi, Giuseppe - Italian savant, Abbot of the Basilian monastery of Grottaferrata near Rome; b. 24 Dec., 1837, at Bolsena in the Province of Rome: d. there 1 June, 1905
Cracow - The Prince-Bishopric that comprises the western portion of Galacia in Austria, and borders on the diocese of Kielce in Russian Poland, Breslau in Prussia, Tarnow in Galacia, and Zips in Hungary
Cracow, The University of - The first documentary evidence regarding the scheme that King Casimir the Great conceived of establishing a university dates from 1362. Urban V favored the plan, and King Casimir issued the charter of the university, 12 May, 1364
Craigie, Pearl Mary Teresa - English novelist, dramatist, and convert; b. 3 November, 1867; d. 13 August, 1906
Crashaw, Richard - Biographical article on the poet
Crasset, Jean - Ascetical writer, b. at Dieppe, France, 3 January, 1618; d. at Paris, 4 January, 1692
Craven, Augustus, Mrs. - Writer, born 12 April, 1808, in London; died in Paris, 1 April, 1891
Crawford, Francis Marion - Novelist (1854-1909)
Crayer, Gaspar de - Flemish painter, b. at Antwerp, 1582; d. at Ghent, 1669
Creagh, Richard - Archbishop of Armagh, Ireland, b. at Limerick early in the sixteenth century; d. in the Tower of London, in 1585
Creation - Like other words of the same ending, the term creation signifies both an action and the object or effect thereof. Thus, in the latter sense, we speak of the 'kingdoms of creation', 'the whole creation', and so on
Creation, Six Days of - Signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of creation, as contained in the first chapter of Genesis
Creationism - (1) In the widest sense, the doctrine that the material of the universe was created by God out of no pre-existing subject (2) Less widely, the doctrine that the various species of living beings were immediately and directly created or produced by God, and are not therefore the product of an evolutionary process
Credence - A small table of wood, marble, or other suitable material placed within the sanctuary of a church and near the wall at the Epistle side, for the purpose of holding the cruets, acolytes' candles, and other utensils required for the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice
Credi, Lorenzo di - Florentine painter, b. at Florence, 1459; d. there, 1537
Cree - The largest and most important Indian tribe of Canada, and one of the largest north of Mexico
Creed - In general, a form of belief
Creed, Apostles' - A formula containing in brief statements, or 'articles,' the fundamental tenets of Christian belief, and having for its authors, according to tradition, the Twelve Apostles
Creed, Liturgical Use of - The public use of creeds began in connection with baptism, in the Traditio and Redditio symboli, as a preparation for that sacrament, and in the preliminary interrogations
Creed, Nicene - The profession of the Christian Faith common to the Catholic Church, to all the Eastern Churches separated from Rome, and to most of the Protestant denominations.
Creeks - An important confederacy of Indian tribes and tribal remnants, chiefly of Muskogian stock, formerly holding the greater portion of Central and Southern Georgia and Alabama
Creighton University - An institution located at Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.A., and conducted by the Jesuit Fathers
Crelier, Henri-Joseph - Swiss Catholic priest (1816-1889)
Crema, Diocese of - Suffragan to Milan
Cremation - The custom of burning the bodies of the dead
Cremona - Suffragan of Milan
Crépieul, François - Jesuit missionary in Canada and vicar Apostolic for the Montagnais Indians; b. at Arras, France, 16 March, 1638; d. at Quebec in 1702
Crescens - A companion of St. Paul during his second Roman captivity, appears but once in the New Testament, when he is mentioned as having left the Apostle to go into Galatia
Crescentia, Modestus, and Vitus, Saints - According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian
Crescentius - The name of several leaders of the Roman aristocracy in the tenth century, during their opposition to the imperial government of the time
Crescimbeni, Giovanni Mario - Italian historian of literature, chronicler, and poet, b. in Macerata, 9 Oct., 1663; d. 8 March 1728
Cresconius - A Latin canonist of uncertain date and place, flourished probably in the latter half of the seventh century, though it may have been at the end of the sixth or even in the eighth century
Cressy, Hugh Paulinus Serenus - Doctor of Theology and English Benedictine monk, b. at Thorpe-Salvin, Yorkshire, about 1605; d. at East Grinstead, Sussex, 10 August, 1674
Creswell, Joseph - Controversialist, b. 1577 of Yorkshire stock in London; d. about 1623
Crétin, Joseph - First Bishop of St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A (1799-1857)
Crétineau-Joly, Jacques - Journalist and historian; b. at Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendee, France, 23 Sept., 1803; d. at Vincennes near Paris, 1 Jan., 1875
Crèvecoeur, Hector St. John de - French agriculturist, b. at Caen, France, 1731; d. at Sarcelles, near Paris, 1813
Crib - The crib or manger in which the Infant Saviour was laid after his birth is properly that place in the stable or khan where food for domestic animals is put, formed probably of the same material out of which the grotto itself is hewn
Crime, Impediment of - Nullifies marriage according to ecclesiastical law, and arises from adultery and homicide separately or together
Crisium - A Graeco-Slavonic Rite diocese in Croatia
Crispin, Milo - Monk, and cantor of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec, wrote the lives of five of its abbots: Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, Gulielmus de Bellomonte, Boso, Theobaldus, and Letardus
Crispina, Saint - African matron, martyred in Numidia in 304
Crispin and Crispinian, Saints - Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution, d. 285 or 286
Crispin of Viterbo, Blessed - Capuchin lay brother, d. 1750
Criticism, Higher - Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Bible, with the state in which these exist at the present day
Criticism, Historical - The art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of the past
Criticism, Textual - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost
Crivelli, Carlo - Italian painter. Little is known of his life, and his b. and d. are usually reckoned by his earliest and latest signed pictures, 1468-93
Croagh Patrick - A mountain looking out on the Atlantic ocean from the southern shore of Clew Bay, in the County Mayo, and called 'the Sinai of Ireland.'
Croatia - Includes history, education, and religion
Croce, Giovanni - Composer, b. at Chioggia near Venice in 1557; d. 15 May, 1609
Crockett, Venerable Ralph - English priest, martyred in 1588
Croia - A titular see of Albania
Croke, Thomas William - Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland, b. near Mallow, Co. Cork, 24 May, 1824; d. at Thurles, 22 July, 1902
Crolly, William - Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Ballykilbeg, near Downpatrick, 8 June, 1780; d. 6 April, 1849
Cronan - There are several Irish saints of this name. Brief biographies of some of them
Crosier - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions
Crosiers, The - A religious order, founded by Theodore de Celles, who, after following the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa on the Crusade, obtained a canonry in the Cathedral of St. Lambert of Liege
Cross and Crucifix in Archæology - The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity
Cross and Crucifix in Liturgy - Information on the history and uses
Cross, Daughters of the - Belgian religious congregation
Cross, Daughters of the Holy - The first steps towards the foundation of this society were taken in 1625 at Roy, Picardy, by Pere Pierre Guerin, Francoise Unalet, and Marie Fannier to provide for the Christian education of girls
Cross, Daughters of the - The aim of this congregation is to instruct poor country girls, to provide refuges for the young exposed to temptation, to prepare the sick for death, and to care for churches
Cross, Sign of the - A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at least in common: that by the gesture of tracing two lines intersecting at right angles they indicate symbolically the figure of Christ's cross
Cross, The True - (1) Growth of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True Cross; (4) Principal Feasts of the Cross
Cross-Bearer - The cleric or minister who carries the processional cross, that is, a crucifix provided with a long staff or handle
Cross of Jesus, Brothers of the - A congregation founded in 1820 at Lyons, France, by Father C.M. Bochard, Doctor of the Sorbonne, Vicar-General of the Diocese of Lyons
Crotus, Johann - German Humanist, b. at Dornheim, in Thuringia, c. 1480; d. probably at Halle, c. 1539
Crown, Franciscan - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet
Crown of Thorns - Mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded to by the early Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others, but there are comparatively few writers of the first six centuries who speak of it as a relic known to be still in existence
Crown of Thorns, Feast of the - First instituted at Paris in 1239
Croyland, Abbey of - A monastery of the Benedictine Order in Lincolnshire
Crucifix and Cross in Archæology - The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity
Crucifix and Cross in Liturgy - Information on the history and uses
Crucifix, Altar - The principal ornament of the altar
Cruelty to Animals - Includes sections on pagan, Old and New Testament, scholastic, and Catholic perspectives
Cruet - A small vessel used for containing the wine and water required for the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Crusade, Bull of the - A Bull granting indulgences to those who took part in the wars against the infidels
Crusades - Expeditions undertaken, in fulfilment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny.
Crutched Friars - An order of mendicant friars who went to England in the thirteenth century from Italy
Cruz, Ramón de la - Poet, b. at Madrid, Spain, 28 March, 1731; d. in the same city, 4 November, 1795
Crypt - The word originally meant a hidden place, natural or artificial, suitable for the concealment of persons or things
Csanád - The Diocese includes the counties of Temes, Torontal, Krasso-Szoereny, Arad, Csanad, and a part of Csongrad and Bekes, Hungary
Cuba - The largest and westernmost island of the West Indies
Cuenca - Diocese in Ecuador
Cuenca - Diocese in Spain
Cuernavaca - Erected 23 June, 1891, comprises all the State of Morelos in the Republic of Mexico, and is bounded on the north and the west by the Archdiocese of Mexico, on the east by the Archdiocese of Puebla, and on the south by the Bishopric of Chilapa
Cueva, Juan de la - Spanish poet and dramatist (1550-1607)
Culdees - In the Irish language the word was written Ceile-De, meaning companion, or even spouse, of God, with the Latin equivalent in the plural, Colidei, anglicized into Culdees; in Scotland it was often written Kelidei
Cullen, Paul - Cardinal, Archbishop of Dublin, born at Prospect, Co. Kildare, Ireland, 29 April, 1803; died at Dublin, 24 October, 1878
Cult, Disparity of - A diriment impediment introduced by the Church to safeguard the sanctity of the Sacrament of Marriage
Culm - A bishopric in the north-eastern part of Prussia, founded in 1234, suffragan to Gnessen
Cummings, Jeremiah Williams - Publicist, b. in Washington, U.S.A., April, 1814; d. at New York, 4 January, 1866
Cuncolim, Martyrs of - On Monday, 25 July, 1583 (N.S.), the village of Cuncolim in the district of Salcete, territory of Goa, India, was the scene of the martyrdom of five religious of the Society of Jesus: Fathers Rudolph Acquaviva, Alphonsus Pacheco, Peter Berno, and Anthony Francis, also Francis Aranha, lay brother
Cunegundes, Blessed - A niece of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. Cunegundes married Boleslaus, Duke of Cracow, later King of Poland. Once widowed, she became a Poor Clare. She died in 1292
Cuneo, Diocese of - Suffragan to Turin
Cuoq, André-Jean - Philologist, b. at Le Puy, France, 1821; d. at Oka near Montreal, 1898
Cupola - A spherical ceiling, or a bowl-shaped vault, rising like an inverted cup over a circular, square, or multangular building or any part of it
Curaçao - Vicariate apostolic; includes the islands of the Dutch West Indies: Curacao, Bonaire, and Aruba; Saba, St. Eustatius, and the Dutch part of St. Martin (Leeward Islands)
Curate - Literally, one who has the cure (care) or charge of souls, in which sense it is yet used by the Church of England, 'All Bishops and Curates'
Curator - A person legally appointed to administer the property of another, who is unable to undertake its management himself, owing to age or physical incompetence, bodily or mental
Cura Animarum - Technically, the exercise of a clerical office involving the instruction, by sermons and admonitions, and the sanctification, through the sacraments, of the faithful in a determined district, by a person legitimately a ppointed for the purpose
Curé d'Ars - The Cure of Ars, d. 1869
Cure of Souls - Technically, the exercise of a clerical office involving the instruction, by sermons and admonitions, and the sanctification, through the sacraments, of the faithful in a determined district, by a person legitimately a ppointed for the purpose
Curia, Roman - Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church
Curityba do Parana - Diocese, suffragan of Sao Sebastiao (Rio de Janeiro), Brazil
Curium - A titular see of Cyprus, suppressed in 1222 by the papal legate, Pelagius
Curley, James - Irish-American astronomer (1796-1889)
Curr, Joseph - English priest (d. 1847)
Curry, John - Irish historian and physcician (d. 1780)
Cursing - In its popular acceptation cursing is often confounded, especially in the phrase 'cursing and swearing', with the use of profane and insulting language; in canon law it sometimes signifies the ban of excommunication pronounced by the Church
Cursores Apostolici - The Latin title of the ecclesiastical heralds or pursuivants pertaining to the papal court
Cursor Mundi - A Middle-English poem of nearly 30,000 lines containing a sort of summary of universal history
Curtain, Altar - Drawn around the altar at certain parts of Mass
Curubis - A titular see of Africa Proconsularis
Cusæ - A titular see of Egypt
Cush - Cush, like the other names of the ethnological table of Genesis, x, is the name of a race, but it has generally been understood to designate also an individual, the progenitor of the nations and tribes known in the ancient world as Cushites
Cuspinian, Johannes - Distinguished humanist and statesman, born at Schweinfurt, Lower Franconia, in 1473; died at Vienna, 19 April, 1529
Custom (in Canon Law) - An unwritten law introduced by the continuous acts of the faithful with the consent of the legitimate legislator
Custos - 1) An under-sacristan (2) A superior or an official in the Franciscan order
Cuthbert, Saint - Biography of this soldier, monk, bishop of Lindisfarne, hermit
Cuthbert - Abbot of Wearmouth; a pupil of the Venerable Bede (d. 735)
Cuthbert - Archbishop of Canterbury
Cuyabá - Diocese; suffragan of Sao Sebastiao (Rio de Janeiro), Brazil
Cuyo, Virgin of - According to V. Gambon this statue is probably the one which, together with the church in which it stood, was given to the Franciscans when the Jesuits were expelled (1767) from the country by Charles III
Cuzco, Diocese of - Suffragan of Lima, Peru
Cybistra - A titular see of Cappadocia in Asia Minor
Cyclades - A group of islands in the Aegean Sea
Cydonia - A titular see of Crete
Cyme - A titular see of Asia Minor
Cynewulf - That certain Anglo-Saxon poems still extant were written by one Cynewulf is beyond dispute, for the author has signed his name in them by spelling it out in runic letters which may be so read as to make sense in the context of the poem. It is, however, quite uncertain who this Cynewulf was
Cynic School of Philosophy - Founded at Athens about 400 B.C., continued in existence until about 200 B.C. It sprang from the ethical doctrine of Socrates regarding the necessity of moderation and self-denial
Cyprian of Toulon, Saint - Bishop of Toulon, student and biographer of St. Caesarius of Arles. Cyprian died in 546
Cyprian and Justina, Saints - Christians of Antioch martyred at Nicomedia, 26 September, 304. Already in the same century, quite a colorful legend arose about them
Cyprian of Carthage, Saint - Long article on this bishop and martyr
Cyprus - An island in the Eastern Mediterranean, at the entrance of the Gulf of Alexandretta
Cyrenaic School of Philosophy - Overview of this strain of classical thought, by William Turner
Cyrene - A titular see of Northern Africa
Cyril and Methodius, Saints - Also called Constantine and Methodius. Biography of these ninth-century brothers, Apostles of the Slavs
Cyril of Alexandria, Saint - Article on this Doctor of the Church, and anti-Nestorian theologian
Cyril of Constantinople, Saint - Father General of the Carmelites, had a reputation for prophecy, d. about 1235
Cyril of Jerusalem, Saint - Bishop, Doctor of the Church, d. 386
Cyrrhus - A titular see of Syria
Cyrus and John, Saints - Companions in life and in martyrdom. Beheaded in the Diocletian persecution
Cyrus of Alexandria - Melchite patriarch of that see in the seventh century, and one of the authors of Monothelism; d. about 641
Cyzicus - A titular see of Asia Minor, metropolitan of the ancient ecclesiastical province of Hellespontus
Czech Literature - The evolution of Czech literature dates back to 863, when Moravia and Bohemia, through the efforts of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, the apostles of these two countries, were converted to Christianity and thus became participants in the great work of civilization
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